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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918666/quantification-of-training-and-competition-loads-in-endurance-sports-methods-and-applications
#1
Iñigo Mujika
Training quantification is basic to evaluate an endurance athlete's responses to the training loads, ensure adequate stress/recovery balance and determine the relationship between training and performance. Quantifying both external and internal workload is important, because the external workload does not measure the biological stress imposed by the exercise sessions. Generally used quantification methods include retrospective questionnaires, diaries, direct observation and physiological monitoring, often based on the measurement of oxygen uptake, heart rate and blood lactate concentration...
December 5, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803627/muscle-contraction-velocity-a-suitable-approach-to-analyze-the-functional-adaptations-in-elite-soccer-players
#2
Irineu Loturco, Lucas A Pereira, Ronaldo Kobal, Katia Kitamura, Rodrigo Ramírez-Campillo, Vinicius Zanetti, Cesar C Cal Abad, Fabio Y Nakamura
Tensiomyography (TMG) has been used as a simple and non-invasive tool to assess the mechanical properties of skeletal muscles. The TMG-derived velocity of contraction (Vc), which can be calculated from the ratio between maximal radial displacement and the sum of contraction time and delay time, has been proposed for evaluating athletes. However, its sensitivity to training effects and possible relation with changes in soccer players' neuromuscular performance have not yet been addressed. To test this possibility, twenty-two male Brazilian elite soccer players were assessed using TMG-derived Vc, unloaded squat jump, countermovement jump and drop jump at 45 cm, loaded jump squat and linear (20 m) and change of direction (COD) sprint tests, prior to and after an 8-week period, between two consecutive official tournaments, during which the concurrency between endurance and strength-power training commonly impairs neuromuscular capacities...
September 2016: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747844/running-economy-measurement-norms-and-determining-factors
#3
Kyle R Barnes, Andrew E Kilding
Running economy (RE) is considered an important physiological measure for endurance athletes, especially distance runners. This review considers 1) how RE is defined and measured and 2) physiological and biomechanical factors that determine or influence RE. It is difficult to accurately ascertain what is good, average, and poor RE between athletes and studies due to variation in protocols, gas-analysis systems, and data averaging techniques. However, representative RE values for different caliber of male and female runners can be identified from existing literature with mostly clear delineations in oxygen uptake across a range of speeds in moderately and highly trained and elite runners...
December 2015: Sports Medicine—Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27618339/the-effect-of-maximal-explosive-strength-training-on-performance-indicators-in-cyclists
#4
Kris Beattie, Brian P Carson, Mark Lyons, Ian C Kenny
Cycling economy (CE), power at maximal oxygen uptake (WV̇O2max) and anaerobic function (i.e. sprinting ability) are considered to be the best physiological performance indicators in elite road cyclists. In addition to cardiovascular function, these physiological indicators are partly dictated by neuromuscular factors. One technique to improve neuromuscular function in athletes is through strength training. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a 20 week maximal- and explosive-strength training intervention on strength (maximal- , explosive-strength & bike-specific explosive-strength), WV̇O2max, CE and body composition (body mass, fat & lean mass) in cyclists...
September 6, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27606953/incidence-of-iron-deficiency-and-iron-deficient-anemia-in-elite-runners-and-triathletes
#5
Alexandra Coates, Margo Mountjoy, Jamie Burr
OBJECTIVE: To assess the incidence of iron deficiency (ID), and iron deficient anemia (IDA) within a cohort of highly trained runners and triathletes, and to examine the association of oral iron supplementation history with serum ferritin (sFe) and hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of routine blood test data taken from 2009 to 2015 from (n = 38) elite level runners and triathletes between the ages of 21 to 36 years. Oral iron supplement intake was assessed through a questionnaire...
September 5, 2016: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27570626/an-empirical-study-of-race-times-in-recreational-endurance-runners
#6
Andrew J Vickers, Emily A Vertosick
BACKGROUND: Studies of endurance running have typically involved elite athletes, small sample sizes and measures that require special expertise or equipment. METHODS: We examined factors associated with race performance and explored methods for race time prediction using information routinely available to a recreational runner. An Internet survey was used to collect data from recreational endurance runners (N = 2303). The cohort was split 2:1 into a training set and validation set to create models to predict race time...
2016: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27486014/10-weeks-of-heavy-strength-training-improves-performance-related-measurements-in-elite-cyclists
#7
Bent R Rønnestad, Joar Hansen, Håvard Nygaard
Elite cyclists have often a limited period of time available during their short preparation phase to focus on development of maximal strength; therefore, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of 10-week heavy strength training on lean lower-body mass, leg strength, determinants of cycling performance and cycling performance in elite cyclists. Twelve cyclists performed heavy strength training and normal endurance training (E&S) while 8 other cyclists performed normal endurance training only (E)...
August 2, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27476525/short-term-performance-peaking-in-an-elite-cross-country-mountain-biker
#8
Bent R Rønnestad, Joar Hansen, Geir Vegge, Iñigo Mujika
Endurance athletes usually achieve performance peaks with 2-4 weeks of overload training followed by 1-3weeks of tapering. With a tight competition schedule, this may not be appropriate. This case investigates the effect of a 7-day overload period including daily high-intensity aerobic training followed by a 5-day step taper between two competitions in an elite cross-country mountain biker. Pre-test peak oxygen consumption was 89 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1), peak aerobic power 6.8 W·kg(-1), power output at 2 mmol·L(-1) blood lactate concentration 3...
August 1, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27430501/ketone-bodies-and-exercise-performance-the-next-magic-bullet-or-merely-hype
#9
Philippe J M Pinckaers, Tyler A Churchward-Venne, David Bailey, Luc J C van Loon
Elite athletes and coaches are in a constant search for training methods and nutritional strategies to support training and recovery efforts that may ultimately maximize athletes' performance. Recently, there has been a re-emerging interest in the role of ketone bodies in exercise metabolism, with considerable media speculation about ketone body supplements being routinely used by professional cyclists. Ketone bodies can serve as an important energy substrate under certain conditions, such as starvation, and can modulate carbohydrate and lipid metabolism...
July 18, 2016: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27408632/endurance-training-is-it-bad-for%C3%A2-you
#10
REVIEW
Giuseppe Morici, Claudia I Gruttad'Auria, Pierpaolo Baiamonte, Emilia Mazzuca, Alessandra Castrogiovanni, Maria R Bonsignore
To illustrate the characteristics of endurance exercise training and its positive effects on health.To provide an overview on the effects of endurance training on airway cells and bronchial reactivity.To summarise the current knowledge on respiratory health problems in elite athletes. Endurance exercise training exerts many positive effects on health, including improved metabol-ism, reduction of cardiovascular risk, and reduced all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Intense endurance exercise causes mild epithelial injury and inflammation in the airways, but does not appear to exert detrimental effects on respiratory health or bronchial reactivity in recreational/non-elite athletes...
June 2016: Breathe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27399822/nutrition-and-supplements-for-elite-open-weight-rowing
#11
Susan Boegman, Christine E Dziedzic
Competitive rowing events are raced over 2,000 m requiring athletes to have highly developed aerobic and anaerobic systems. Elite rowers therefore undertake training sessions focused on lactate tolerance, strength and power as well as aerobic and anaerobic capacity development, that can amount to a 24-h training week. The training stimuli and consequent metabolic demands of each session in a rowing training program differ depending on type, length, and intensity. Nutrition guidelines for endurance- and power-based sports should be drawn upon; however, individualized and flexible nutrition plans are critical to successfully meet the daily, weekly, and cyclic nutrient requirements of a rower...
July 2016: Current Sports Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27367265/optimizing-sleep-to-maximize-performance-implications-and-recommendations-for-elite-athletes
#12
N S Simpson, E L Gibbs, G O Matheson
Despite a growing body of literature demonstrating a positive relationship between sleep and optimal performance, athletes often have low sleep quality and quantity. Insufficient sleep among athletes may be due to scheduling constraints and the low priority of sleep relative to other training demands, as well as a lack of awareness of the role of sleep in optimizing athletic performance. Domains of athletic performance (e.g., speed and endurance), neurocognitive function (e.g., attention and memory), and physical health (e...
July 1, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27343108/hemoglobin-mass-and-aerobic-performance-at-moderate-altitude-in-elite-athletes
#13
Jon Peter Wehrlin, Bernard Marti, Jostein Hallén
Fore more than a decade, the live high-train low (LHTL) approach, developed by Levine and Stray-Gundersen, has been widely used by elite endurance athletes. Originally, it was pointed out, that by living at moderate altitude, athletes should benefit from an increased red cell volume (RCV) and hemoglobin mass (Hbmass), while the training at low altitudes should prevent the disadvantage of reduced training intensity at moderate altitude. VO2max is reduced linearly by about 6-8 % per 1000 m increasing altitude in elite athletes from sea level to 3000 m, with corresponding higher relative training intensities for the same absolute work load...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27334280/factors-that-influence-the-performance-of-elite-sprint-cross-country-skiers
#14
Kim Hébert-Losier, Christoph Zinner, Simon Platt, Thomas Stöggl, Hans-Christer Holmberg
BACKGROUND: Sprint events in cross-country skiing are unique not only with respect to their length (0.8-1.8 km), but also in involving four high-intensity heats of ~3 min in duration, separated by a relatively short recovery period (15-60 min). OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to systematically review the scientific literature to identify factors related to the performance of elite sprint cross-country skiers. METHODS: Four electronic databases were searched using relevant medical subject headings and keywords, as were reference lists, relevant journals, and key authors in the field...
June 22, 2016: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27274679/effect-of-wearing-the-elevation-training-mask-on-aerobic-capacity-lung-function-and-hematological-variables
#15
John P Porcari, Lauren Probst, Karlei Forrester, Scott Doberstein, Carl Foster, Maria L Cress, Katharina Schmidt
Altitude training and respiratory muscle training (RMT) have been reported to improve performance in elite and well-trained athletes. Several devices (altitude and RMT) have been developed to help athletes gain the competitive edge. The Elevation Training Mask 2.0 (ETM) purportedly simulates altitude training and has been suggested to increase aerobic capacity (VO2max), endurance performance, and lung function. Twenty-four moderately trained subjects completed 6 weeks of high-intensity cycle ergometer training...
June 2016: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27255506/forearm-muscle-oxidative-capacity-index-predicts-sport-rock-climbing-performance
#16
Simon Fryer, Lee Stoner, K Stone, D Giles, Joakim Sveen, Inma Garrido, Vanesa España-Romero
UNLABELLED: Rock-climbing performance is largely dependent on the endurance of the forearm flexors. Recently, it was reported that forearm flexor endurance in elite climbers is independent of the ability to regulate conduit artery (brachial) blood flow, suggesting that endurance is not primarily dependent on the ability of the brachial artery to deliver oxygen, but rather the ability of the muscle to perfuse and use oxygen, i.e., skeletal muscle oxidative capacity. PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to determine whether an index of oxidative capacity in the flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) predicts the best sport climbing red-point grade within the last 6 months...
August 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27232557/prevalence-of-electrocardiographic-abnormalities-in-young-elite-japanese-athletes
#17
Kazuto Omiya, Tomomi Suzuki, Norio Suzuki, Takanobu Mitarai, Manabu Takai, Emi Nakano, Hisao Matsuda, Haruki Musha
BACKGROUND: The question as to whether or not electrocardiogram (ECG) evaluations should be performed in all athletes is still controversial. So, in this study, the prevalence of electrocardiographic abnormalities was evaluated in young, elite Japanese athletes. METHODS: Subjects included 174 male and 101 female Japanese athletes (mean age, 21.5 years). Sports activities included baseball, basketball, diving, fencing, gymnastics, judo, rhythmic gymnastics, soccer, swimming, tennis, track and field, volleyball, and water polo...
May 27, 2016: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27207600/left-ventricular-function-and-physiological-performance-in-female-ironman-athletes-and-female-police-officers
#18
Roman Leischik, Peter Foshag, Markus Strauss, Norman Spelsberg
Data about physiological performance of female ironman triathletes are rare. However, some studies have reported this endurance sport may cause damage to the right or left ventricles, even in females. The goal of this study was to assess prospectively the right/left ventricular function and physiological performance in female athletes (middle- and long ironman distance) and to compare the findings to female federal police officers. A total of 33 female triathletes and 37 female police officers were examined using spiro-ergometry and echocardiography...
June 2016: Perceptual and Motor Skills
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27131190/how-do-elite-endurance-runners-alter-movements-of-the-spine-and-pelvis-as-running-speed-increases
#19
Stephen J Preece, Duncan Mason, Christopher Bramah
Elite endurance runners are characterised by their performance ability and higher running economy. However, there is relatively little research aimed at identifying the biomechanical characteristics of this group. This study aimed to understand how motions of the pelvis, lumbar spine and thorax change with speed in a cohort of elite endurance runners (n=14) and a cohort of recreational runners (n=14). Kinematic data were collected during over ground running at four speeds ranging from 3.3 to 5.6ms(-1) and a linear mixed model used to understand the effect of speed on both range of motion and mean sagittal inclination...
May 2016: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27111406/-predictors-of-average-speed-in-orienteering-the-number-of%C3%A2-controls-is-crucial
#20
B A Gasser
The aim of this study was to compare differences in average speed in the three competition forms orienteering sprint, long distance and hunt start, and to identify reasons for speed differences. In contrast to classic running disciplines, average speed increased with longer distances, which is probably due to technical requirements or the number of controls, which decreased proportionally with longer distances. These analyses emphasise the importance of map-reading in the area of controls since these parts of the races seem to bear a great deal of potential to optimize running times, thereby enabling runners to achieve their maximum performance levels...
June 2016: Sportverletzung Sportschaden: Organ der Gesellschaft Für Orthopädisch-Traumatologische Sportmedizin
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