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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208122/a-conversation-among-the-ias-usa-board-of-directors-hot-topics-and-emerging-data-in-hiv-research-and-care
#1
Constance A Benson, Judith S Currier, Carlos Del Rio, Joel E Gallant, Roy M Gulick, Jeanne M Marrazzo, Douglas D Richman, Michael S Saag, Robert T Schooley, Paul A Volberding
The IAS-USA volunteer Board of Directors met in October 2016 for its annual meeting. For the second year, the Board conducted a live, hour-long, interactive, roundtable webinar covering current questions and issues in HIV research, prevention, and care. Important highlights from the Board's discussion, which was moderated by Paul A. Volberding, MD, are included below. Members of the IAS-USA volunteer Board of Directors are Constance A. Benson, MD; Judith S. Currier, MD; Carlos del Rio, MD; Joel E. Gallant, MD, MPH; Roy M...
December 2017: Topics in Antiviral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208121/2017-update-of-the-drug-resistance-mutations-in-hiv-1
#2
Annemarie M Wensing, Vincent Calvez, Huldrych F Günthard, Victoria A Johnson, Roger Paredes, Deenan Pillay, Robert W Shafer, Douglas D Richman
The 2017 edition of the IAS-USA drug resistance mutations list updates the figures last published in November 2015. The mutations listed are those that have been identified by specific criteria for evidence and drugs described. The figures are designed to assist practitioners in identifying key mutations associated with resistance to antiretroviral drugs and, therefore, in making clinical decisions regarding antiretroviral therapy.
December 2017: Topics in Antiviral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208119/hiv-prevention-opportunities-and-challenges
#3
Jeanne M Marrazzo
Preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF)-based regimens has been shown to be effective in preventing acquisition of HIV infection, with protective efficacy being dependent on adherence to treatment. Data from the PROUD (Preexposure Option for Reducing HIV in the UK) and IPERGAY (Action to Prevent Risk Exposure By and For Gay Men) studies, the later of which employed event-driven PrEP, showed a high rate of protective efficacy of PrEP with TDF and emtricitabine among men who have sex with men...
December 2017: Topics in Antiviral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197712/outflow-angle-measurement-a-simple-approach-for-the-differential-diagnosis-of-intracranial-protrusion-with-a-branch-artery-arising-from-its-top
#4
Mo Chen, Hong-Mei Song, Ming-Hua Li, Wu Wang, Yong-Dong Li
PURPOSE: Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) is an important diagnosis method for the detection of intracranial aneurysms (IAs), but it is not useful for differentiating between IA and infundibular dilatation (ID) in patients in whom imaging shows an intracranial protrusion with a branch artery at its top. The objective of this study was to introduce a new approach-measurement of the outflow angle (OA)-for differentiating between IA and ID in such cases. METHODS: The study included 7 patients with a total of 9 protrusions...
February 14, 2017: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188591/shell-fluctuating-asymmetry-in-the-sea-dwelling-benthic-bivalve-mytilus-galloprovincialis-lamarck-1819-as-morphological-markers-to-detect-environmental-chemical-contamination
#5
Massimiliano Scalici, Lorenzo Traversetti, Federica Spani, Valentina Malafoglia, Monica Colamartino, Tiziana Persichini, Simone Cappello, Giuseppe Mancini, Giulia Guerriero, Marco Colasanti
Investigations on asymmetries showed that deviations from perfect bilateral symmetry are interpreted as environmental changes inducing developmental instability. Since morphological abnormalities increase with pollution, deformations may be considered indicators of the organism exposition to pollution. Therefore, the onset of asymmetry in otherwise normally symmetrical traits has been used as a measure of some stresses as well. In this context, we studied how marine pollution affects the valve morphological alterations in the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis...
February 10, 2017: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180949/toxicity-of-two-classes-of-arsenolipids-and-their-water-soluble-metabolites-in-human-differentiated-neurons
#6
Barbara Witt, Sören Meyer, Franziska Ebert, Kevin A Francesconi, Tanja Schwerdtle
Arsenolipids are lipid-soluble organoarsenic compounds, mainly occurring in marine organisms, with arsenic-containing hydrocarbons (AsHCs) and arsenic-containing fatty acids (AsFAs) representing two major subgroups. Recently, toxicity studies of several arsenolipids showed a high cytotoxic potential of those arsenolipids in human liver and bladder cells. Furthermore, feeding studies with Drosophila melanogaster indicated an accumulation of arsenolipids in the fruit fly's brain. In this study, the neurotoxic potential of three AsHCs, two AsFAs and three metabolites (dimethylarsinic acid, thio/oxo-dimethylarsenopropanoic acid) was investigated in comparison to the toxic reference arsenite (iAs(III)) in fully differentiated human brain cells (LUHMES cells)...
February 8, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153415/arsenic-tolerant-trichoderma-sp-reduces-arsenic-induced-stress-in-chickpea-cicer-arietinum
#7
Pratibha Tripathi, Poonam C Singh, Aradhana Mishra, Suchi Srivastava, Reshu Chauhan, Surabhi Awasthi, Seema Mishra, Sanjay Dwivedi, Preeti Tripathi, Alok Kalra, Rudra D Tripathi, Chandra S Nautiyal
Toxic metalloids including arsenic (As) can neither be eliminated nor destroyed from environment; however, they can be converted from toxic to less/non-toxic forms. The form of As species and their concentration determines its toxicity in plants. Therefore, the microbe mediated biotransformation of As is crucial for its plant uptake and toxicity. In the present study the role of As tolerant Trichoderma in modulating As toxicity in chickpea plants was explored. Chickpea plants grown in arsenate spiked soil under green house conditions were inoculated with two plant growth promoting Trichoderma strains, M-35 (As tolerant) and PPLF-28 (As sensitive)...
January 30, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150704/genome-wide-dna-methylation-reprogramming-in-response-to-inorganic-arsenic-links-inhibition-of-ctcf-binding-dnmt-expression-and-cellular-transformation
#8
Matthew Rea, Meredith Eckstein, Rebekah Eleazer, Caroline Smith, Yvonne N Fondufe-Mittendorf
Chronic low dose inorganic arsenic (iAs) exposure leads to changes in gene expression and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transformation. During this transformation, cells adopt a fibroblast-like phenotype accompanied by profound gene expression changes. While many mechanisms have been implicated in this transformation, studies that focus on the role of epigenetic alterations in this process are just emerging. DNA methylation controls gene expression in physiologic and pathologic states. Several studies show alterations in DNA methylation patterns in iAs-mediated pathogenesis, but these studies focused on single genes...
February 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138216/gonioscopically-guided-nonpenetrating-cyclodialysis-cleft-repair-a-novel-surgical-technique
#9
Ian As Rodrigues, Brinda Shah, Saurabh Goyal, K Sheng Lim
AIM: We present a novel surgical technique for repair of persistent and symptomatic cyclodialysis clefts refractory to conservative or minimally invasive treatment. BACKGROUND: Numerous surgical techniques have been described to close cyclodialysis clefts. The current standard approach involves intraocular repair of cyclodialysis clefts underneath a full-thickness scleral flap. TECHNIQUE: Our technique employs intraoperative use of a direct gonioscope to guide a nonpenetrating surgical repair...
January 2017: Journal of Current Glaucoma Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130957/immunoassay-screening-in-urine-for-synthetic-cannabinoids-an-evaluation-of-the-diagnostic-efficiency
#10
Florian Franz, Verena Angerer, Hanna Jechle, Melanie Pegoro, Harald Ertl, Georg Weinfurtner, David Janele, Christian Schlögl, Matthias Friedl, Stefan Gerl, Reinhard Mielke, Ralf Zehnle, Matthias Wagner, Bjoern Moosmann, Volker Auwärter
BACKGROUND: The abuse of synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) as presumed legal alternative to cannabis poses a great risk to public health. For economic reasons many laboratories use immunoassays (IAs) to screen for these substances in urine. However, the structural diversity and high potency of these designer drugs places high demands on IAs regarding cross-reactivity of the antibodies used and detection limits. METHODS: Two retrospective studies were carried out in order to evaluate the capability of two homogenous enzyme IAs for the detection of currently prevalent SCs in authentic urine samples...
January 28, 2017: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125064/phenylarsine-oxide-can-induce-the-arsenite-resistance-mutant-pml-protein-solubility-changes
#11
Yu Han Jiang, Ye Jia Chen, Chao Wang, Yong Fei Lan, Chang Yang, Qian Qian Wang, Liaqat Hussain, Yasen Maimaitiying, Khairul Islam, Hua Naranmandura
Arsenic trioxide (As₂O₃) has recently become one of the most effective drugs for treatment of patient with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), and its molecular mechanism has also been largely investigated. However, it has been reported that As₂O₃ resistant patients are frequently found in relapsed APL after consolidation therapy, which is due to the point mutations in B-box type 2 motifs of promyelocytic leukemia (PML) gene. In the present study, we for the first time establish whether organic arsenic species phenylarsine oxide (PAO) could induce the mutant PML-IV (A216V) protein solubility changes and degradation...
January 25, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112862/diffusion-compensated-tofts-model-suggests-contrast-leakage-through-aneurysm-wall
#12
Charles G Cantrell, Parmede Vakil, Yong Jeong, Sameer A Ansari, Timothy J Carroll
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the diffusional transport of contrast agent and its effects on kinetic modeling of dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) images. METHODS: We performed simulations of our diffusion-compensated model and compared these results to human intracranial aneurysms (IAs). We derive an easy-to-use parameterization of diffusional effects that can provide an accurate estimate of diffusion corrected contrast agent leakage rates (k(trans) )...
January 23, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107552/reflections-on-the-history-of-indoor-air-science-focusing-on-the-last-50-years
#13
Jan Sundell
The scientific articles and Indoor Air conference publications of the indoor air sciences (IAS) during the last 50 years are summarized. In total 7524 presentations, from 79 countries, have been made at Indoor Air conferences held between 1978 (49 presentations) and 2014 (1049 presentations). In the Web of Science 26,992 articles on indoor air research (with the word "indoor" as a search term) have been found (as of 1 Jan 2016) of which 70% were published during the last 10 years. The modern scientific history started in the 1970s with a question: "did indoor air pose a threat to health as did outdoor air?" Soon it was recognized that indoor air is more important, from a health point of view, than outdoor air...
January 20, 2017: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103971/-surgical-treatment-of-small-pulmonary-nodules-under-video-assisted-thoracoscopy-%C3%A2-a-report-of-129-cases
#14
Tong Wang, Tiansheng Yan, Feng Wan, Shaohua Ma, Keyi Wang, Jingdi Wang, Jintao Song, Wei He, Jie Bai, Liang Jin
BACKGROUND: The development of image technology has led to increasing detection of pulmonary small nodules year by year, but the determination of their nature before operation is difficult. This clinical study aimed to investigate the necessity and feasibility of surgical resection of pulmonary small nodules through a minimally invasive approach and the operational manner of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS: The clinical data of 129 cases with pulmonary small nodule of 10 mm or less in diameter were retrospectively analyzed in our hospital from December 2013 to November 2016...
January 20, 2017: Zhongguo Fei Ai za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102334/cofe2o4-mil-100-fe-hybrid-magnetic-nanoparticles-exhibit-fast-and-selective-adsorption-of-arsenic-with-high-adsorption-capacity
#15
Ji-Chun Yang, Xue-Bo Yin
In this study, we report the synthesis and application of mesoporous CoFe2O4@MIL-100(Fe) hybrid magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) for the simultaneous removal of inorganic arsenic (iAs). The hybrid adsorbent had a core-shell and mesoporous structure with an average diameter of 260 nm. The nanoscale size and mesoporous character impart a fast adsorption rate and high adsorption capacity for iAs. In total, 0.1 mg L(-1) As(V) and As(III) could be adsorbed within 2 min, and the maximum adsorption capacities were 114...
January 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094582/effects-of-arsenic-on-porcine-dendritic-cells-in-vitro
#16
Jalil Mehrzad, Mohamad Hosein Mahmudy Gharaie, Masumeh Taheri
Exposure to arsenic (As) is an ongoing, and in some places increasing, health problem. Still, however, the effects of As exposure on the immune system are not well understood. Dendritic cells (DC) are a critical immune cell that bridges the innate and adaptive immune systems. To determine the impact of inorganic (i)As exposure on DC, the effects of (geo)anthropogenically relevant levels of NaAsO2 on the function of porcine monocyte-derived DC (MoDC) were evaluated in an in vitro model. The results showed a low dose of iAs reduced the phagocytic capacity of MoDC...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Immunotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092963/mathematical-modeling-of-continuous-and-intermittent-androgen-suppression-for-the-treatment-of-advanced-prostate-cancer
#17
Alacia M Voth, John G Alford, Edward W Swim
Prostate cancer is one of the most prevalent types of cancer among men. It is stimulated by the androgens, or male sexual hormones, which circulate in the blood and diffuse into the tissue where they stimulate the prostate tumor to grow. One of the most important treatments for advanced prostate cancer has become androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). In this paper we present three different models of ADT for prostate cancer: continuous androgen suppression (CAS), intermittent androgen suppression (IAS), and periodic androgen suppression...
June 1, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering: MBE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086900/the-role-of-birthplace-and-educational-attainment-on-induced-abortion-inequalities
#18
Yolanda González-Rábago, Elena Rodriguez-Alvarez, Luisa N Borrell, Unai Martín
BACKGROUND: Induced abortion (IA) has shown social inequality related to birthplace and education with higher rates of IAs in immigrant and in less educated women relative to their native and highly educated counterparts. This study examined the independent and joint effects of birthplace and education on IA, repeated and IA performed during the 2nd trimester of pregnancy among women residing in the Basque Country, Spain. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional population-based study of IA among women aged 25-49 years residing in the Basque Country, Spain, between 2011 and 2013...
January 13, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065543/mitigating-dietary-arsenic-exposure-current-status-in-the-united-states-and-recommendations-for-an-improved-path-forward
#19
Keeve E Nachman, Gary L Ginsberg, Mark D Miller, Carolyn J Murray, Anne E Nigra, Claire B Pendergrast
Inorganic arsenic (iAs) is a well-characterized carcinogen, and recent epidemiologic studies have linked chronic exposures to non-cancer health outcomes, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, skin lesions and respiratory disorders. Greater vulnerability has been demonstrated with early life exposure for health effects including lung and bladder cancer, immunotoxicity and neurodevelopment. Despite its well-known toxicity, there are important gaps in the regulatory oversight of iAs in food and in risk communication...
March 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057588/global-gene-expression-patterns-and-somatic-mutations-in-sporadic-intracranial-aneurysms
#20
Zhili Li, Haibin Tan, Yi Shi, Guangfu Huang, Zhenyu Wang, Ling Liu, Cheng Yin, Qi Wang
BACKGROUND: High-throughput sequencing technologies can expand our understanding of the pathological basis of intracranial aneurysms (IAs). Our study was aimed to decipher the gene expression signature and genetic factors associated with IAs. METHODS: We determined the gene expression levels of three cases of IAs by RNA sequencing. Bioinformatics analysis was conducted to identify the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and uncover their biological function. Moreover, whole genome sequencing (WGS) on additional six cases of IAs was performed to detect the potential somatic alterations in DEGs...
January 2, 2017: World Neurosurgery
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