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elite endurance performance monitoring

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918666/quantification-of-training-and-competition-loads-in-endurance-sports-methods-and-applications
#1
Iñigo Mujika
Training quantification is basic to evaluate an endurance athlete's responses to the training loads, ensure adequate stress/recovery balance and determine the relationship between training and performance. Quantifying both external and internal workload is important, because the external workload does not measure the biological stress imposed by the exercise sessions. Generally used quantification methods include retrospective questionnaires, diaries, direct observation and physiological monitoring, often based on the measurement of oxygen uptake, heart rate and blood lactate concentration...
December 5, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803627/muscle-contraction-velocity-a-suitable-approach-to-analyze-the-functional-adaptations-in-elite-soccer-players
#2
Irineu Loturco, Lucas A Pereira, Ronaldo Kobal, Katia Kitamura, Rodrigo Ramírez-Campillo, Vinicius Zanetti, Cesar C Cal Abad, Fabio Y Nakamura
Tensiomyography (TMG) has been used as a simple and non-invasive tool to assess the mechanical properties of skeletal muscles. The TMG-derived velocity of contraction (Vc), which can be calculated from the ratio between maximal radial displacement and the sum of contraction time and delay time, has been proposed for evaluating athletes. However, its sensitivity to training effects and possible relation with changes in soccer players' neuromuscular performance have not yet been addressed. To test this possibility, twenty-two male Brazilian elite soccer players were assessed using TMG-derived Vc, unloaded squat jump, countermovement jump and drop jump at 45 cm, loaded jump squat and linear (20 m) and change of direction (COD) sprint tests, prior to and after an 8-week period, between two consecutive official tournaments, during which the concurrency between endurance and strength-power training commonly impairs neuromuscular capacities...
September 2016: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27606953/incidence-of-iron-deficiency-and-iron-deficient-anemia-in-elite-runners-and-triathletes
#3
Alexandra Coates, Margo Mountjoy, Jamie Burr
OBJECTIVE: To assess the incidence of iron deficiency (ID), and iron deficient anemia (IDA) within a cohort of highly trained runners and triathletes, and to examine the association of oral iron supplementation history with serum ferritin (sFe) and hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of routine blood test data taken from 2009 to 2015 from (n = 38) elite level runners and triathletes between the ages of 21 to 36 years. Oral iron supplement intake was assessed through a questionnaire...
September 5, 2016: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26696652/case-study-impact-of-inter-and-intra-day-energy-parameters-on-bone-health-menstrual-function-and-hormones-in-an-elite-junior-female-triathlete
#4
Jason D Vescovi, Jaci L VanHeest
This observational case study examined the association of inter- and intraday energy intake and exercise energy expenditure with bone health, menstrual status and hematological factors in a female triathlete. The study spanned 7 months whereby energy intake and exercise energy expenditure were monitored three times (13 d); 16 blood samples were taken, urinary hormones were assessed for 3 months, and bone mineral density was measured twice. Energy availability tended to be sustained below 30 kcal/kg FFM/d and intraday energy intake patterns were often "back-loaded" with approximately 46% of energy consumed after 6 p...
August 2016: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26589123/the-elite-cross-country-skier-provides-unique-insights-into-human-exercise-physiology
#5
REVIEW
H-C Holmberg
Successful cross-country skiing, one of the most demanding of endurance sports, involves considerable physiological challenges posed by the combined upper- and lower-body effort of varying intensity and duration, on hilly terrain, often at moderate altitude and in a cold environment. Over the years, this unique sport has helped physiologists gain novel insights into the limits of human performance and regulatory capacity. There is a long-standing tradition of researchers in this field working together with coaches and athletes to improve training routines, monitor progress, and refine skiing techniques...
December 2015: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26366462/body-composition-of-female-road-and-track-endurance-cyclists-normative-values-and-typical-changes
#6
Eric C Haakonssen, Martin Barras, Louise M Burke, David G Jenkins, David T Martin
The aims of this study were to describe normative values and seasonal variation of body composition in female cyclists comparing female road and track endurance cyclists, and to validate the use of anthropometry to monitor lean mass changes. Anthropometric profiles (seven site skinfolds) were measured over 16 years from 126 female cyclists. Lean mass index (LMI) was calculated as body weight × skinfolds(-x). The exponent (x) was calculated as the slope of the natural logarithm of body weight and skinfolds...
September 2016: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26098638/tennis-play-intensity-distribution-and-relation-with-aerobic-fitness-in-competitive-players
#7
Ernest Baiget, Jaime Fernández-Fernández, Xavier Iglesias, Ferran A Rodríguez
The aims of this study were (i) to describe the relative intensity of simulated tennis play based on the cumulative time spent in three metabolic intensity zones, and (ii) to determine the relationships between this play intensity distribution and the aerobic fitness of a group of competitive players. 20 male players of advanced to elite level (ITN) performed an incremental on-court specific endurance tennis test to exhaustion to determine maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and the first and second ventilatory thresholds (VT1, VT2)...
2015: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25679022/combined-influence-of-expertise-and-fatigue-on-riding-strategy-and-horse%C3%A2-rider-coupling-during-the-time-course-of-endurance-races
#8
S Viry, J B De Graaf, J-P Frances, E Berton, M Laurent, C Nicol
REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: The relationship between the biomechanical horse–rider interaction and endurance race performance requires further investigation. OBJECTIVES: To characterise, both quantitatively and qualitatively, elite and advanced horse–rider dyads on the basis of the biomechanical horse–rider interaction during endurance races. STUDY DESIGN: Five elite and 5 advanced horse–rider dyads were recorded during CEI*/CEI** endurance races using 2 synchronised triaxial accelerometers each placed close to horse and rider centres of mass...
January 2015: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25611789/periodization-and-physical-performance-in-elite-female-soccer-players
#9
Jocelyn K Mara, Kevin G Thompson, Kate L Pumpa, Nick B Ball
PURPOSE: To investigate the variation in training demands, physical performance, and player well-being across a women's soccer season. METHODS: Seventeen elite female players wore GPS tracking devices during every training session (N=90) throughout 1 national-league season. Intermittent high-speed-running capacity and 5-, 15-, and 25-m-sprint testing were conducted at the beginning of preseason, end of preseason, midseason, and end of season. In addition, subjective well-being measures were self-reported daily by players over the course of the season...
July 2015: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25532430/acute-effects-of-extended-interval-training-on-countermovement-jump-and-handgrip-strength-performance-in-endurance-athletes-postactivation-potentiation
#10
Felipe García-Pinillos, Victor M Soto-Hermoso, Pedro A Latorre-Román
The purpose of this study was to analyze multiple effects of an extended interval training (EIT) protocol on countermovement jump (CMJ) and handgrip strength in endurance athletes and to determine the relationship between fatigue and potentiation. Thirty experienced sub-elite male long-distance runners (age = 28.26 ± 8.27 years, body mass index = 22.24 ± 2.50 kg·m, and (Equation is included in full-text article.)= 58.7 ± 4.50 ml·kg·min) participated voluntarily in this study. Subjects performed the protocol on an outdoor running track, which consisted of 12 runs of 400 m, grouped into 4 sets of 3 runs, with a passive recovery of 1 minute between runs and 3 minutes between sets (4 × 3 × 400 m)...
January 2015: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25456252/classifying-young-soccer-players-by-training-performances
#11
Eduardo A Abade, Bruno V Gonçalves, Alexandra M Silva, Nuno M Leite, Carlo Castagna, Jaime E Sampaio
Players within the same age group may present different physical and physiological profiles. This study classified young soccer players according to their physical and physiological profiles obtained during the training sessions and compared classification by age and playing position criteria. 151 male elite Portuguese soccer players (under 15, under 17, and under 19 years old) participated. Time-motion and body acceleration and deceleration data were collected using GPS technology with heart rate monitored continuously across the selected training sessions...
December 2014: Perceptual and Motor Skills
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25319354/alterations-in-redox-homeostasis-in-the-elite-endurance-athlete
#12
Nathan A Lewis, Glyn Howatson, Katie Morton, Jessica Hill, Charles R Pedlar
BACKGROUND: The production of reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen species (RNS) is a fundamental feature of mammalian physiology, cellular respiration and cell signalling, and essential for muscle function and training adaptation. Aerobic and anaerobic exercise results in alterations in redox homeostasis (ARH) in untrained, trained and well trained athletes. Low to moderate doses of ROS and RNS play a role in muscle adaptation to endurance training, but an overwhelming increase in RNS and ROS may lead to increased cell apoptosis and immunosuppression, fatigued states and underperformance...
March 2015: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25177197/training-diaries-during-altitude-training-camp-in-two-olympic-champions-an-observational-case-study
#13
Lorenzo Pugliese, Fabio R Serpiello, Grégoire P Millet, Antonio La Torre
Traditionally, Live High-Train High (LHTH) interventions were adopted when athletes trained and lived at altitude to try maximising the benefits offered by hypoxic exposure and improving sea level performance. Nevertheless, scientific research has proposed that the possible benefits of hypoxia would be offset by the inability to maintain high training intensity at altitude. However, elite athletes have been rarely recruited as an experimental sample, and training intensity has almost never been monitored during altitude research...
September 2014: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25175825/cardiovascular-control-autonomic-function-and-elite-endurance-performance-in-spinal-cord-injury
#14
C R West, C M Gee, C Voss, M Hubli, K D Currie, J Schmid, A V Krassioukov
We aimed to determine the relationship between level of injury, completeness of injury, resting as well as exercise hemodynamics, and endurance performance in athletes with spinal cord injury (SCI). Twenty-three elite male paracycling athletes (C3-T8) were assessed for neurological level/completeness of injury, autonomic completeness of injury, resting cardiovascular function, and time to complete a 17.3-km World Championship time-trial test. A subset were also fitted with heart rate (HR) monitors and their cycles were fitted with a global positioning systems device (n = 15)...
August 2015: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25153137/relationships-between-training-load-salivary-cortisol-responses-and-performance-during-season-training-in-middle-and-long-distance-runners
#15
Carlos Balsalobre-Fernández, Carlos Ma Tejero-González, Juan del Campo-Vecino
PURPOSE: Monitoring training from a multifactorial point of view is of great importance in elite endurance athletes. This study aims to analyze the relationships between indicators of training load, hormonal status and neuromuscular performance, and to compare these values with competition performance, in elite middle and long-distance runners. METHOD: Fifteen elite middle and long-distance runners (12 men, 3 women; age = 26.3±5.1 yrs) were measured for training volume, training zone and session rate of perceived exertion (RPE) (daily), countermovement jump (CMJ) and salivary free cortisol (weekly) for 39 weeks (i...
2014: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25117436/reliability-and-validity-of-a-new-variable-power-performance-test-in-road-cyclists
#16
Avish P Sharma, Adrian D Elliott, David J Bentley
CONTEXT: Road cycle racing is characterized by significant variability in exercise intensity. Existing protocols attempting to model this aspect display inadequate variation in power output. Furthermore, the reliability of protocols representative of road cycle racing is not well known. There are also minimal data regarding the physiological parameters that best predict performance during variable-power cycling. PURPOSE: To determine the reliability of mean power output during a new test of variable-power cycling and establish the relationship between physiological attributes typically measured during an incremental exercise test and performance during the variable-power cycling test (VCT)...
April 2015: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24806737/cross-country-skiing-and-postexercise-heart-rate-recovery
#17
Laurent Mourot, Nicolas Fabre, Erik Andersson, Sarah Willis, Martin Buchheit, Hans-Christer Holmberg
Postexercise heart-rate (HR) recovery (HRR) indices have been associated with running and cycling endurance-exercise performance. The current study was designed (1) to test whether such a relationship also exists in the case of cross-country skiing (XCS) and (2) to determine whether the magnitude of any such relationship is related to the intensity of exercise before obtaining HRR indices. Ten elite male cross-country skiers (mean ± SD; 28.2 ± 5.4 y, 181 ± 8 cm, 77.9 ± 9.4 kg, 69.5 ± 4.3 mL · min-1 · kg-1 maximal oxygen uptake [VO2max]) performed 2 sessions of roller-skiing on a treadmill: a 2 × 3-km time trial and the same 6-km at an imposed submaximal speed followed by a final 800-m time trial...
January 2015: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24736768/monitoring-training-load-recovery-stress-state-immune-endocrine-responses-and-physical-performance-in-elite-female-basketball-players-during-a-periodized-training-program
#18
João A Nunes, Alexandre Moreira, Blair T Crewther, Ken Nosaka, Luis Viveiros, Marcelo S Aoki
This study investigated the effect of a periodized training program on internal training load (ITL), recovery-stress state, immune-endocrine responses, and physical performance in 19 elite female basketball players. The participants were monitored across a 12-week period before an international championship, which included 2 overloading and tapering phases. The first overloading phase (fourth to sixth week) was followed by a 1-week tapering, and the second overloading phase (eighth to 10th week) was followed by a 2-week tapering...
October 2014: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24509658/the-usefulness-of-session-rating-of-perceived-exertion-for-monitoring-training-load-despite-several-influences-on-perceived-exertion
#19
Monoem Haddad, Johnny Padulo, Karim Chamari
Despite various contributing factors, session rating of perceived exertion has the potential to affect a large proportion of the global sporting and clinical communities since it is an inexpensive and simple tool that is highly practical and accurately measures an athlete's outcome of training or competition. Its simplicity can help optimize performance and reduce negative outcomes of hard training in elite athletes.
September 2014: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24445543/preparation-for-and-physiological-responses-to-competing-in-the-marathon-des-sables-a-case-report
#20
COMPARATIVE STUDY
N Williams, S J Wickes, K Gilmour, N Barker, J P R Scott
A case study into the preparation and physiological responses of competing in the Marathon des Sables (MDS) was conducted by preparing a male competitor for, and monitoring him during, his first attempt at the race. The aims of this case report were to (a) prepare and monitor an ex-Olympic, male rower (S1) during the 2010 race and; (b) compare his physiological responses and race performance to that of the current MDS record holder (S2). S1 (age 37 y; body mass 94.0 kg; height 1.92 m; VO(2peak) 66.0 ml·kg⁻¹·min⁻¹) and S2 (age 37 y; body mass 60...
February 2014: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
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