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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192512/explosive-strength-and-endurance-adaptations-in-young-elite-soccer-players-during-two-soccer-seasons
#1
Riccardo Di Giminiani, Christiano Visca
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the explosive strength and endurance adaptations in young elite soccer players who underwent a supervised training program for a period of two years. Nineteen players, with seven years of training experience (age: 13.3 ± 0.1 years; body weight: 57.9 ± 4.9 kg; height: 168.9 ± 4.7 cm; BMI: 20.1 ± 1.1 kg/m2), voluntarily participated in the present study. The testing sessions were performed at the beginning of the preparation period in the first (T1), second (T2), and third year (T3)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149428/analysis-of-tests-evaluating-sport-climbers-strength-and-isometric-endurance
#2
Mariusz Ozimek, Robert Staszkiewicz, Robert Rokowski, Arkadiusz Stanula
The present study was designed to determine which types of specific tests provide an effective evaluation of strength and endurance in highly trained competitive sport climbers. The research process consisted of three basic components: the measurement of selected somatic characteristics of the climbers, the assessment of their physical conditioning, and a search for correlations between the anthropometric and "conditioning" variables on the one hand, and climber's performance on the other. The sample of subjects consisted of 14 experienced volunteer climbers capable of handling 7a- 8a+/b on-sight rock climbing grades...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149381/comparison-between-two-types-of-anaerobic-speed-endurance-training-in-competitive-soccer-players
#3
Magni Mohr, Peter Krustrup
The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of additional in-season speed endurance production versus speed endurance maintenance training regimes on performance in competitive male soccer players. In a randomised controlled trial 18 male sub-elite players were exposed to additional speed endurance production (SEP) or speed endurance maintenance (SEM) training (two additional sessions/wk for 4 weeks) during the competitive season. Players performed the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 2 test (YYIR2) and a repeated sprint test (RST) pre- and post-intervention...
June 1, 2016: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028816/physiological-limits-to-endurance-exercise-performance-influence-of-sex
#4
Michael J Joyner
This brief review summarizes factors associated with elite endurance performance, trends in distance running training, and participation by men and more recently women. It is framed in the context of key ideas about the physiological determinants of endurance performance but also touches on some historical and sociological factors relevant to the overall topic. Historical trends that served to increase women's participation in elite endurance events are also discussed as is the role of increased volume and intensity of training...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018192/differences-in-resting-state-functional-connectivity-between-young-adult-endurance-athletes-and-healthy-controls
#5
David A Raichlen, Pradyumna K Bharadwaj, Megan C Fitzhugh, Kari A Haws, Gabrielle-Ann Torre, Theodore P Trouard, Gene E Alexander
Expertise and training in fine motor skills has been associated with changes in brain structure, function, and connectivity. Fewer studies have explored the neural effects of athletic activities that do not seem to rely on precise fine motor control (e.g., distance running). Here, we compared resting-state functional connectivity in a sample of adult male collegiate distance runners (n = 11; age = 21.3 ± 2.5) and a group of healthy age-matched non-athlete male controls (n = 11; age = 20.6 ± 1.1), to test the hypothesis that expertise in sustained aerobic motor behaviors affects resting state functional connectivity in young adults...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012184/low-carbohydrate-high-fat-diet-impairs-exercise-economy-and-negates-the-performance-benefit-from-intensified-training-in-elite-race-walkers
#6
Louise M Burke, Megan L Ross, Laura A Garvican-Lewis, Marijke Welvaert, Ida A Heikura, Sara G Forbes, Joanne G Mirtschin, Louise E Cato, Nicki Strobel, Avish P Sharma, John A Hawley
We investigated the effects of adaptation to a ketogenic low-carbohydrate (CHO), high-fat diet (LCHF) during 3 wk of intensified training on metabolism and performance of world-class endurance athletes. We controlled three isoenergetic diets in elite race walkers: High CHO availability (8.6 g.kg(-) 1.d(-1) CHO, 2.1 g.kg(-) 1.d(-1) protein; 1.2 g.kg(-) 1.d(-1) fat) consumed before/during/after training (HCHO, n = 9): identical macronutrient intake, periodised within/between days to alternate between low and high CHO availability (PCHO, n = 10); LCHF (<50 g...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918666/quantification-of-training-and-competition-loads-in-endurance-sports-methods-and-applications
#7
Iñigo Mujika
Training quantification is basic to evaluate an endurance athlete's responses to the training loads, ensure adequate stress/recovery balance and determine the relationship between training and performance. Quantifying both external and internal workload is important, because the external workload does not measure the biological stress imposed by the exercise sessions. Generally used quantification methods include retrospective questionnaires, diaries, direct observation and physiological monitoring, often based on the measurement of oxygen uptake, heart rate and blood lactate concentration...
December 5, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803627/muscle-contraction-velocity-a-suitable-approach-to-analyze-the-functional-adaptations-in-elite-soccer-players
#8
Irineu Loturco, Lucas A Pereira, Ronaldo Kobal, Katia Kitamura, Rodrigo Ramírez-Campillo, Vinicius Zanetti, Cesar C Cal Abad, Fabio Y Nakamura
Tensiomyography (TMG) has been used as a simple and non-invasive tool to assess the mechanical properties of skeletal muscles. The TMG-derived velocity of contraction (Vc), which can be calculated from the ratio between maximal radial displacement and the sum of contraction time and delay time, has been proposed for evaluating athletes. However, its sensitivity to training effects and possible relation with changes in soccer players' neuromuscular performance have not yet been addressed. To test this possibility, twenty-two male Brazilian elite soccer players were assessed using TMG-derived Vc, unloaded squat jump, countermovement jump and drop jump at 45 cm, loaded jump squat and linear (20 m) and change of direction (COD) sprint tests, prior to and after an 8-week period, between two consecutive official tournaments, during which the concurrency between endurance and strength-power training commonly impairs neuromuscular capacities...
September 2016: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747844/running-economy-measurement-norms-and-determining-factors
#9
Kyle R Barnes, Andrew E Kilding
Running economy (RE) is considered an important physiological measure for endurance athletes, especially distance runners. This review considers 1) how RE is defined and measured and 2) physiological and biomechanical factors that determine or influence RE. It is difficult to accurately ascertain what is good, average, and poor RE between athletes and studies due to variation in protocols, gas-analysis systems, and data averaging techniques. However, representative RE values for different caliber of male and female runners can be identified from existing literature with mostly clear delineations in oxygen uptake across a range of speeds in moderately and highly trained and elite runners...
December 2015: Sports Medicine—Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27618339/the-effect-of-maximal-explosive-strength-training-on-performance-indicators-in-cyclists
#10
Kris Beattie, Brian P Carson, Mark Lyons, Ian C Kenny
Cycling economy (CE), power at maximal oxygen uptake (WV̇O2max) and anaerobic function (i.e. sprinting ability) are considered to be the best physiological performance indicators in elite road cyclists. In addition to cardiovascular function, these physiological indicators are partly dictated by neuromuscular factors. One technique to improve neuromuscular function in athletes is through strength training. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a 20 week maximal- and explosive-strength training intervention on strength (maximal- , explosive-strength & bike-specific explosive-strength), WV̇O2max, CE and body composition (body mass, fat & lean mass) in cyclists...
September 6, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27606953/incidence-of-iron-deficiency-and-iron-deficient-anemia-in-elite-runners-and-triathletes
#11
Alexandra Coates, Margo Mountjoy, Jamie Burr
OBJECTIVE: To assess the incidence of iron deficiency (ID), and iron deficient anemia (IDA) within a cohort of highly trained runners and triathletes, and to examine the association of oral iron supplementation history with serum ferritin (sFe) and hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of routine blood test data taken from 2009 to 2015 from (n = 38) elite level runners and triathletes between the ages of 21 to 36 years. Oral iron supplement intake was assessed through a questionnaire...
September 5, 2016: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27570626/an-empirical-study-of-race-times-in-recreational-endurance-runners
#12
Andrew J Vickers, Emily A Vertosick
BACKGROUND: Studies of endurance running have typically involved elite athletes, small sample sizes and measures that require special expertise or equipment. METHODS: We examined factors associated with race performance and explored methods for race time prediction using information routinely available to a recreational runner. An Internet survey was used to collect data from recreational endurance runners (N = 2303). The cohort was split 2:1 into a training set and validation set to create models to predict race time...
2016: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27486014/10-weeks-of-heavy-strength-training-improves-performance-related-measurements-in-elite-cyclists
#13
Bent R Rønnestad, Joar Hansen, Håvard Nygaard
Elite cyclists have often a limited period of time available during their short preparation phase to focus on development of maximal strength; therefore, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of 10-week heavy strength training on lean lower-body mass, leg strength, determinants of cycling performance and cycling performance in elite cyclists. Twelve cyclists performed heavy strength training and normal endurance training (E&S) while 8 other cyclists performed normal endurance training only (E)...
August 2, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27476525/short-term-performance-peaking-in-an-elite-cross-country-mountain-biker
#14
Bent R Rønnestad, Joar Hansen, Geir Vegge, Iñigo Mujika
Endurance athletes usually achieve performance peaks with 2-4 weeks of overload training followed by 1-3weeks of tapering. With a tight competition schedule, this may not be appropriate. This case investigates the effect of a 7-day overload period including daily high-intensity aerobic training followed by a 5-day step taper between two competitions in an elite cross-country mountain biker. Pre-test peak oxygen consumption was 89 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1), peak aerobic power 6.8 W·kg(-1), power output at 2 mmol·L(-1) blood lactate concentration 3...
August 1, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27430501/ketone-bodies-and-exercise-performance-the-next-magic-bullet-or-merely-hype
#15
Philippe J M Pinckaers, Tyler A Churchward-Venne, David Bailey, Luc J C van Loon
Elite athletes and coaches are in a constant search for training methods and nutritional strategies to support training and recovery efforts that may ultimately maximize athletes' performance. Recently, there has been a re-emerging interest in the role of ketone bodies in exercise metabolism, with considerable media speculation about ketone body supplements being routinely used by professional cyclists. Ketone bodies can serve as an important energy substrate under certain conditions, such as starvation, and can modulate carbohydrate and lipid metabolism...
July 18, 2016: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27408632/endurance-training-is-it-bad-for%C3%A2-you
#16
REVIEW
Giuseppe Morici, Claudia I Gruttad'Auria, Pierpaolo Baiamonte, Emilia Mazzuca, Alessandra Castrogiovanni, Maria R Bonsignore
To illustrate the characteristics of endurance exercise training and its positive effects on health.To provide an overview on the effects of endurance training on airway cells and bronchial reactivity.To summarise the current knowledge on respiratory health problems in elite athletes. Endurance exercise training exerts many positive effects on health, including improved metabol-ism, reduction of cardiovascular risk, and reduced all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Intense endurance exercise causes mild epithelial injury and inflammation in the airways, but does not appear to exert detrimental effects on respiratory health or bronchial reactivity in recreational/non-elite athletes...
June 2016: Breathe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27399822/nutrition-and-supplements-for-elite-open-weight-rowing
#17
Susan Boegman, Christine E Dziedzic
Competitive rowing events are raced over 2,000 m requiring athletes to have highly developed aerobic and anaerobic systems. Elite rowers therefore undertake training sessions focused on lactate tolerance, strength and power as well as aerobic and anaerobic capacity development, that can amount to a 24-h training week. The training stimuli and consequent metabolic demands of each session in a rowing training program differ depending on type, length, and intensity. Nutrition guidelines for endurance- and power-based sports should be drawn upon; however, individualized and flexible nutrition plans are critical to successfully meet the daily, weekly, and cyclic nutrient requirements of a rower...
July 2016: Current Sports Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27367265/optimizing-sleep-to-maximize-performance-implications-and-recommendations-for-elite-athletes
#18
REVIEW
N S Simpson, E L Gibbs, G O Matheson
Despite a growing body of literature demonstrating a positive relationship between sleep and optimal performance, athletes often have low sleep quality and quantity. Insufficient sleep among athletes may be due to scheduling constraints and the low priority of sleep relative to other training demands, as well as a lack of awareness of the role of sleep in optimizing athletic performance. Domains of athletic performance (e.g., speed and endurance), neurocognitive function (e.g., attention and memory), and physical health (e...
July 1, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27343108/hemoglobin-mass-and-aerobic-performance-at-moderate-altitude-in-elite-athletes
#19
Jon Peter Wehrlin, Bernard Marti, Jostein Hallén
Fore more than a decade, the live high-train low (LHTL) approach, developed by Levine and Stray-Gundersen, has been widely used by elite endurance athletes. Originally, it was pointed out, that by living at moderate altitude, athletes should benefit from an increased red cell volume (RCV) and hemoglobin mass (Hbmass), while the training at low altitudes should prevent the disadvantage of reduced training intensity at moderate altitude. VO2max is reduced linearly by about 6-8 % per 1000 m increasing altitude in elite athletes from sea level to 3000 m, with corresponding higher relative training intensities for the same absolute work load...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27334280/factors-that-influence-the-performance-of-elite-sprint-cross-country-skiers
#20
REVIEW
Kim Hébert-Losier, Christoph Zinner, Simon Platt, Thomas Stöggl, Hans-Christer Holmberg
BACKGROUND: Sprint events in cross-country skiing are unique not only with respect to their length (0.8-1.8 km), but also in involving four high-intensity heats of ~3 min in duration, separated by a relatively short recovery period (15-60 min). OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to systematically review the scientific literature to identify factors related to the performance of elite sprint cross-country skiers. METHODS: Four electronic databases were searched using relevant medical subject headings and keywords, as were reference lists, relevant journals, and key authors in the field...
February 2017: Sports Medicine
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