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Angstone Thembachako Mlangeni, Valeria Vecchi, Gareth J Norton, Andrea Raab, Eva M Krupp, Joerg Feldmann
A commercial arsenic field kit designed to measure inorganic arsenic (iAs) in water was modified into a field deployable method (FDM) to measure iAs in rice. While the method has been validated to give precise and accurate results in the laboratory, its on-site field performance has not been evaluated. This study was designed to test the method on-site in Malawi in order to evaluate its accuracy and precision in determination of iAs on-site by comparing with a validated reference method and giving original data on inorganic arsenic in Malawian rice and rice-based products...
October 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Cai Shumin, Xu Wei, Li Yunfeng, Liang Jiangshui, Gao Youguang, Chen Zhongqing, Li Tao
Genipin (GP) is commonly used to treat cardiovascular diseases; however, the protective action of GP against vascular hyperpermeability (VH) has not been reported. We previously reported that intrinsic apoptotic signaling (IAS) is involved in VH following hemorrhagic shock (HS). GP inhibits apoptosis, but the specific mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, we observed that GP protects against HS-induced VH in vitro and in vivo. We report that this protective effect is related to the inhibition of IAS by up-regulation of autophagy via sirtuin 3 (SIRT3)...
2018: Cell Death Discovery
Dong-Woo Choi, Sung-Youn Chun, Sang Ah Lee, Kyu-Tae Han, Eun-Cheol Park
Background: A number of risk factors for Internet addiction among adolescents have been identified to be associated with their behavior, familial, and parental factors. However, few studies have focused on the relationship between parental mental health and Internet addiction among adolescents. Therefore, we investigated the association between parental mental health and children's Internet addiction by controlling for several risk factors. Methods: This study used panel data collected by the Korea Welfare Panel Study in 2012 and 2015...
2018: Annals of General Psychiatry
Julián Vega Adauy, Luigi Gabrielli, Samuel Córdova, Paul McNab, Rodrigo Saavedra, Marta Piñeiro, Ricardo Zalaquett
Cardiac myxomas are frequently located in the left or right atria, with multiple locations being rare. We report a 59-year-old healthy female with 5 months of cough and exertional dyspnea. A transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) exhibits a 9 × 5 cm nonpedunculated tumor arising from the interatrial septum (IAS) and inhabiting both atria, but was unable to depict the relation with the IAS. Transesophageal echocardiography exposes a single tumor crossing the IAS through an ostium secundum atrial septal defect (ASD) causing right heart functional impairment...
May 11, 2018: Echocardiography
Guang-Xian Wang, Dong Zhang, Zhi-Ping Wang, Liu-Qing Yang, Hua Yang, Wen Li
Background & objectives: The treatment of unruptured intracranial aneurysms (IAs) remains controversial; the ability to predict the risk of rupture for an aneurysm would be of clinical value. The aim of this study was to determine and evaluate the predictive value of the risk factors of IA rupture. Methods: This retrospective study involved 379 consecutive patients with 441 aneurysms between August 2011 and July 2014. Based on clinical data and computed tomography angiography findings, the potential of risk factors to predict the aneurysmal rupture was assessed using statistical methods...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Research
Lisa L Ross, Denise Shortino, Mark S Shaefer
<b>Background:</b> Pre-existing HIV drug resistance can jeopardize first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) success. Changes in the prevalence of drug-resistance-associated mutations (DRMs) were analyzed from HIV-infected, ART-naïve, United States (USA) individuals seeking ART treatment from 2000-2009. <b>Methods: </b> HIV DRM data from 3,829 ART-naïve subjects were analyzed by year of sample collection using International Antiviral Society (IAS-USA) and World Health Organization (WHO) "surveillance" DRM definitions; minor IAS-USA-defined DRMs were excluded...
May 5, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Pengjun Jiang, Jun Wu, Xin Chen, Bo Ning, Qingyuan Liu, Zhengsong Li, Maogui Li, Fan Yang, Yong Cao, Rong Wang, Shuo Wang
The underlying pathophysiological mechanisms involved in cerebral aneurysms rupture remain unclear. This study was performed to investigate the differentially expressed proteins between ruptured and unruptured aneurysms using quantitative proteomics. The aneurysmal walls of six ruptured aneurysms and six unruptured aneurysms were collected during the surgical operation. The isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) were used to identify the differentially expressed proteins and western blotting was performed to validate the expression of the proteins of interest...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
Baninia Habchi, Amine Kassouf, Yann Padellec, Estelle Rathahao-Paris, Sandra Alves, Douglas N Rutledge, Jacqueline Maalouly, Violette Ducruet
Food contact materials (FCMs), especially plastics, are known to be a potential source of contaminants in food. In fact, various groups of additives are used to protect the integrity of the material during processing and life time. However, these intentionally added substances (IAS) could also lead to degradation products called non-intentionally added substances (NIAS), due to reactions occurring in the polymeric material. Complex mixtures of components may therefore be generated within the material, creating a source of potential migrating substances towards food in contact...
August 31, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
Rujia Miao, Liuxin Wu, Ping Ni, Yue Zeng, Zhiheng Chen
BACKGROUND: Increased arterial stiffness (iAS) and microalbuminuria (MAU), which may occur simultaneously or separately in the general population and share similar risk factors, are markers of macro- and microvascular injuries. Our research investigated the comorbidity of iAS and MAU in the middle-aged population and examined the heterogeneous effects of metabolic risk factors on iAS and MAU. METHODS: We selected 11,911 individuals aged 45 to 60 years who underwent a health examination at the 3rd Xiangya Hospital between 2010 and 2014...
May 4, 2018: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
Wen Liao, Guang Wang, Kaiming Li, Wenbo Zhao, Ye Wu
Rice is the most widely consumed staple food for a large part of the world's human population, and owing to environmental pollution, it is a major source of human exposure to mercury (Hg) and arsenic (As). We evaluated the impact of cooking on the speciation and bioaccessibility of Hg and As from rice in this study. Results show that the dominant Hg and As species in rice from Guangzhou market in China were their inorganic forms (iHg and iAs), respectively. The cooking process modified the levels of Hg and As...
May 3, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
Rufus L Chaney, Carrie E Green, Steven J Lehotay
With the establishment by CODEX of a 200 ng/g limit of inorganic arsenic (iAs) in polished rice grain, more analyses of iAs will be necessary to ensure compliance in regulatory and trade applications, to assess quality control in commercial rice production, and to conduct research involving iAs in rice crops. Although analytical methods using high-performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS) have been demonstrated for full speciation of As, this expensive and time-consuming approach is excessive when regulations are based only on iAs...
May 4, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Madelyn C Huang, Christelle Douillet, Ellen N Dover, Miroslav Stýblo
Inorganic arsenic (iAs) is an established environmental diabetogen. The link between iAs exposure and diabetes is supported by evidence from adult human cohorts and adult laboratory animals. The contribution of prenatal iAs exposure to the development of diabetes and underlying mechanisms are understudied. The role of factors that modulate iAs metabolism and toxicity in adults and their potential to influence diabetogenic effects of prenatal iAs exposure are also unclear. The goal of this study was to determine if prenatal exposure to iAs impairs glucose metabolism in mice and if maternal supplementation with folate and methylcobalamin (B12) can modify this outcome...
May 2, 2018: Archives of Toxicology
Francesco Signorelli, Sapir Sela, Loreto Gesualdo, Sophie Chevrel, Félix Tollet, Cyril Pailler-Mattei, Leonello Tacconi, Francis Turjman, Angelo Vacca, David B Schul
There seems to be a pathogenetic link between hemodynamics and inflammatory arterial wall alteration leading to the development and rupture of intracranial aneurysms (IAs). Noninvasive assessment of aneurysm's wall inflammatory status may guide the management of unruptured IAs by identifying reliable markers for increased rupture risk. In this systematic review, we explore the relationship between hemodynamic stress, inflammation, vascular remodeling and the formation and rupture of IAs in order to develop novel strategies to predict the individual risk of aneurysmal rupture...
April 27, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Yi Li, Lye Lin Lock, Yuzhu Wang, Shih-Hao Ou, David Stern, Arne Schön, Ernesto Freire, Xuankuo Xu, Sanchayita Ghose, Zheng Jian Li, Honggang Cui
Many one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures are constructed by self-assembly of peptides or peptide conjugates containing a short β-sheet sequence as the core building motif essential for the intermolecular hydrogen bonding that promotes directional, anisotropic growth of the resultant assemblies. While this molecular engineering strategy has led to the successful production of a plethora of bioactive filamentous β-sheet assemblies for interfacing with biomolecules and cells, concerns associated with effective presentation of α-helical epitopes and their function preservation have yet to be resolved...
April 16, 2018: Biomaterials
Lian-Xian Guo, Gui-Wei Zhang, Jia-Ting Wang, Yue-Ping Zhong, Zhi-Gang Huang
This study sought to determine the concentration and distribution of arsenic (As) species in Ophiocordyceps sinensis ( O. sinensis ), and to assess its edible hazard for long term consumption. The total arsenic concentrations, measured through inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), ranged from 4.00 mg/kg to 5.25 mg/kg. As determined by HPLC-ICP-MS, the most concerning arsenic species&mdash;AsB, MMAV , DMAV , AsV , and AsШ &mdash;were either not detected (MMAV and DMAV ) or were detected as minor As species (AsB: 1...
April 26, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Judith S Currier
HIV-infected individuals on effective antiretroviral therapy experience a number of non-AIDS noncommunicable diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, more frequently than uninfected individuals. Common pathways for such diseases are chronic immune activation and inflammation, including the prolonged inflammation associated with lower nadir CD4+ cell count. Prevention and treatment of non-AIDS conditions include treatment of traditional risk factors, lifestyle interventions, earlier initiation of antiretroviral therapy, and potentially therapies specifically targeting inflammation and immune activation (eg, statins)...
April 2018: Topics in Antiviral Medicine
Roy M Gulick
Over the past 30 years, antiretroviral drug regimens for treating HIV infection have become more effective, safer, and more convenient. Despite 31 currently approved drugs, the pipeline of investigational HIV drugs remains full. Investigational antiretroviral drugs include the nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase translocation inhibitor (NRTTI) MK-8591, a long-acting compound that could be dosed once weekly. Investigational nonnucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) include doravirine, which is active in vitro against NNRTI-resistant HIV and was potent and well-tolerated when used in combination with a dual-nucleoside analogue RTI (nRTI) backbone in treatment-naive individuals...
April 2018: Topics in Antiviral Medicine
Susan P Buchbinder
Preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with tenofovir/emtricitabine (slash indicates coformulation) is highly effective in preventing new HIV infections. PrEP efficacy is strongly associated with adherence. In clinical trials, PrEP has been more effective in men who have sex with men and HIV-serodiscordant heterosexual couples than in women, likely reflecting pharmacokinetic differences between levels of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate in vaginal and rectal tissues, and poorer adherence in studies in women. Current guidelines recommend daily PrEP for men and women; however, PrEP taken at least 4 days per week for men may be as effective as daily PrEP, and women must take PrEP 6 to 7 days per week to maximize efficacy...
April 2018: Topics in Antiviral Medicine
Chinazo O Cunningham
HIV-infected persons are more likely to have chronic pain, receive opioid analgesic treatment, receive higher doses of opioids, and to have substance use disorders and mental illness compared with the general population, putting them at increased risk for opioid use disorder. Management of opioid use in HIV-infected individuals can be complex, and the limited data on opioid treatment in this population are conflicting with regard to its effect on HIV outcomes. Buprenorphine treatment for opioid use disorder improves HIV outcomes and other outcomes...
April 2018: Topics in Antiviral Medicine
Daniel C Douek
Achieving cure of HIV infection requires eliminating all replication-competent virus from the reservoir of latently infected cells or completely inhibiting infected cells from emerging from latency. Strategies include very early use of antiretroviral therapy; hematopoietic stem cell transplantation; "shock-and-kill" approaches; immune therapy with immune checkpoint inhibitors; gene therapy, including use of CC chemokine receptor 5-modified CD4+ T cells; and broadly neutralizing antibody therapy. Success is likely to require a combination of approaches...
April 2018: Topics in Antiviral Medicine
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