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elite endurance injury prevention

Philip von Rosen, Frida Floström, Anna Frohm, Annette Heijne
Background: Prospective injury registration studies, monitoring adolescent elite athletes, are sparse in running, orienteering and cross-country skiing, yet essential for developing prevention programs. Purpose: The aims of this study were to describe the injury prevalence/incidence, severity grade, injury location, risk factors and the prevalence of illness in running (RU), orienteering (OR) and cross-country skiing athletes (CR). Study Design: Prospective cohort study...
October 2017: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
Wen-Tzu Tang, Wei-Chih Liao, Hsin-Min Lee
To investigate characteristic upper limb muscle use between two common tug of war (TOW) gripping styles, 20 elite athletes from two high school TOW teams were recruited. Under conditioned attack pulling (with 90% maximal force) on a tug machine, participants used their own habitual gripping style to pull for five 15-s trials. Force and kinematic measurements showed a significantly better force performance and higher centre-of-gravity tilting angle with the gripping style one than with the gripping style two (GS2) (both p < 0...
July 21, 2017: Sports Biomechanics
Ken Fitch
The World Anti-Doping Code (the Code) does place some restrictions on prescribing inhaled β2-agonists, but these can be overcome without jeopardising the treatment of elite athletes with asthma.While the Code permits the use of inhaled glucocorticoids without restriction, oral and intravenous glucocorticoids are prohibited, although a mechanism exists that allows them to be administered for acute severe asthma.Although asthmatic athletes achieved outstanding sporting success during the 1950s and 1960s before any anti-doping rules existed, since introduction of the Code's policies on some drugs to manage asthma results at the Olympic Games have revealed that athletes with confirmed asthma/airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) have outperformed their non-asthmatic rivals...
June 2016: Breathe
Morteza Khodaee, Heather L Grothe, Jonathan H Seyfert, Karin VanBaak
CONTEXT: Athletes at different skill levels perform strenuous physical activity at high altitude for a variety of reasons. Multiple team and endurance events are held at high altitude and may place athletes at increased risk for developing acute high altitude illness (AHAI). Training at high altitude has been a routine part of preparation for some of the high level athletes for a long time. There is a general belief that altitude training improves athletic performance for competitive and recreational athletes...
March 2016: Sports Health
Stuart McGill, David Frost, Thomas Lam, Tim Finlay, Kevin Darby, Jordan Cannon
Elite police work has bursts of intense physically demanding work requiring high levels of fitness, or capacity, and movement competency; which are assumed to increase one's injury resilience. The purpose of this study was to follow members of an elite police force (N = 53) to test whether back injuries (N = 14) could be predicted from measures of fitness and movement quality. Measures of torso endurance, relative and absolute strength, hip ROM and movement quality using the Functional Movement Screen(TM) and other dynamic movement tests were obtained from every officer at baseline...
2015: Ergonomics
David M Lindsay, Anthony A Vandervoort
Golf is a popular sport with both perceived and real health benefits. However, certain injury risks are also prevalent, particularly to the lower back. Epidemiological studies have shown that lower back pain (LBP) from golf account for between 18% and 54% of all documented ailments, leading many researchers to regard the condition as the most common golf injury. The purpose of this review was to examine the scientific literature to ascertain the risk factors associated with the development of LBP from playing golf and suggest methods to modify or limit these factors...
December 2014: Asian Journal of Sports Medicine
Kim Hébert-Losier, Hans-Christer Holmberg
BACKGROUND: Skiing and snowboarding are two activities that significantly contribute to the total number of sports-related injuries reported per year. Strength, endurance and cardiovascular fitness are central components in sports injury prevention. Providing exercises and training recommendations specific to recreational skiers and snowboarders is important in both injury prevention and reducing the prevalence and cost associated with alpine winter sports injuries. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper was to systematically review the literature for injury prevention recommendations specific to recreational alpine skiers and snowboarders...
May 2013: Sports Medicine
Pascale Kippelen, Kenneth D Fitch, Sandra Doreen Anderson, Valerie Bougault, Louis-Philippe Boulet, Kenneth William Rundell, Malcolm Sue-Chu, Donald C McKenzie
Elite athletes, particularly those engaged in endurance sports and those exposed chronically to airborne pollutants/irritants or allergens, are at increased risk for upper and lower airway dysfunction. Airway epithelial injury may be caused by dehydration and physical stress applied to the airways during severe exercise hyperpnoea and/or by inhalation of noxious agents. This is thought to initiate an inflammatory cascade/repair process that, ultimately, could lead to airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and asthma in susceptible athletes...
June 2012: British Journal of Sports Medicine
Guillaume Y Millet, Caroline Divert, Marion Banizette, Jean-Benoit Morin
The aim of this study was to examine the influence of fatigue on running biomechanics in normal running, in normal running with a cognitive task, and in running while map reading. Nineteen international and less experienced orienteers performed a fatiguing running exercise of duration and intensity similar to a classic distance orienteering race on an instrumented treadmill while performing mental arithmetic, an orienteering simulation, and control running at regular intervals. Two-way repeated-measures analysis of variance did not reveal any significant difference between mental arithmetic and control running for any of the kinematic and kinetic parameters analysed eight times over the fatiguing protocol...
January 2010: Journal of Sports Sciences
Emily Twitchett, Anna Brodrick, Alan M Nevill, Yiannis Koutedakis, Manuela Angioi, Matthew Wyon
Most ballet dancers will suffer at least one injury a year. There are numerous causes of injury in dance, and while many investigators have documented risk factors such as anatomical characteristics, past medical history, menstrual history, dance experience, length of dance training, fatigue, and stress, risk factors related to body characteristics and nutrient intake, levels of conditioning, or physical fitness parameters have only recently received the same amount of attention. The aim of the present study was, therefore, to investigate correlations between ballet injury and body fat percentage, active and passive flexibility, lower limb power, upper body and core endurance, and aerobic capacity...
2010: Journal of Dance Medicine & Science
Vonda J Wright, Brett C Perricelli
BACKGROUND: Age-related disability and lost independence currently plague one third of older Americans. Many causes of disability, lost muscle mass and bone mineral density, are modifiable with exercise. Most exemplary of successful aging are the Senior Olympians; this group of vital athletes exhibit persistently high levels of functional capacity. PURPOSE: This study describes demographic data, injury characteristics and the effect of aging on physical performance in senior athletes to identify key time points for intervention to address declining performance...
March 2008: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Hiroshi Hasegawa, Takeshi Yamauchi, William J Kraemer
There are various recommendations by many coaches regarding foot landing techniques in distance running that are meant to improve running performance and prevent injuries. Several studies have investigated the kinematic and kinetic differences between rearfoot strike (RFS), midfoot strike (MFS), and forefoot strike (FFS) patterns at foot landing and their effects on running efficiency on a treadmill and over ground conditions. However, little is known about the actual condition of the foot strike pattern during an actual road race at the elite level of competition...
August 2007: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Angela K Batt, Rebecca A Braham, Carmel Goodman
Australian football is a popular male team sport that consists mainly of participants competing at the non-elite level. The main purpose of this study was to compare in non-elite Australian football players competing in sub-elite and community leagues, selected physical capacities recognised as predictors of lower extremity injury in Australian football and/or other sports. Participants were 143 adult (mean age of 22.2 years) male Western Australian footballers from the Western Australian Football League (WAFL) (sub-elite) and the Western Australian Amateur Football League (WAAFL) (community)...
April 2007: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
C A Emery, W H Meeuwisse
PURPOSE: The objective of this cohort study was to determine the level of off-season sport specific activity, peak isometric adductor torque, and hip abduction flexibility that are predictive of groin or abdominal strain injury in the National Hockey League (NHL). METHODS: The subjects were 1292 consenting NHL players. Estimated relative risks of injury are reported using the following exposures: 1) level of sport specific training in the off-season, 2) peak isometric adductor torque, 3) total hip abduction flexibility, 4) previous injury, 5) years of NHL experience, and 6) skate blade hollow measurement...
September 2001: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
R J Shephard
The sport scientist's understanding of the biomechanics and physiology of sailing, together with its application to nutrition, training and injury prevention in the elite competitor, has continued to develop over the past decade. Very large mechanical forces are imposed in the vertical axis of the body, which give rise to frequent complaints to low back and knee pain and, occasionally, even to muscle rupture. Training programmes should emphasise the development of isometric endurance in the relevant muscle groups, such preparation continuing throughout the winter months...
June 1997: Sports Medicine
S Locke, D Colquhoun, M Briner, L Ellis, M O'Brien, J Wollstein, G Allen
Squash is a moderate to high intensity sport which demands specific fitness. Squash at any level places a high demand on the aerobic system for energy delivery during play and recovery. In addition, the sport requires bursts of intense, anaerobic physical activity involving the lactic anaerobic energy system. Players must possess appropriate levels of local muscular endurance, strength, power, flexibility and speed, combined with agility, balance and co-ordination. Irrespective of the standard of play, aerobic fitness training and specific anaerobic training should be undertaken by all who play or intend to play squash...
February 1997: Sports Medicine
L E Armstrong, Y Epstein, J E Greenleaf, E M Haymes, R W Hubbard, W O Roberts, P D Thompson
Many recreational and elite runners participate in distance races each year. When these events are conducted in hot or cold conditions, the risk of environmental illness increases. However, exertional hyperthermia, hypothermia, dehydration, and other related problems may be minimized with pre-event education and preparation. This position stand provides recommendations for the medical director and other race officials in the following areas: scheduling; organizing personnel, facilities, supplies, equipment, and communication; providing competitor education; measuring environmental stress; providing fluids; and avoiding potential legal liabilities...
December 1996: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
C H So, T O Siu, K M Chan, M K Chin, C T Li
A comparative study was made of the isokinetic characteristics of the ankle (plantar-flexion and dorsiflexion) in young men. Six cyclists, seven gymnasts, 10 soccer players and 25 non-athletic young men were tested on the Cybex II+ dynamometer. Peak torque, torque acceleration energy (TAE), total work and average power were measured. Cyclists had slightly higher (5%) mean plantar flexion than the others, but this was not significant. The situation was reversed for dorsiflexion. Moreover, the average dorsiflexion per unit of plantar flexion was significantly higher in the gymnasts than it was in the cyclists for both torque and work...
March 1994: British Journal of Sports Medicine
L E Armstrong, C M Maresh, D Riebe, R W Kenefick, J W Castellani, J M Senk, M Echegaray, M F Foley
Wheelchair athletes with spinal cord injuries (WA) face challenges to thermal homeostasis, including reduced cutaneous vasoaction and sweat production. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of local cooling to reduce heat strain in WA. Six elite, endurance-trained male WA (33 +/- 3 yr, 64 +/- 4 kg) performed three strenuous exercise tests in a hot-humid environment (32.9 +/- 0.1 degrees C, 75 +/- 3% RH) by pushing a racing chair on a stationary roller (30 min, 16.5 km.h-1, 704-766 W metabolic heat) while wearing shorts and socks...
February 1995: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
T J Chandler
Tennis is a physically demanding sport. A complete conditioning program designed to address both the demands of the sport and the individual player's musculoskeletal base is important in tennis, particularly at the competitive junior and professional levels. Recreational players can certainly use conditioning to improve their level of performance, but the primary concern in this group is general fitness development and injury prevention. In the junior player, physical development should begin with a sound program for physical fitness, including flexibility, cardiorespiratory endurance, general strength, and muscular endurance...
January 1995: Clinics in Sports Medicine
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