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Yajun Chen, Lin Ye, Fuzheng Zhao, Lin Xiao, Shupei Cheng, Xu-Xiang Zhang
Oxidation ditch (OD) is one of the most widely used processes for treating municipal wastewater. However, the microbial communities in the OD systems have not been well characterized and little information about the shift of bacterial community during the startup process of the OD systems is available. In this study, we investigated the bacterial community changes during the startup period (over 100 days) of a full-scale OD. The results showed that the bacterial community dramatically changed during the startup period...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
En Shi, Jianzheng Li, Shao-Yuan Leu, Philip Antwi
To predict the dynamic profiles in volatile fatty acids (VFAs) with pH and hydraulic retention time (HRT) during the startup of a 4-compartment ABR, a mathematical model was constructed by introducing pH and thermodynamic inhibition functions into the biochemical processes derived from the ADM1. The calibration of inhibition parameter for propionate uptake effectively improved the prediction accuracy of VFAs. The developed model could simulate the VFAs profiles very well no matter the observable change of pH or/and HRT...
September 20, 2016: Bioresource Technology
Rubina Rahman, Alexander Solodov
The purpose of this study is to contribute to a wider effort of establishing an environmental radiation baseline for the United Arab Emirates (UAE) before the startup of the country's first nuclear reactor in 2017. An investigation of gamma-emitting radionuclide concentrations in palm dates grown in the UAE was performed. Palm date samples of 10 varieties originating from several local commercial date palm farms of the UAE were collected and analyzed. The study targeted the naturally occurring radionuclides, such as U, Th, and K, in addition to any potential anthropogenic radionuclides, such as Cs and others...
November 2016: Health Physics
Robert S Rudin, Eric C Schneider, Zachary Predmore, Courtney A Gidengil
OBJECTIVES: Complex patients incur a majority of healthcare costs in the United States, in part, because their care is poorly coordinated. We sought to determine the leading edge of health information technology (IT) tools for care coordination of complex patients. STUDY DESIGN: Qualitative discussions and technical expert panels. METHODS: We conducted 35 discussions with clinical leaders, technology and startup executives, government officials, academic researchers, and 2 technical expert panels...
2016: American Journal of Managed Care
Thomas De Rijdt, Isabel Spriet, Ludo Willems, Marianne Blanckaert, Martin Hiele, Alexander Wilmer, Steven Simoens
BACKGROUND: The inappropriate startup of long-term acid suppressive therapy (AST) can have clinical and pharmacoeconomic impacts on ambulatory care. OBJECTIVE: To assess the proportion of patients with appropriate initiation of long-term AST in non-critically ill patients. To describe possible risk factors for nonappropriate AST. To calculate the potential savings when eliminating the nonappropriate startup of AST. METHOD: This observational, retrospective study evaluated the appropriateness of startup of long-term AST in medical records using a broad variety of international criteria and guidelines and using a validated screening instrument...
September 20, 2016: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
Wei-Li Du, Qiang Huang, Li-Li Miao, Ying Liu, Zhi-Pei Liu
Optimization of running parameters in a bioreactor requires detailed understanding of microbial community dynamics during the startup and running periods. Using a novel piggery wastewater treatment system termed "UASB + SHARON + ANAMMOX" constructed in our laboratory, we investigated microbial community dynamics using the Illumina MiSeq method, taking activated sludge samples at ~2-week intervals during a ~300-day period. Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) were further investigated by quantification of AOB amoA genes and construction of gene clone libraries...
December 2016: AMB Express
Tachia Chin, Sang-Bing Tsai, Kai Fang, Wenzhong Zhu, Dongjin Yang, Ren-Huai Liu, Richard Ting Chang Tsuei
Due to the context-sensitive nature of entrepreneurial orientation (EO), it is imperative to in-depth explore the EO-performance mechanism in China at its critical, specific stage of economic reform. Under the context of "reverse internationalization" by Chinese global startup original equipment manufacturers (OEMs), this paper aims to manifest the unique links and complicated interrelationships between the individual EO dimensions and firm performance. Using structural equation modeling, we found that during reverse internationalization, proactiveness is positively related to performance; risk taking is not statistically associated with performance; innovativeness is negatively related to performance...
2016: PloS One
Nicole LaBarge, Yasemin Dilsad Yilmazel, Pei-Ying Hong, Bruce E Logan
Microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) can generate methane by fixing carbon dioxide without using expensive catalysts, but the impact of acclimation procedures on subsequent performance has not been investigated. Granular activated carbon (GAC) was used to pre-enrich electrotrophic methanogenic communities, as GAC has been shown to stimulate direct transfer of electrons between different microbial species. MEC startup times using pre-acclimated GAC were improved compared to controls (without pre-acclimation or without GAC), and after three fed batch cycles methane generation rates were similar (P>0...
September 1, 2016: Bioelectrochemistry
Qing Zhao, Ruying Li, Min Ji, Zhiyong Jason Ren
This study constructed sediment microbial fuel cells (SMFCs) with different organic loadings without the amendment of external substrates, and it investigated how such variation affects electricity generation and microbial community structure. Results found sediment characteristics significantly influenced SMFC performance and appropriate organic content is important to maintain stable power outputs. SMFCs with loss of ignition (LOI) of 5% showed the most reliable performance in this study, while high organic content (LOI 10-16%) led to higher but very unstable voltage output because of biogas accumulation and worm activities...
November 2016: Bioresource Technology
Jason J Williams, Tracy K Teal
In biology, a missing link connecting data generation and data-driven discovery is the training that prepares researchers to effectively manage and analyze data. National and international cyberinfrastructure along with evolving private sector resources place biologists and students within reach of the tools needed for data-intensive biology, but training is still required to make effective use of them. In this concept paper, we review a number of opportunities and challenges that can inform the creation of a national bioinformatics training infrastructure capable of servicing the large number of emerging and existing life scientists...
September 7, 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Helen J Stain, Sandra Bucci, Amanda L Baker, Vaughan Carr, Richard Emsley, Sean Halpin, Terry Lewin, Ulrich Schall, Vanessa Clarke, Kylie Crittenden, Mike Startup
BACKGROUND: Intervention trials for young people at ultra high risk (UHR) for psychosis have shown cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) to have promising effects on treating psychotic symptoms but have not focused on functional outcomes. We hypothesized that compared to an active control, CBT would: (i) reduce the likelihood of, and/or delay, transition to psychosis; (ii) reduce symptom severity while improving social functioning and quality of life, whether or not transition occurred. METHOD: This was a single-blind randomised controlled trial for young people at UHR for psychosis comparing CBT to an active control condition, Non Directive Reflective Listening (NDRL), both in addition to standard care, with a 6month treatment phase and 12months of follow-up...
October 2016: Schizophrenia Research
Peng Wu, Zhang Shi-ying, Yin-ling Song, Yue-zhong Xu, Yao-liang Shen
How to achieve fast and stable startup of shortcut nitrification has a very important practical value for treatment of low C/N ratio wastewater. Thus, the quick start-up and sustaining of shortcut nitrification were investigated in continuous flow reactor targeting at the current situation of urban wastewater treatment plant using a continuous flow process. The results showed that quick start-up of shortcut nitrification could be successfully achieved in a continuous flow reactor after 60 days' operation with intermittent aeration and controlling of three stages of stop/aeration time (15 min/45 min, 45 min/45 min and 30 min/30 min)...
April 15, 2016: Huan Jing Ke Xue= Huanjing Kexue
Zhiyuan Chen, Man-Kay Law, Pui-In Mak, Rui P Martins
In this paper, an ultra-compact single-chip solar energy harvesting IC using on-chip solar cell for biomedical implant applications is presented. By employing an on-chip charge pump with parallel connected photodiodes, a 3.5 × efficiency improvement can be achieved when compared with the conventional stacked photodiode approach to boost the harvested voltage while preserving a single-chip solution. A photodiode-assisted dual startup circuit (PDSC) is also proposed to improve the area efficiency and increase the startup speed by 77%...
August 1, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Roland A Snijder, Toine C G Egberts, Peter Lucas, Petra M A Lemmers, Frank van Bel, Annemoon M D E Timmerman
BACKGROUND: Drug administration on the neonatal intensive care unit is often associated with adverse events. This may be due to dosing errors caused by multi-infusion setups. We aim to investigate these dosing errors. MATERIAL AND METHODS: N=3 experiment using a medication schedule, multi-infusion setup (three pumps) and disposables as applied on the NICU. In-line and real-time absorption spectrophotometry was used with dyes as substitutes for pharmaceuticals. Three flow rate changes lasting 1h were initiated...
October 10, 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Lea Rems, Durgesh Kawale, L James Lee, Pouyan E Boukany
Thanks to direct observation and manipulation of DNA in micro/nanofluidic devices, we are now able to elucidate the relationship between the polymer microstructure and its rheological properties, as well as to design new single-molecule platforms for biophysics and biomedicine. This allows exploration of many new mechanisms and phenomena, which were previously unachievable with conventional methods such as bulk rheometry tests. For instance, the field of polymer rheology is at a turning point to relate the complex molecular conformations to the nonlinear viscoelasticity of polymeric fluids (such as coil-stretch transition, shear thinning, and stress overshoot in startup shear)...
July 2016: Biomicrofluidics
Guo-Qian Yang, Yun-Mei Chen, Jin-Peng Wang, Cen Guo, Lei Zhao, Xiao-Yan Wang, Ying Guo, Li Li, De-Zhu Li, Zhen-Hua Guo
BACKGROUND: The double digest restriction-site associated DNA sequencing technology (ddRAD-seq) is a reduced representation sequencing technology by sampling genome-wide enzyme loci developed on the basis of next-generation sequencing. ddRAD-seq has been widely applied to SNP marker development and genotyping on animals, especially on marine animals as the original ddRAD protocol is mainly built and trained based on animal data. However, wide application of ddRAD-seq technology in plant species has not been achieved so far...
2016: Plant Methods
Charles Knirsch, Demissie Alemayehu, Radu Botgros, Sabrina Comic-Savic, David Friedland, Thomas L Holland, Kunal Merchant, Gary J Noel, Eric Pelfrene, Christina Reith, Jonas Santiago, Rosemary Tiernan, Pamela Tenearts, Jennifer C Goldsack, Vance G Fowler
BACKGROUND: The etiology of hospital-acquired or ventilator-associated bacterial pneumonia (HABP/VABP) is often multidrug-resistant infections. The evaluation of new antibacterial drugs for efficacy in this population is important, as many antibacterial drugs have demonstrated limitations when studied in this population. HABP/VABP trials are expensive and challenging to conduct due to protocol complexity and low patient enrollment, among other factors. The Clinical Trials Transformation Initiative (CTTI) seeks to advance antibacterial drug development by streamlining HABP/VABP clinical trials to improve efficiency and feasibility while maintaining ethical rigor, patient safety, information value, and scientific validity...
August 15, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Lonneke van Hoeven, Yvonne Vergouwe, Bart W Koes, Johanna M W Hazes, Angelique E A M Weel
BACKGROUND: Axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) is a disabling inflammatory joint disease with chronic low back pain (CLBP) as leading symptom. Recognizing axSpA in the large amount of CLBP patients is difficult for general practioners (GP). This evaluation aims to assess the effect of a referral strategy for axSpA in young primary care patients with CLBP by comparing the use of the strategy with usual care. The effect is measured at three different levels; by patient reported outcomes (the clinical effect), process and costs evaluation...
2016: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
Haixia Du, Fusheng Li
The effect of varying the ratio of cooked to uncooked potato in the performance of microbial fuel cell (MFC) treating common potato waste was investigated. Four MFCs were fed with a ratio of cooked (boiled) to uncooked (i.e. waste) potato of 0, 48.7, 67.3 and 85.6%. Respectively, the columbic efficiency was estimated as 53.5, 70.5, 92.7 and 71.1%, indicating significantly enhanced electricity generation and waste degradation at an initial feedstock mixing ratio of 2/3 cooked to 1/3 uncooked potato. The hydrolysis rate parameter (estimated using a first-order sequential hydrolysis and degradation model) increased from 0...
November 1, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Stephanie Klaus, Patrick McLee, Andrew J Schuler, Charles Bott
Deammonification (partial nitritation-anammox) is a proven process for the treatment of high-nitrogen waste streams, but long startup time is a known drawback of this technology. In a deammonification moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR), startup time could potentially be decreased by increasing the attachment rate of anammox bacteria (AMX) on virgin plastic media. Previous studies have shown that bacterial adhesion rates can be increased by surface modification or by the development of a preliminary biofilm. This is the first study on increasing AMX attachment rates in a deammonification MBBR using these methods...
2016: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
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