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elite endurance sport nutrition

Susan Boegman, Christine E Dziedzic
Competitive rowing events are raced over 2,000 m requiring athletes to have highly developed aerobic and anaerobic systems. Elite rowers therefore undertake training sessions focused on lactate tolerance, strength and power as well as aerobic and anaerobic capacity development, that can amount to a 24-h training week. The training stimuli and consequent metabolic demands of each session in a rowing training program differ depending on type, length, and intensity. Nutrition guidelines for endurance- and power-based sports should be drawn upon; however, individualized and flexible nutrition plans are critical to successfully meet the daily, weekly, and cyclic nutrient requirements of a rower...
July 2016: Current Sports Medicine Reports
S A Solheim, N B Nordsborg, C Ritz, J Berget, A H Kristensen, J Mørkeberg
The nutritional supplement (NS) industry is one of the fastest growing in the world, and NS use in Denmark is among the highest in Europe. However, the exact use in elite athletes and fitness customers targeted for doping control is unknown. Information from 634 doping control forms obtained in 2014 was evaluated (elite athletes: n = 361; fitness customers: n = 273). The majority of female (92.6%) and male (85.0%) elite athletes and female (100.0%) and male (94.0%) fitness customers declared using one or more NS...
June 5, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Geneviève Masson, Benoît Lamarche
Little is known regarding the dietary intake of non-elite athletes involved in multisport endurance events. The primary objective of this observational study was to characterize the dietary intake of non-elite athletes participating in winter triathlon (snowshoeing, skating, and cross-country skiing), winter pentathlon (winter triathlon sports + cycling and running), Ironman (IM: swimming, cycling, running), and half-distance Ironman (IM 70.3) in relation with current sports nutrition recommendations. A total of 116 non-elite athletes (32 women and 84 men) who had participated in one of those events in 2014 were included in the analyses...
July 2016: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Michal Kumstát, Silvie Rybárová, Andy Thomas, Jan Novotný
The nutritional intake of elite open water swimmers during competition is not well established, and therefore this case study aims to provide new insights by describing the feeding strategies adopted by an elite female swimmer (28 yrs; height; 1.71 m; body mass: 60 kg; body fat: 16.0%) in the FINA open water Grand Prix 2014.Seven events of varying distances (15-88 km) and durations (3-12 hrs) were included. In all events, except one, feeds were provided from support boats. Swimmer and support staff were instructed to track in detail all foods and beverages consumed during the events...
August 2016: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
Paul E Wischmeyer, Inigo San-Millan
Over the last 10 years we have significantly reduced hospital mortality from sepsis and critical illness. However, the evidence reveals that over the same period we have tripled the number of patients being sent to rehabilitation settings. Further, given that as many as half of the deaths in the first year following ICU admission occur post ICU discharge, it is unclear how many of these patients ever returned home. For those who do survive, the latest data indicate that 50-70% of ICU "survivors" will suffer cognitive impairment and 60-80% of "survivors" will suffer functional impairment or ICU-acquired weakness (ICU-AW)...
2015: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
James David Cotter, Simon N Thornton, Jason Kw Lee, Paul B Laursen
Hydration pertains simplistically to body water volume. Functionally, however, hydration is one aspect of fluid regulation that is far more complex, as it involves the homeostatic regulation of total body fluid volume, composition and distribution. Deliberate or pathological alteration of these regulated factors can be disabling or fatal, whereas they are impacted by exercise and by all environmental stressors (e.g. heat, immersion, gravity) both acutely and chronically. For example, dehydration during exercising and environmental heat stress reduces water volume more than electrolyte content, causing hyperosmotic hypohydration...
2014: Extreme Physiology & Medicine
Anja Carlsohn, Wolfram Müller
Mountain running is a non-Olympic sport consisting of uphill or up- and downhill races at moderate-to-high altitude. Special nutritional requirements are anticipated, but no nutritional data of mountain runners are available. In three studies, physique of elite and recreational athletes (N = 62), maximum oxygen uptake (N = 3), and prerace and race day dietary intake (N = 6) were measured (mean ± SD). Mean oxygen uptake was 68.7 ± 5.2 mL/kg/min. Energy and carbohydrate intake before a race (29 ± 15 km, 1596 ± 556 m HD) was 3199 ± 701 kcal/d (13...
2014: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
Mette Hansen, Jens Bangsbo, Jørgen Jensen, Bo Martin Bibby, Klavs Madsen
This trial aimed to examine the effect of whey protein hydrolysate intake before and after exercise sessions on endurance performance and recovery in elite orienteers during a training camp. Eighteen elite orienteers participated in a randomized controlled intervention trial during a 1-week training camp (13 exercise sessions). Half of the runners (PRO-CHO) ingested a protein drink before (0.3 g kg(-1)) and a protein-carbohydrate drink after (0.3 g protein kg(-1) and 1 g carbohydrate kg(-1)) each exercise session...
April 2015: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
Ioannis Vogiatzis, Giuseppe De Vito
Olympic boardsailing is a very demanding endurance sport activity. The main reason for this phenomenon is ascribable to the fact that elite windsurfers use pumping for propulsion during sailing. Pumping is a manoeuvre in which the athlete pulls the sail rhythmically so that it acts as a wing, thus providing the board with additional forward motion especially in light and moderate wind conditions. It has been demonstrated, by using portable metabolimeters, that Olympic boardsailing (Mistral board and the current Olympic board the Neil Pryde RS:X) entails high energy and cardiorespiratory requirements...
2015: European Journal of Sport Science
Kathryn H Myburgh
Supplement use among athletes is widespread, including non-traditional and biological compounds. Despite increasing research, a comprehensive and critical review on polyphenol supplementation and exercise is still lacking. This review is relevant for researchers directly involved in the topic, as well as those with a broad interest in athletic performance enhancement and sports nutrition. The purpose of this review is to present background information on groups of polyphenols and their derivatives because their differing chemical structures influence mechanisms of action; to discuss the potential of plant, fruit and vegetable-based biological supplements, high in polyphenol content, to affect exercise performance and biomarkers of oxidative stress and exercise-induced muscle damage; and to critically discuss the exercise studies and biomarkers used...
May 2014: Sports Medicine
Sherry Robertson, Dan Benardot, Margo Mountjoy
The sport of synchronized swimming is unique, because it combines speed, power, and endurance with precise synchronized movements and high-risk acrobatic maneuvers. Athletes must train and compete while spending a great amount of time underwater, upside down, and without the luxury of easily available oxygen. This review assesses the scientific evidence with respect to the physiological demands, energy expenditure, and body composition in these athletes. The role of appropriate energy requirements and guidelines for carbohydrate, protein, fat, and micronutrients for elite synchronized swimmers are reviewed...
August 2014: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
Trent Stellingwerff
The professionalization of any sport must include an appreciation for how and where nutrition can positively affect training adaptation and/or competition performance. Furthermore, there is an ever-increasing importance of nutrition in sports that feature very high training volumes and are of a long enough duration that both glycogen and fluid balance can limit performance. Indeed, modern marathon training programs and racing satisfy these criteria and are uniquely suited to benefit from nutritional interventions...
September 2013: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Evan Jh Lewis, Sarah J Fraser, Scott G Thomas, Greg D Wells
BACKGROUND: Olympic class sailing poses physiological challenges similar to other endurance sports such as cycling or running, with sport specific challenges of limited access to nutrition and hydration during competition. As changes in hydration status can impair sports performance, examining fluid consumption patterns and fluid/electrolyte requirements of Olympic class sailors is necessary to develop specific recommendations for these elite athletes. The purpose of this study was to examine if Olympic class sailors could maintain hydration status with self-regulated fluid consumption in cold conditions and the effect of fixed fluid intake on hydration status in warm conditions...
2013: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
Shweta Shenoy, Udesh Chaskar, Jaspal S Sandhu, Madan Mohan Paadhi
BACKGROUND: Cycling is an endurance sport relying mainly on aerobic capacity to provide fuel during long-duration cycling events. Athletes are constantly searching for new methods to improve this capacity through various nutritional and ergogenic aids.s PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to find out the effect of Ashwagandha on the cardiorespiratory endurance capacity, that is, aerobic capacity of elite Indian cyclists. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty elite (elite here refers to the participation of the athlete in at least state-level events) Indian cyclists were chosen randomly and were equally divided into experimental and placebo groups...
October 2012: Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine
Takako Koshimizu, Yoshiko Matsushima, Yukari Yokota, Kae Yanagisawa, Satsuki Nagai, Koji Okamura, Yutaka Komatsu, Takashi Kawahara
The estimated energy requirement is important for adequate nutritional management in athletes. The energy requirement can be estimated from the basal metabolic rate (BMR). However, there is little data regarding the BMR of Japanese athletes. This study measured the BMR and body composition of 81 elite Japanese male athletes in different sports categories: endurance (E), strength, power and sprint (S) and ball game (B). The factors influencing the BMR were also investigated. The BMR and body composition were measured by indirect calorimetry and an air-displacement plentysmograph device (the BOD POD), respectively...
2012: Journal of Medical Investigation: JMI
Anni Heikkinen, Antti Alaranta, Ilkka Helenius, Tommi Vasankari
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to assess the frequency of use of dietary supplements (DS) among large sample of elite Finnish athletes and to describe possible changes in dietary supplement use between the years 2002 and 2009. METHODS: A prospective follow-up study was conducted on Olympic athletes. The first survey was conducted on Olympic athletes in 2002 (N = 446) and the follow-up study was conducted between May 2008 and June 2009 (N = 372). RESULTS: In 2002, a total of 81% of the athletes used dietary supplements (a mean of 3...
2011: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
Hans Braun, Karsten Koehler, Hans Geyer, Jens Kleiner, Joachim Mester, Wilhelm Schanzer
Little is known about the prevalence and motives of supplement use among elite young athletes who compete on national and international levels. Therefore, the current survey was performed to assess information regarding the past and present use of dietary supplements among 164 elite young athletes (16.6 +/- 3.0 years of age). A 5-page questionnaire was designed to assess their past and present (last 4 weeks) use of vitamins, minerals, carbohydrate, protein, and fat supplements; sport drinks; and other ergogenic aids...
February 2009: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
Guilherme Giannini Artioli, Bruno Gualano, Emerson Franchini, Rafael Novaes Batista, Viviane Ozores Polacow, Antonio Herbert Lancha
The purpose of the present study was to determine physiological, nutritional, and performance profiles of elite Olympic Wushu (kung-fu) athletes. Ten men and four women elite athletes took part in the study. They completed the following tests: body composition, nutritional assessment, upper-body Wingate Test, vertical jump, lumbar isometric strength, and flexibility. Blood lactate was determined at rest and after the Wingate Test. Blood lactate was also determined during a training session (combat and Taolu training)...
January 2009: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Michael Gleeson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To evaluate the effects of exercise on immune function in relation to infection susceptibility. RECENT FINDINGS: Postexercise immune function depression is most pronounced when exercise is continuous, prolonged, of moderate to high intensity and performed without food intake. Periods of intensified training that result in overreaching have been shown to chronically depress immune function, with leukocyte functions measured at rest still depressed 24 h after the last exercise bout...
November 2006: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
Marcelo Macedo Rogero, Renata Rebello Mendes, Julio Tirapegui
The overtraining syndrome is characterized by an excessive training that results in several adverse effects the main of which being the decay in performance. Its incidence among elite athletes has been experiencing a significant increase lately, which prompted a rush of interest in the search for efficient measures to prevent and treat this condition. It is necessary, however, to clarify possible mechanisms involved in the development of overtraining. Several hypothesis are being proposed, such as a greater activation of both the autonomic nervous system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, and suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis...
June 2005: Arquivos Brasileiros de Endocrinologia e Metabologia
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