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Ethiopia neurology

Ericka L Fink, Amelie von Saint Andre-von Arnim, Rashmi Kumar, Patrick T Wilson, Tigist Bacha, Abenezer Tirsit Aklilu, Tsegazeab Laeke Teklemariam, Shubhada Hooli, Lisine Tuyisenge, Easmon Otupiri, Anthony Fabio, John Gianakas, Patrick M Kochanek, Derek C Angus, Robert C Tasker
OBJECTIVES: To assess the frequency, interventions, and outcomes of children presenting with traumatic brain injury or infectious encephalopathy in low-resource settings. DESIGN: Prospective study. SETTING: Four hospitals in Sub-Saharan Africa. PATIENTS: Children age 1 day to 17 years old evaluated at the hospital with traumatic brain injury or infectious encephalopathy. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: We evaluated the frequency and outcomes of children presenting consecutively over 4 weeks to any hospital department with traumatic brain injury or infectious encephalopathy...
April 16, 2018: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
Tinsae Alemayehu, Wondwossen Ergete, Workeabeba Abebe
Background: Pediatric nervous system tuberculomas are usually infra-tentorial and multiple. A frontal lobe location is rare. Case Details: We report a 10 year-old boy who presented with a chronic headache and episodes of loss of consciousness. He had no signs of primary pulmonary tuberculosis and a diagnosis of frontal tuberculoma was made upon a post-operative biopsy. He improved following treatment with anti-tubercular drugs. Conclusion: Tuberculosis should be considered in children with a chronic headache or focal neurologic deficit and a supra-tentorial intracranial mass in endemic countries like Ethiopia...
November 2017: Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences
Getinet Ayano, Dawit Assefa, Kibrom Haile, Asrat Chaka, Haddish Solomon, Petros Hagos, Zegeye Yohannis, Kelemua Haile, Lulu Bekana, Melkamu Agidew, Seife Demise, Belachew Tsegaye, Melat Solomon
Background: About 25-60% of the homeless population is reported to have some form of mental disorder. To our knowledge, there are no studies aimed at the screening, diagnosis, treatment, care, rehabilitation, and support of homeless people with mental, neurologic, and substance use (MNS) disorders in general in Ethiopia. This is the first study of its kind in Africa which was aimed at screening, diagnosis, care, treatment, rehabilitation, and support of homeless individuals with possible MNS disorder...
2017: Annals of General Psychiatry
Getinet Ayano, Dawit Assefa, Kibrom Haile, Asrat Chaka, Kelemua Haile, Melat Solomon, Kalkidan Yohannis, Akilew Awoke, Kemal Jemal
BACKGROUND: Mental disorders are always remained a neglected public health problems in low and middle-income countries (LMICs), most people with mental disorders never receive effective care and there is a large treatment gap. In order to solve the problem integration of mental health into primary health care is recommended and in Ethiopia implementation of the scale of mental health services at primary health care level was started in 2014. For the success of the integration of mental health into primary health care, primary care health professionals are the key personnel who are responsible for the management of mental, neurologic and substance use disorders...
2017: International Journal of Mental Health Systems
Fortress Y Aku, Fernanda C Lessa, Franklin Asiedu-Bekoe, Phoebe Balagumyetime, Winfred Ofosu, Jennifer Farrar, Mahamoudou Ouattara, Jeni T Vuong, Kofi Issah, Joseph Opare, Sally-Ann Ohene, Charles Okot, Ernest Kenu, Donne K Ameme, David Opare, Abass Abdul-Karim
Bacterial meningitis is a severe, acute infection of the fluid surrounding the brain and spinal cord that can rapidly lead to death. Even with recommended antibiotic treatment, up to 25% of infected persons in Africa might experience neurologic sequelae (1). Three regions in northern Ghana (Upper East, Northern, and Upper West), located in the sub-Saharan "meningitis belt" that extends from Senegal to Ethiopia, experienced periodic outbreaks of meningitis before introduction of serogroup A meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MenAfriVac) in 2012 (2,3)...
August 4, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Ruth Tsigebrhan, Charlotte Hanlon, Girmay Medhin, Abebaw Fekadu
BACKGROUNDS: Epilepsy is a serious neurological disorder associated with a high level of psychiatric comorbidity. Suicidality is a recognised complication of epilepsy. As part of developing an integrated service for people with epilepsy (PWE) and priority psychiatric disorders within primary care, a cross-sectional study was conducted in a rural district in Ethiopia to investigate patterns of help-seeking, suicidality and the association with duration of untreated epilepsy (DUE) among PWE...
2017: International Journal of Mental Health Systems
James Mugisha, Jibril Abdulmalik, Charlotte Hanlon, Inge Petersen, Crick Lund, Nawaraj Upadhaya, Shalini Ahuja, Rahul Shidhaye, Ntokozo Mntambo, Atalay Alem, Oye Gureje, Fred Kigozi
BACKGROUND: Mental, neurological and substance use disorders contribute to a significant proportion of the world's disease burden, including in low and middle income countries (LMICs). In this study, we focused on the health systems required to support integration of mental health into primary health care (PHC) in Ethiopia, India, Nepal, Nigeria, South Africa and Uganda. METHODS: A checklist guided by the World Health Organization Assessment Instrument for Mental Health Systems (WHO-AIMS) was developed and was used for data collection in each of the six countries participating in the Emerging mental health systems in low and middle-income countries (Emerald) research consortium...
2017: International Journal of Mental Health Systems
Kjell Arne Johansson, Kirsten Bjerkreim Strand, Abebaw Fekadu, Dan Chisholm
Background: Mental and neurological (MN) health care has long been neglected in low-income settings. This paper estimates health and non-health impacts of fully publicly financed care for selected key interventions in the National Mental Health Strategy in Ethiopia for depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia and epilepsy. Methods: A methodology of extended cost-effectiveness analysis (ECEA) is applied to MN health care in Ethiopia. The impact of providing a package of selected MN interventions free of charge in Ethiopia is estimated for: epilepsy (75% coverage, phenobarbital), depression (30% coverage, fluoxetine, cognitive therapy and proactive case management), bipolar affective disorder (50% coverage, valproate and psychosocial therapy) and schizophrenia (75% coverage, haloperidol plus psychosocial treatment)...
April 1, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
D Chisholm, M Heslin, S Docrat, S Nanda, R Shidhaye, N Upadhaya, M Jordans, J Abdulmalik, S Olayiwola, O Gureje, D Kizza, J Mugisha, F Kigozi, C Hanlon, M Adugna, R Sanders, C Pretorius, G Thornicroft, C Lund
BACKGROUND: Although financing represents a critical component of health system strengthening and also a defining concern of efforts to move towards universal health coverage, many countries lack the tools and capacity to plan effectively for service scale-up. As part of a multi-country collaborative study (the Emerald project), we set out to develop, test and apply a fully integrated health systems resource planning and health impact tool for mental, neurological and substance use (MNS) disorders...
June 2017: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
Eshetie Melese Birru, Zenahebezu Abay, Mohammedbrhan Abdelwuhab, Abebe Basazn, Betelhem Sirak, Fitsum Sebsibe Teni
BACKGROUND: The headache disorders, namely, migraine and tension type headache and the associated analgesic consumption is badly underestimated and thus makes a major current public health problem. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of migraine and tension type headaches and the associated management options used among undergraduate students of College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia. METHOD: Institution based cross sectional study was conducted among 720 students in May, 2014...
2016: Journal of Headache and Pain
Farrah J Mateen, Sarah J Clark, Mia Borzello, Jean Kabore, Osheik Seidi
OBJECTIVE: To provide a comprehensive understanding of neurology training from the sub-Saharan African perspective. METHODS: A 40-question survey was distributed to attendees of the 7th annual sub-Saharan African neurology teaching course in Khartoum, Sudan (2015). Themes included the student body, faculty, curriculum, assessment and examinations, technology, and work hours and compensation. RESULTS: Of 19 responding countries, 10 had no formal neurology training programs; Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Republic of the Congo, and Mozambique had an adult neurology program; Ethiopia, Madagascar, Nigeria, Senegal, and South Africa had adult and pediatric neurology programs (training duration range = 3-6 years)...
June 2016: Annals of Neurology
Berhanu Boru Bifftu, Berihun Assefa Dachew, Bewket Tadesse Tiruneh
BACKGROUND: Epilepsy is the world's most common neurological disorder, affecting approximately 69 million people worldwide. Perceived stigma affects many domains of the lives of people with epilepsy. However, in Ethiopia there is dearth of study on perceived stigma specifically among people with epilepsy. OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of perceived stigma and associated factors among people with epilepsy (PWE) attending the outpatient department of the University of Gondar hospital, Northwest Ethiopia, 2014...
December 2015: African Health Sciences
Dawit Kibru Worku, Yared Mamushet Yifru, Douglas G Postels, Fikre Enquselassie Gashe
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with cognitive and psychiatric disturbances including depression, anxiety, psychotic symptoms and sleep disturbances. These psychiatric manifestations have a negative impact on disease course and the medical management of PD patients. Major depression has a greater negative impact on patients' quality of life than abnormal motor function, and is associated with faster cognitive decline and progression of motor deficits. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and pattern of depression in PD outpatients in Ethiopia...
2014: Journal of Clinical Movement Disorders
Yared Mamushet, Guta Zenebe, Adamu Addissie
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Medical and neurologic complications of acute stroke adversely impact patient outcome and in some cases can be preventable. There is scarcity of data in the African medical setup and none to date in our country to our knowledge. The current study aims to describe types and frequencies of neuro-medical complications occurring in hospitalized patients after an acute stroke and to identify risk factors for development of these complications and the role of these factors on mortality...
January 2015: Ethiopian Medical Journal
Birhane Alem Berihu, Yared Godefa Debeb
BACKGROUND: The Sciatic nerve is the widest nerve of the body. It consists of two components, namely: the tibia and the common peroneal components derived from the ventral rami of L4 to S3 spinal nerves of the lumbosacral plexus. It exits the pelvis through the greater sciatic foramen below the Piriformis muscle and descends between the greater trochanter of the femur and ischial tuberosity of the pelvis to the knee. The purpose of this study is to identify the course and variations in branching pattern of the sciatic nerve which may lead to various clinical manifestations...
2015: BMC Research Notes
Berhanu Boru Bifftu, Berihun Assefa Dachew, Bewket Tadesse Tiruneh, Nigusie Birhan Tebeje
BACKGROUND: Epilepsy is the world's most common neurological disorder, affecting approximately 50 million people worldwide and contributed to different psychiatric illness. Depression is one of the most frequent co morbid psychiatric disorders that affects the life of the patients'. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of depression and associated factors among epileptic patients attending the outpatient department of the University of Gondar Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia, 2014. METHODS: Institution based quantitative cross--sectional study was conducted among 405 individual with epilepsy...
2015: BMC Research Notes
Alemayehu Negash, Mubarek Abera, Christine Gruber-Frank, Reiner Frank
BACKGROUND: Ethiopia is a country in which child and adolescent mental health needs are often not met. In order to promote capacity building, a Collaborative International Exchange Programme has been established between Jimma University at Jimma, Ethiopia, and Ludwig-Maximilian University in Munich, Germany. The programme focuses on training non-physician health professionals in mental health speciality. One of the courses in the training programme, child psychiatry, involves a child psychiatrist and a children's nurse supporting the management of a patient described in this case report...
2015: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health
Martin Andreas Lehre, Lars Magnus Eriksen, Abenezer Tirsit, Segni Bekele, Saba Petros, Kee B Park, Marianne Lundervik B√łthun, Knut Wester
OBJECT: The objective of this study was to investigate epidemiology and outcome after surgical treatment for spinal injuries in Ethiopia. METHODS: Medical records of patients who underwent surgery for spine injuries at Myungsung Christian Medical Center in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, between January 2008 and September 2012 were reviewed retrospectively. Assessment of outcome and complications was determined from patient consultations and phone interviews. RESULTS: A total of 146 patients were included (129 males, 17 females)...
December 2015: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
Anna Beltrame, Sergio Venturini, Giovanni Crichiutti, Valeria Meroni, Dora Buonfrate, Matteo Bassetti
INTRODUCTION: We report an unusual case of acute acquired toxoplasmosis (AAT) presenting as lymphadenopathy and recurrent seizures in an immunocompetent 15-year-old boy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The patient reported an 18-day vacation to Africa (Ethiopia), 39 days prior to the first seizure. Electroencephalogram (EEG) showed sporadic single-spike or sharp-wave paroxysms and the magnetic resonance imaging (RMI) of the brain was negative. The serology for T. gondii was compatible with an acute infection defined as positive for both toxoplasma-specific IgG and IgM and a low avidity (6 %), confirmed by a reference laboratory...
April 2016: Infection
S Mulugeta, K Tesfay, R Frank, C Gruber-Frank
BACKGROUND: Acute loss of vision needs urgent attention and treatment. We report on a young Ethiopian woman who experienced acute bilateral blindness. In the presence of normal ophthalmological findings psychogenic blindness has to be considered. CASE DETAILS: A 21 years old woman was admitted to the psychiatry clinic at Jimma University specialized Hospital, Jimma, South West Ethiopia. She had not been able to see for a few days. Ophthalmological and neurological examinations showed normal findings...
January 2015: Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences
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