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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230913/an-unexpected-finding-in-sudep-involving-a-child-focal-myocardial-infarct-adjacent-to-bundle-of-his
#1
Jadee L Neff, Peter T Lin
Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is a nontraumatic, nondrowning death of an individual with epilepsy in which an autopsy with appropriate ancillary studies does not identify a cause of death. The mechanism of death in SUDEP is unknown, but is thought to involve cardiac and/or respiratory mechanisms. Research in SUDEP is hindered by a lack of consensus regarding required components of a death investigation before a cause of death may be certified as SUDEP. Histopathologic examination of the cardiac conduction system is not routinely performed in SUDEP death investigations...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230898/manifestations-and-medicolegal-significance-of-loeys-dietz-syndrome
#2
Roger W Byard
Loeys-Dietz syndrome is a recently described autosomal dominant disorder with underlying vasculopathy characterized by aortic and other vascular aneurysmal dissection/rupture. A 61-year-old man is reported who died suddenly and unexpectedly and at autopsy was found to have a ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm. Additional findings included dolichostenomelia, high-arched palate, and pectus excavatum. There was a strong family history of Loeys-Dietz syndrome, although the decedent had never been tested. Death was, therefore, due to a ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm in a case of probable Loeys-Dietz syndrome...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229066/a-case-of-influenza-a-h3n2-complicated-by-community-acquired-pneumonia-and-death-in-a-young-healthy-adult-during-the-2013-2014-season
#3
Lauren F Collins, Benjamin D Anderson, Gregory C Gray
With multiple available vaccines and antivirals, seasonal influenza A is typically a self-limited acutely debilitating illness in young healthy adults. Here, we illustrate unexpected morbidity and mortality in a relatively young and healthy patient seen at a large tertiary care academic medical center for seasonal influenza A (H3N2) complicated by community-acquired pneumonia, hypoxic respiratory failure, septic shock, and death.
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228502/the-sudden-death-in-the-young-case-registry-collaborating-to-understand-and-reduce-mortality
#4
Kristin M Burns, Lauren Bienemann, Lena Camperlengo, Carri Cottengim, Theresa M Covington, Heather Dykstra, Meghan Faulkner, Rosemarie Kobau, Alexa B Erck Lambert, Heather MacLeod, Sharyn E Parks, Ellen Rosenberg, Mark W Russell, Carrie K Shapiro-Mendoza, Esther Shaw, Niu Tian, Vicky Whittemore, Jonathan R Kaltman
Knowledge gaps persist about the incidence of and risk factors for sudden death in the young (SDY). The SDY Case Registry is a collaborative effort between the National Institutes of Health, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the Michigan Public Health Institute. Its goals are to: (1) describe the incidence of SDY in the United States by using population-based surveillance; (2) compile data from SDY cases to create a resource of information and DNA samples for research; (3) encourage standardized approaches to investigation, autopsy, and categorization of SDY cases; (4) develop partnerships between local, state, and federal stakeholders toward a common goal of understanding and preventing SDY; and (5) support families who have lost loved ones to SDY by providing resources on bereavement and medical evaluation of surviving family members...
February 22, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226663/predicting-seizures-in-untreated-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-using-point-process-nonlinear-models-of-heartbeat-dynamics
#5
G Valenza, A Romigi, L Citi, F Placidi, F Izzi, M Albanese, E P Scilingo, M G Marciani, A Duggento, M Guerrisi, N Toschi, R Barbieri, G Valenza, A Romigi, L Citi, F Placidi, F Izzi, M Albanese, E P Scilingo, M G Marciani, A Duggento, M Guerrisi, N Toschi, R Barbieri, M Guerrisi, F Izzi, F Placidi, A Romigi, E P Scilingo, A Duggento, M Albanese, N Toschi, M G Marciani, R Barbieri, G Valenza, L Citi
Symptoms of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) are frequently associated with autonomic dysregulation, whose underlying biological processes are thought to strongly contribute to sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP). While abnormal cardiovascular patterns commonly occur during ictal events, putative patterns of autonomic cardiac effects during pre-ictal (PRE) periods (i.e. periods preceding seizures) are still unknown. In this study, we investigated TLE-related heart rate variability (HRV) through instantaneous, nonlinear estimates of cardiovascular oscillations during inter-ictal (INT) and PRE periods...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220899/group-a-streptococcal-m1-protein-provides-resistance-against-the-antimicrobial-activity-of-histones
#6
Simon Döhrmann, Christopher N LaRock, Ericka L Anderson, Jason N Cole, Brinda Ryali, Chelsea Stewart, Poochit Nonejuie, Joe Pogliano, Ross Corriden, Partho Ghosh, Victor Nizet
Histones are essential elements of chromatin structure and gene regulation in eukaryotes. An unexpected attribute of these nuclear proteins is their antimicrobial activity. A framework for histone release and function in host defense in vivo was revealed with the discovery of neutrophil extracellular traps, a specialized cell death process in which DNA-based structures containing histones are extruded to ensnare and kill bacteria. Investigating the susceptibility of various Gram-positive pathogens to histones, we found high-level resistance by one leading human pathogen, group A Streptococcus (GAS)...
February 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218713/transgene-expression-and-host-cell-responses-to-replication-defective-single-cycle-and-replication-competent-adenovirus-vectors
#7
Catherine M Crosby, Michael A Barry
Most adenovirus (Ad) vectors are E1 gene deleted replication defective (RD-Ad) vectors that deliver one transgene to the cell and all expression is based on that one gene. In contrast, E1-intact replication-competent Ad (RC-Ad) vectors replicate their DNA and their transgenes up to 10,000-fold, amplifying transgene expression markedly higher than RD-Ad vectors. While RC-Ad are more potent, they run the real risk of causing adenovirus infections in vector recipients and those that administer them. To gain the benefits of transgene amplification, but avoid the risk of Ad infections, we developed "single cycle" Ad (SC-Ad) vectors...
February 18, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218217/efficacy-and-safety-of-the-watchman-left-atrial-appendage-system-for-stroke-prevention-in-chinese-patients-with-nonvalvular-atrial-fibrillation-a-single-center-prospective-observational-study
#8
Wei-Ping Huang, Yong-Hua Zhang, Lei He, Xi Su, Xin-Wei Yang, Zai-Xiong Guo
BACKGROUND: In patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF), embolic stroke is thought to be associated with left atrial appendage (LAA) thrombi. The WATCHMAN LAA Occlusion Device has been shown to be noninferior to conventional oral anticoagulation with warfarin for stroke prevention in patients with NVAF. This study aimed to evaluate the procedural feasibility, safety and 12-month outcomes of the WATCHMAN LAA Occlusion Device in NVAF patients with high risk for stroke in China...
2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218059/sudden-unexpected-death-in-epilepsy-sudep-what-every-neurologist-should-know
#9
Rohit Shankar, Elizabeth J Donner, Brendan McLean, Lina Nashef, Torbjörn Tomson
This review aims to empower general neurologists to provide better informed person-centred advice on sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) to people with epilepsy in order to help keep them safe. Past and present evidence is consolidated in order to inform readers about SUDEP, and up-to-date insights into the epidemiology, diagnostic classification, pathophysiology, risk factors, influence of co-morbidity, and importance of sensitive person-centred communication are outlined. This review provides "fingertip" information to the practicing neurologist with regards to identifying and communicating risks for SUDEP and suggests practical measures for managing these risks in partnership with the patient...
February 16, 2017: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214712/epidemiological-study-of-mortality-in-epilepsy-in-a-spanish-population
#10
María Isabel Chamorro-Muñoz, Guillermina García-Martín, Francisco Pérez-Errazquin, Manuel Romero-Acebal, Antonio García-Rodríguez, Mario Gutiérrez-Bedmar
PURPOSE: Studies concerning mortality in epilepsy have been performed primarily in Northern-Central Europe and US. The aim of this study was to provide information about mortality in people with epilepsy in Southern European countries. METHOD: We studied a Spanish prevalence and incidence cohort of 2309 patients aged ≥14 years with epilepsy who were treated in an outpatient epilepsy clinic between 2000 and 2013. The deceased were identified through Civil Registries...
February 8, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203222/unexpected-death-of-a-child-with-complex-febrile-seizures-pathophysiology-similar-to-sudden-unexpected-death-in-epilepsy
#11
Brian J Dlouhy, Michael A Ciliberto, Christina L Cifra, Patricia A Kirby, Devin L Shrock, Marcus Nashelsky, George B Richerson
Febrile seizures are usually considered relatively benign. Although some cases of sudden unexplained death in childhood have a history of febrile seizures, no documented case of febrile seizure-induced death has been reported. Here, we describe a child with complex febrile seizures who died suddenly and unexpectedly after a suspected seizure while in bed at night during the beginning phases of sleep. She was resuscitated and pronounced brain dead 2 days later at our regional medical center. Autopsy revealed multiorgan effects of hypoperfusion and did not reveal an underlying (precipitating) disease, injury, or toxicological cause of death...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202427/the-insula-lobe-and-sudden-unexpected-death-in-epilepsy-a-hypothesis
#12
Jia Li, Qianwen Ming, Weihong Lin
Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is a major cause of death in patients with refractory epilepsy, particularly those with chronic epilepsy. The physiopathological mechanisms underlying SUDEP have not been elucidated. Autonomic dysregulation of cardiac or respiratory function is thought to underlie SUDEP. Here, we present a summary of available evidence on the involvement of the insular lobe in the regulation of cardiorespiratory function. Ictal discharge that originates in the cortex can, primarily or secondarily, involve the insula lobe through epileptogenic signal networks, leading to cardiorespiratory dysfunction, central apnoea, arrhythmias, and sudden death in patients with epilepsy...
February 15, 2017: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193882/neuronal-hyperexcitability-in-a-mouse-model-of-scn8a-epileptic-encephalopathy
#13
Luis F Lopez-Santiago, Yukun Yuan, Jacy L Wagnon, Jacob M Hull, Chad R Frasier, Heather A O'Malley, Miriam H Meisler, Lori L Isom
Patients with early infantile epileptic encephalopathy (EIEE) experience severe seizures and cognitive impairment and are at increased risk for sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP). EIEE13 [Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) # 614558] is caused by de novo missense mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel gene SCN8A Here, we investigated the neuronal phenotype of a mouse model expressing the gain-of-function SCN8A patient mutation, p.Asn1768Asp (Nav1.6-N1768D). Our results revealed regional and neuronal subtype specificity in the effects of the N1768D mutation...
February 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188806/role-of-ccl20-mediated-immune-cell-recruitment-in-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-mediated-trail-resistance-of-pancreatic-cancer
#14
Claudia Geismann, Frauke Grohmann, Anita Dreher, Robert Häsler, Philip Rosenstiel, Karen Legler, Charlotte Hauser, Jan Hendrik Egberts, Bence Sipos, Stefan Schreiber, Andreas Linkermann, Zonera Hassan, Günter Schneider, Heiner Schäfer, Alexander Arlt
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) represents one of the deadliest cancers. From a clinical view, the transcription factor NF-κB is of particular importance, since this pathway confers apoptosis resistance and limits drug efficacy. Whereas the role of the most abundant NF-κB subunit p65/RelA in therapeutic resistance is well documented, only little knowledge of the RelA downstream targets and their functional relevance in TRAIL mediated apoptosis in PDAC is available. In the present study TRAIL resistant and sensitive PDAC cell lines were analyzed for differentially expressed RelA target genes, to define RelA downstream targets mediating TRAIL resistance...
February 7, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188387/quercetin-induces-protective-autophagy-and-apoptosis-through-er-stress-via-the-p-stat3-bcl-2-axis-in-ovarian-cancer
#15
Y Liu, W Gong, Z Y Yang, X S Zhou, C Gong, T R Zhang, X Wei, D Ma, F Ye, Q L Gao
Quercetin (3,3',4',5,7-pentahydroxyflavone, Qu) is a promising cancer chemo-preventive agent for various cancers because it inhibits disease progression and promotes apoptotic cell death. In our previous study, we demonstrated that Qu could evoke ER stress to enhance drug cytotoxicity in ovarian cancer (OC). However, Qu-induced ER stress in OC is still poorly understood. Here, we demonstrated that Qu evoked ER stress to involve in mitochondria apoptosis pathway via the p-STAT3/Bcl-2 axis in OC cell lines and in primary OC cells...
February 10, 2017: Apoptosis: An International Journal on Programmed Cell Death
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187864/relation-of-household-income-to-incidence-of-sudden-unexpected-death-in-wake-county-north-carolina
#16
Louisa A Mounsey, Feng-Chang Lin, Irion Pursell, Golsa Joodi, Mary Elizabeth Lewis, Anthony Nwosu, Chani Hodonsky, Ross J Simpson, J Paul Mounsey
The incidence of out-of-hospital sudden unexpected death (OHSUD) in a racially and socioeconomically diverse population has been inadequately studied. We collated all OHSUDs over a 24-month period among 18- to 64-year olds in Wake County, North Carolina, to investigate geographic and socioeconomic disparity in incidence of OHSUD. An electronic query of Wake County Emergency Medical Services (EMS) identified all EMS attended out-of-hospital deaths. After excluding trauma, expected deaths, and deaths occurring in non-free-living subjects, medical records and medical examiner's reports were reviewed by a committee of cardiologists to make the determination of OHSUD...
January 5, 2017: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185294/coexistence-of-subdural-hematoma-and-a-rare-cardiopathy-in-an-infant-etiological-and-french-medicolegal-discussion
#17
Lucile Tuchtan, Catherine Lebreton-Chakour, Barthélemy Tosello, Marjolaine Oger, Marie-Dominique Piercecchi-Marti, Christophe Bartoli
During legal proceedings following the unexpected death of an infant, the magistrate calls on an expert to clarify the causes of death and to decide on the course to be taken. A report was made following the death of a 7-month-old baby girl after recovery from cardiac arrest when investigations of the cause revealed a subdural hematoma (SDH). We discuss the interconnection of these two entities and their role in the lethal process. In this infant, two distinct lesions with medicolegal implications were simultaneously present: on the one hand histiocytoid cardiopathy, and on the other hand SDH, which could result from ill-treatment...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174201/safety-of-second-dose-single-antigen-varicella-vaccine
#18
John R Su, Zanie Leroy, Paige W Lewis, Penina Haber, Mona Marin, Jessica Leung, Emily Jane Woo, Tom T Shimabukuro
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: In 2006, routine 2-dose varicella vaccination for children was recommended to improve control of varicella. We assessed the safety of second-dose varicella vaccination. METHODS: We identified second-dose single-antigen varicella vaccine reports in the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System during 2006 to 2014 among children aged 4 to 18 years. We analyzed reports by age group (4-6 and 7-18 years), sex, serious or nonserious status, most common adverse events (AEs), and whether other vaccines were administered concomitantly with varicella vaccine...
February 7, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173849/rigour-and-rapport-a-qualitative-study-of-parents-and-professionals-experiences-of-joint-agency-infant-death-investigation
#19
Joanna Garstang, Frances Griffiths, Peter Sidebotham
BACKGROUND: In many countries there are now detailed Child Death Review (CDR) processes following unexpected child deaths. CDR can lead to a fuller understanding of the causes for each child's death but this potentially intrusive process may increase the distress of bereaved families. In England, a joint agency approach (JAA) is used where police, healthcare and social services investigate sudden child deaths together and a key part of this is the joint home visit (JHV) where specialist police and paediatricians visit the home with the parents to view the scene of death...
February 7, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168325/macrophages-in-vascular-inflammation-and-atherosclerosis
#20
REVIEW
Clement Cochain, Alma Zernecke
Atherosclerosis is characterized by lipid accumulation and chronic inflammation of the arterial wall, and its main complications-myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke-together constitute the first cause of death worldwide. Accumulation of lipid-laden macrophage foam cells in the intima of inflamed arteries has long been recognized as a hallmark of atherosclerosis. However, in recent years, an unexpected complexity in the mechanisms of macrophage accumulation in lesions, in the protective and pathogenic functions performed by macrophages and how they are regulated has been uncovered...
February 6, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
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