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elite endurance sport psychology

Sandra Mårtensson, Kristina Nordebo, Christer Malm
It has been proposed that high exercise loads increase the risk of infection, most frequently reported as upper respiratory tract infections, by suppressing the immune system. Most athletes will not train when experiencing sickness due to the fear of health complications. However, high training volumes are incompatible with high rates of non-training days, regardless of the cause. The purpose of this observational study was to examine the relationship between self-reported, exercise-constraining days of sickness (days when the athlete decided not to train due to symptoms of disease, either self-reported or by a physician) and the volumes of exercise training in elite endurance athletes by analyzing data from training logs kept for several years...
December 2014: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
Mette Hansen, Jens Bangsbo, Jørgen Jensen, Bo Martin Bibby, Klavs Madsen
This trial aimed to examine the effect of whey protein hydrolysate intake before and after exercise sessions on endurance performance and recovery in elite orienteers during a training camp. Eighteen elite orienteers participated in a randomized controlled intervention trial during a 1-week training camp (13 exercise sessions). Half of the runners (PRO-CHO) ingested a protein drink before (0.3 g kg(-1)) and a protein-carbohydrate drink after (0.3 g protein kg(-1) and 1 g carbohydrate kg(-1)) each exercise session...
April 2015: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
Noora J Ronkainen, Tatiana V Ryba, Mark S Nesti
This research examines male endurance athletes' experience of aging and/or reaching the perceived limits of physical performance. More specifically, the current study aimed to explore how existential meanings attached to these experiences are connected with athletes' decision-making concerning career continuity and retirement. Life story interviews were conducted with 10 Finnish runners and/or orienteers aged between 25 and 62 and the data was analyzed with an existential-narrative framework. Four major storylines related to aging were identified: The end of an era, putting things in perspective, the attitude has to change and winning was never the only motive...
December 2013: Journal of Aging Studies
Sion Thomas, Colin Reeves, James Agombar, Iain Greenlees
This study assessed the personality construct of hardiness within elite, male, full-time, professional motorcycle racers (n = 32) from the Federation Internationale de Motorcyclisme (F.I.M) Moto G. P Championship (n = 16) and World Endurance Championship (n = 16), as well as club level motorcycling competitors (n = 31). All riders completed Nowack's Cognitive Hardiness Inventory (1990), either before the start of official qualification during race week (elite professional riders), or prior to a club weekend meet (club racers)...
February 2013: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Luís M Massuça, Isabel Fragoso, Júlia Teles
Researchers in the field of excellence in sport performance are becoming increasingly focused on the study of sport-specific characteristics and requirements. In accordance with this, the purposes of this study were (a) to examine the morphologic-, fitness-, handball-specific skills and psychological and "biosocial" differences between top elite and nontop elite team-handball players and (b) to investigate the extent to which they may be used to identify top elite team-handball players. One hundred sixty-seven adult male team-handball players were studied and divided in 2 groups: top elite (n = 41) and nontop elite (n = 126)...
January 2014: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Tiaki B Smith, Will G Hopkins, Tim E Lowe
There is a need for markers that would help determine when an athlete's training load is either insufficient or excessive. In this study we examined the relationship between changes in performance and changes in physiological and psychological markers during and following a period of overload training in 10 female and 10 male elite rowers. Change in performance during a 4-wk overload was determined with a weekly 30-min time-trial on a rowing ergometer, whereas an incremental test provided change in lactate-threshold power between the beginning of the study and following a 1-wk taper after the overload...
December 2011: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
S Meister, O Faude, T Ammann, R Schnittker, T Meyer
Laboratory, psychological and performance parameters as possible indicators of physical strain and overload during highly demanding competition phases were evaluated in elite male football players. In two studies with the same objective, periods of high (HE: >270 min during 3 weeks before testing) and low (LE: <270 min) match exposure were compared over the course of an entire season. In study 1 (n=88 players of the first and second German leagues; age: 25.6 ± 4.3 years; body mass index (BMI): 23.2 ± 1...
March 2013: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Dianna Purvis, Stephen Gonsalves, Patricia A Deuster
This article will review relevant mechanisms and markers associated with overtraining syndrome (OTS), and discuss signs and symptoms, differential diagnosis, and current assessment tools for fatigue within the context of overtraining. The findings are drawn from original research and review articles referenced by PubMed and ScienceDirect databases. Sources were selected for their contributions to the current knowledge of biological, psychological, and molecular mechanisms. Data were reviewed for relevance to OTS and then evaluated against criteria that included significant OTS outcomes and findings...
May 2010: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
Michael Sheard
The relation between nationality and selected indicators of psychological performance in rugby league football was examined. Mental toughness was assessed using the alternative Psychological Performance Inventory (PPI-A) and hardiness using the Personal Views Survey III-R (PVS III-R). Participants (N = 49, M age = 21.7 yr., SD = 2.3) were male elite-level university rugby league footballers representing Australia and Great Britain. Participants completed the questionnaires in training camp in Sydney, Australia, one week prior to the commencement of an international tournament there in 2006...
August 2009: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Luana C Main, Brian Dawson, J Robert Grove, Grant J Landers, Carmel Goodman
Data on training of competitive athletes and the inflammatory response, and, more specifically, the utility of psychological inventories to monitor this response in regards to overreaching is limited. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association of the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and inflammatory markers in elite rowers. Eight rowers (males n = 4; females n = 4) were monitored over an 8-week training period, comprising 12 sessions each week and training an average 3.11 h.d(-1). Training volume was periodized weekly while intensity was maintained throughout the study...
2009: Research in Sports Medicine
José F Guzmán, Ana M Pablos, Carlos Pablos
The goal was analysis of the perceptual-cognitive skills associated with sport performance in orienteering in a sample of 22 elite and 17 nonelite runners. Variables considered were memory, basic orienteering techniques, map reading, symbol knowledge, map-terrain-map identification, and spatial organisation. A computerised questionnaire was developed to measure the variables. The reliability of the test (agreement between experts) was 90%. Findings suggested that competence in performing basic orienteering techniques efficiently was a key variable differentiating between the elite and the nonelite athletes...
August 2008: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Gregory P Whyte
Acute bouts of ultraendurance exercise may result in the appearance of biomarkers of cardiac cell damage and a transient reduction in left ventricular function. The clinical significance of these changes is not fully understood. There seems to be two competing issues to be resolved. First, could prolonged endurance exercise produce a degree of cardiac stress and/or damage that results, during the short or long term, in deleterious consequences for cardiac health. Second, there is a clear need to educate those responsible for the medical care of endurance athletes about the possibility of a transient reduction in cardiac function and the appearance of cTnT/cTnI after an exercise...
August 2008: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
John S Raglin
The unique physiological attributes of marathoners have long been recognised, but until the pioneering research of Morgan and Pollock (1977) little was known about their psychological characteristics. Their work revealed marathoners have significantly better mental health compared with non-athletes, with desirable mental health variables being most pronounced in elite competitors. It was also found that during competition, elite marathoners typically utilise a unique cognitive strategy labelled 'association', whereby they regulate pace based upon bodily sensations including pain and effort...
2007: Sports Medicine
P Purge, J Jürimäe, T Jürimäe
In this study, we examined possible hormonal and psychological changes in elite male rowers during a 24-week preparatory period. Eleven elite male rowers were tested on seven occasions over the 6-month training season. Fasting testosterone, growth hormone, cortisol, and creatine kinase activity, together with perceived recovery-stress state were evaluated after a day of rest. Maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) was determined before and after the training period. Training was mainly organized as low-intensity prolonged training sessions...
October 2006: Journal of Sports Sciences
A Legaz Arrese, E Serrano Ostáriz, J A Jcasajús Mallén, D Munguía Izquierdo
AIM: The relationship between VO2max (mL x kg(-1) x min(-1)) and running performance has been assessed in cross-sectional studies. Follow-up studies of the long-term effects of running training on the changes in performance and VO2max have not been undertaken. METHODS: Twenty-five male endurance-trained (MET) and 8 female endurance-trained (FET) athletes were tracked over 4 years. In each event the athletes were divided into Class A, including half the number of athletes with the best performances, and Class B...
December 2005: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
G P Millet, A Groslambert, B Barbier, J D Rouillon, R B Candau
This study investigated the effects of 40-week training on anxiety and perceived fatigue in four elite triathletes. Anxiety and perceived fatigue were self-reported by the subjects twice a week by the way of a specific questionnaire and were linked by a mathematical model to the training loads calculated from the exercise heart rate. A significant relationship (r=0.32; p<0.001) between the training loads and anxiety was identified using a two-component model: a first, negative (i.e., anxiety decreased) short-term (tau (1)=23 days) function and a second, positive long-term (tau (2)=59 days) function...
July 2005: International Journal of Sports Medicine
Claire L Palmer, Les Burwitz, Allison N Dyer, Christopher M Spray
This study examined the utility of Ajzen's (1985) theory of planned behaviour and Maddux's (1993) revised theory of planned behaviour to predict endurance training intentions and adherence of elite junior netball athletes. One hundred and fifteen athletes from the England Netball World Class Start Programme were assessed on constructs central to the predictions of the two theories. Adherence to a recommended endurance training programme was recorded in self-report diaries across a 9-week period. Validity for the diaries was supported by significant correlations (P < 0...
March 2005: Journal of Sports Sciences
David J Smith
The development of performance in competition is achieved through a training process that is designed to induce automation of motor skills and enhance structural and metabolic functions. Training also promotes self-confidence and a tolerance for higher training levels and competition. In general, there are two broad categories of athletes that perform at the highest level: (i) the genetically talented (the thoroughbred); and (ii) those with a highly developed work ethic (the workhorse) with a system of training guiding their effort...
2003: Sports Medicine
H Ertan, B Kentel, S T Tümer, F Korkusuz
A contraction and relaxation strategy with regard to forearm muscles during the release of the bowstring has often been observed during archery, but has not well been described. The purpose of this study was to analyze this strategy in archers with different levels of expertise; elite, beginner and non-archers. Electromyography (EMG) activity of the M. flexor digitorum superficialis and the M. extensor digitorum were recorded at a sampling frequency of 500 Hz, together with a pulse synchronized with the clicker snap, for twelve shots by each subject...
February 2003: Human Movement Science
G P Millet, R B Candau, B Barbier, T Busso, J D Rouillon, J C Chatard
This study investigated the effects of 40-weeks training in swimming, cycling and running on performances in swimming, running and triathlon competitions in four elite triathletes. The training stimulus was calculated using the exercise heart rate. The level of performance was measured in running by a submaximal 30 min run, in swimming by a 5 x 400 m all-out test and subjectively in triathlon competitions. A mathematical model using one to three first order transfer functions linked actual and modelled performances by minimizing the residual sum of squares between them...
January 2002: International Journal of Sports Medicine
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