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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730946/contribution-of-upper-limb-muscles-to-two-different-gripping-styles-in-elite-indoor-tug-of-war-athletes
#1
Wen-Tzu Tang, Wei-Chih Liao, Hsin-Min Lee
To investigate characteristic upper limb muscle use between two common tug of war (TOW) gripping styles, 20 elite athletes from two high school TOW teams were recruited. Under conditioned attack pulling (with 90% maximal force) on a tug machine, participants used their own habitual gripping style to pull for five 15-s trials. Force and kinematic measurements showed a significantly better force performance and higher centre-of-gravity tilting angle with the gripping style one than with the gripping style two (GS2) (both p < 0...
July 21, 2017: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723843/no-superior-adaptations-to-carbohydrate-periodization-in-elite-endurance-athletes
#2
Kasper Degn Gejl, Line Thams, Mette Hansen, Torben Rokkedal-Lausch, Peter Plomgaard, Lars Nybo, Filip J Larsen, Daniele A Cardinale, Kurt Jensen, Hans-Christer Holmberg, Kristian Vissing, Niels Ørtenblad
PURPOSE: The present study investigated the effects of periodic CHO restriction on endurance performance and metabolic markers in elite endurance athletes. METHODS: Twenty-six male elite endurance athletes (VO2max: 65.0 ml O2[BULLET OPERATOR]kg[BULLET OPERATOR]min) completed 4 weeks of regular endurance training, while matched and randomized into two groups training with (Low) or without (High) carbohydrate (CHO) manipulation three days a week. The CHO manipulation days consisted of a 1-hr high intensity bike session in the morning, recovery for 7 hrs while consuming isocaloric diets containing either high CHO (414±2...
July 19, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674605/changes-in-running-economy-respiratory-exchange-ratio-and-vo2max-in-runners-following-a-10-day-altitude-training-camp
#3
Sebastian R Diebel, Ian Newhouse, David S Thompson, Vineet B K Johnson
Running economy (RE) and VO2max are important predictors of endurance performance for elite and semi-elite endurance athletes, with RE being an appropriate predictor in a homogenous running population. Altitude training has been observed to change RE (mL.kg(-1).min(-1)), and VO2max due to alterations resulting from acclimatization. This study tracked changes in RE and VO2max before and after a 10-day altitude training camp at 1828 meters. VO2max, RE expressed calorically, and respiratory exchange ratio (RER), were measured below anaerobic threshold (AT) to observe differences between pre-and post-altitude training...
2017: International Journal of Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662531/effects-of-in-season-explosive-strength-training-on-maximal-leg-strength-jumping-sprinting-and%C3%A2-intermittent-aerobic-performance-in-male-handball-athletes
#4
Souhail Hermassi, Mohamed Souhaiel Chelly, Georg Fieseler, Thomas Bartels, Stephan Schulze, Karl-Stefan Delank, Roy J Shephard, René Schwesig
Background Team handball is an intense ball sport with specific requirements on technical skills, tactical understanding, and physical performance. The ability of handball players to develop explosive efforts (e. g. sprinting, jumping, changing direction) is crucial to success. Objective The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the effects of an in-season high-intensity strength training program on the physical performance of elite handball players. Materials and methods Twenty-two handball players (a single national-level Tunisian team) were randomly assigned to a control group (CG; n = 10) or a training group (TG; n = 12)...
June 29, 2017: Sportverletzung Sportschaden: Organ der Gesellschaft Für Orthopädisch-Traumatologische Sportmedizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657821/a-scientific-approach-to-improve-physiological-capacity-of-an-elite-cyclist
#5
Bent R Rønnestad, Joar Hansen
Previous studies in endurance athletes has indicated that block periodization (BP) can be a good alternative to the more traditional organization of training despite the total volume and intensity of the training being similar. However, these studies usually last only 4-12 weeks. The aim of the present single-case study was to investigate the consequences of 58 weeks with systematic BP of low intensity training (LIT), moderate intensity training (MIT) and high intensity interval training (HIT) including incorporation of heavy strength training...
June 28, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558442/specific-physiological-and-biomechanical-performance-in-elite-sub-elite-and-in-non-elite-male-team-handball-players
#6
Herbert Wagner, Philip X Fuchs, Serge P von Duvillard
BACKGROUND: Team handball is a dynamic sport game that is played professionally in numerous countries. However, knowledge about training and competition is based mostly on practical experience due to limited scientific studies. Consequently, the aims of our study were to compare specific physiological and biomechanical performance in elite, sub-elite and in non-elite male team handball players. METHODS: Thirty-six elite, sub-elite and non-elite male team handball players performed a game based performance test, upper-body and lower-body strength tests, 30m sprint test, counter movement jump test and an incremental treadmill running test...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493064/evidence-based-prerequisites-and-precursors-of-athletic-talent-a-review
#7
REVIEW
Vladimir B Issurin
Extensive findings related to nature and nurture in determining athletic talent (AT) have been reviewed. Available data demonstrate the important contribution of hereditary factors as well as the crucial importance of environmental prerequisites for identifying and developing AT. Recent publications provide examples of contemporary approaches intended to solve the problem of how to discover and nurture AT. A number of cross-sectional and longitudinal studies highlighted possibilities of revealing a predisposition to certain sports among youthful prospects, but were unable to predict attainment of world-class status...
May 11, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459347/characteristics-and-challenges-of-open-water-swimming-performance-a-review
#8
Roberto Baldassarre, Marco Bonifazi, Paola Zamparo, Maria Francesca Piacentini
PURPOSE: Although the popularity of open water swimming (OWS) events has significantly increased in the last decades, specific studies regarding performance of elite or age group athletes in these events are scarce. The purpose of this review is to analyse the existing literature on OWS. METHODS: Relevant literature was located via computer-generated citations: during August 2016, online computer searches on PubMed and Scopus databases were conducted to locate published research...
May 1, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432611/comparison-of-human-erythrocyte-purine-nucleotide-metabolism-and-blood-purine-and-pyrimidine-degradation-product-concentrations-before-and-after-acute-exercise-in-trained-and-sedentary-subjects
#9
Wioleta Dudzinska, M Suska, A Lubkowska, K Jakubowska, M Olszewska, K Safranow, D Chlubek
This study aimed at evaluating the concentration of erythrocyte purine nucleotides (ATP, ADP, AMP, IMP) in trained and sedentary subjects before and after maximal physical exercise together with measuring the activity of purine metabolism enzymes as well as the concentration of purine (hypoxanthine, xanthine, uric acid) and pyrimidine (uridine) degradation products in blood. The study included 15 male elite rowers [mean age 24.3 ± 2.56 years; maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) 52.8 ± 4.54 mL/kg/min; endurance and strength training 8...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416894/letter-to-the-editor-a-genetic-based-algorithm-for-personalized-resistance-training
#10
A Karanikolou, G Wang, Y Pitsiladis
In a recent paper entitled "A genetic-based algorithm for personalized resistance training", Jones et al. [1] presented an algorithm of 15 performance-associated gene polymorphisms that they propose can determine an athlete's training response by predicting power and endurance potential. However, from the design of their studies and the data provided, there is no evidence to support these authors' assertions. Progress towards such a significant development in the field of sport and exercise genomics will require a paradigm shift in line with recent recommendations for international collaborations such as the Athlome Project (see www...
March 2017: Biology of Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296943/new-approaches-to-determine-fatigue-in-elite-athletes-during-intensified-training-resting-metabolic-rate-and-pacing-profile
#11
Amy L Woods, Laura A Garvican-Lewis, Bronwen Lundy, Anthony J Rice, Kevin G Thompson
BACKGROUND: Elite rowers complete a high volume of training across a number of modalities to prepare for competition, including periods of intensified load, which may lead to fatigue and short-term performance decrements. As yet, the influence of substantial fatigue on resting metabolic rate (RMR) and exercise regulation (pacing), and their subsequent utility as monitoring parameters, has not been explicitly investigated in elite endurance athletes. METHOD: Ten National-level rowers completed a four-week period of intensified training...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295487/sperm-dna-fragmentation-as-a-result-of-ultra-endurance-exercise-training-in-male-athletes
#12
D Vaamonde, C Algar-Santacruz, A Abbasi, J M García-Manso
Intensive sports practice seems to exert negative effects on semen parameters; in order to assess these effects, the objective of this study was to assess semen, including DNA fragmentation, and hormone parameters in elite triathletes. Twelve high-level triathletes preparing for a National Triathlon Championship participated in the study. The qualitative sperm parameters analysed were volume, sperm count, motility, morphology and DNA fragmentation; when needed, additional testing was performed. Assessed hormones were testosterone (T), cortisol (C) and testosterone-cortisol ratio (T/C)...
March 15, 2017: Andrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253027/wingate-test-is-a-strong-predictor-of-1500m-performance-in-elite-speed-skaters
#13
Nico Hofman, Jac Orie, Marco J M Hoozemans, Carl Foster, Jos J de Koning
Wingate test scores are strongly associated with anaerobic capacity in athletes involved in speed-endurance sports. In speed skating Wingate results are known to predict performance cross-sectionally, but have not been investigated relative to their ability to predict performance longitudinally. PURPOSE: To investigate whether Wingate tests performed during summer training are predictive of 1500m speed skating performance the subsequent winter in elite speed skaters. METHODS: Wingate test results from the summer training periods and 1500m performances during the subsequent winter were analyzed over a 3-year period, in 5 female and 8 male elite (Olympic, World Championship and World Cup medalists) speed skaters...
March 2, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245246/oxygen-uptake-kinetics-and-energy-system-s-contribution-around-maximal-lactate-steady-state-swimming-intensity
#14
Jailton Gregório Pelarigo, Leandro Machado, Ricardo Jorge Fernandes, Camila Coelho Greco, João Paulo Vilas-Boas
The purpose of this study was to examine the oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]) kinetics and the energy systems' contribution at 97.5, 100 and 102.5% of the maximal lactate steady state (MLSS) swimming intensity. Ten elite female swimmers performed three-to-five 30 min submaximal constant swimming bouts at imposed paces for the determination of the swimming velocity (v) at 100%MLSS based on a 7 x 200 m intermittent incremental protocol until voluntary exhaustion to find the v associated at the individual anaerobic threshold...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222576/may-a-unitary-autonomic-index-help-assess-autonomic-cardiac-regulation-in-elite-athletes-preliminary-observations-on-the-national-italian-olympic-committee-team
#15
Roberto Sala, Mara Malacarne, Fabio Tosi, Manuela Benzi, Nadia Solaro, Stefano Tamorri, Antonio Spataro, Massimo Pagani, Daniela Lucini
BACKGROUND: Long term endurance training, as occurring in elite athletes, is associated to cardiac neural remodeling in favor of cardioprotective vagal mechanisms, resulting in resting bradycardia and augmented contribution of cardiac parasympathetic nerve activity. Autonomic assessment can be performed by way of Heart Rate Variability. This technique however provides multiple indices, and there is not yet complete agreement on their specific significance. Purpose of the study was to assess whether a rank transformation and radar plot could provide a unitary autonomic index, capable to show a correlation between intensity of individual work and quality of autonomic regulation...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192512/explosive-strength-and-endurance-adaptations-in-young-elite-soccer-players-during-two-soccer-seasons
#16
Riccardo Di Giminiani, Christiano Visca
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the explosive strength and endurance adaptations in young elite soccer players who underwent a supervised training program for a period of two years. Nineteen players, with seven years of training experience (age: 13.3 ± 0.1 years; body weight: 57.9 ± 4.9 kg; height: 168.9 ± 4.7 cm; BMI: 20.1 ± 1.1 kg/m2), voluntarily participated in the present study. The testing sessions were performed at the beginning of the preparation period in the first (T1), second (T2), and third year (T3)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149428/analysis-of-tests-evaluating-sport-climbers-strength-and-isometric-endurance
#17
Mariusz Ozimek, Robert Staszkiewicz, Robert Rokowski, Arkadiusz Stanula
The present study was designed to determine which types of specific tests provide an effective evaluation of strength and endurance in highly trained competitive sport climbers. The research process consisted of three basic components: the measurement of selected somatic characteristics of the climbers, the assessment of their physical conditioning, and a search for correlations between the anthropometric and "conditioning" variables on the one hand, and climber's performance on the other. The sample of subjects consisted of 14 experienced volunteer climbers capable of handling 7a- 8a+/b on-sight rock climbing grades...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149381/comparison-between-two-types-of-anaerobic-speed-endurance-training-in-competitive-soccer-players
#18
Magni Mohr, Peter Krustrup
The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of additional in-season speed endurance production versus speed endurance maintenance training regimes on performance in competitive male soccer players. In a randomised controlled trial 18 male sub-elite players were exposed to additional speed endurance production (SEP) or speed endurance maintenance (SEM) training (two additional sessions/wk for 4 weeks) during the competitive season. Players performed the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 2 test (YYIR2) and a repeated sprint test (RST) pre- and post-intervention...
June 1, 2016: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028816/physiological-limits-to-endurance-exercise-performance-influence-of-sex
#19
Michael J Joyner
This brief review summarizes factors associated with elite endurance performance, trends in distance running training, and participation by men and more recently women. It is framed in the context of key ideas about the physiological determinants of endurance performance but also touches on some historical and sociological factors relevant to the overall topic. Historical trends that served to increase women's participation in elite endurance events are also discussed as is the role of increased volume and intensity of training...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018192/differences-in-resting-state-functional-connectivity-between-young-adult-endurance-athletes-and-healthy-controls
#20
David A Raichlen, Pradyumna K Bharadwaj, Megan C Fitzhugh, Kari A Haws, Gabrielle-Ann Torre, Theodore P Trouard, Gene E Alexander
Expertise and training in fine motor skills has been associated with changes in brain structure, function, and connectivity. Fewer studies have explored the neural effects of athletic activities that do not seem to rely on precise fine motor control (e.g., distance running). Here, we compared resting-state functional connectivity in a sample of adult male collegiate distance runners (n = 11; age = 21.3 ± 2.5) and a group of healthy age-matched non-athlete male controls (n = 11; age = 20.6 ± 1.1), to test the hypothesis that expertise in sustained aerobic motor behaviors affects resting state functional connectivity in young adults...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
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