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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910962/baricitinib-jak-inhibition-for-rheumatoid-arthritis
#1
J Gras
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), a chronic autoimmune inflammatory disease characterized by inflammation and joint destruction, is associated with pain, progressive disability, systemic comorbidities and early death. Conventional disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) and biological DMARDs (bDMARDs) have been able to achieve remission or a very low disease activity status for RA. Nevertheless, since many patients do not reach a sufficient response with DMARDs or present with unacceptable side effects, new therapies are needed...
October 2016: Drugs of Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906967/platinum-ii-iodido-complexes-of-7-azaindoles-with-significant-antiproliferative-effects-an-old-story-revisited-with-unexpected-outcomes
#2
Pavel Štarha, Ján Vančo, Zdeněk Trávníček, Jan Hošek, Jarmila Klusáková, Zdeněk Dvořák
A series of platinum(II) diiodido complexes containing 7-azaindole derivatives, having the general formula cis-[PtI2(naza)2] (1-8), has been prepared and thoroughly characterized, including X-ray structure analysis of cis-[PtI2(2Me4Claza)2]∙DMF (8∙DMF; 2Me4Claza = 2-methyl-4-chloro-7-azaindole). Complexes showed high in vitro cytotoxicity against nine human cancer cell lines (IC50 ranging from 0.4 to 12.8 μM), including the cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer cell line (A2780R; IC50 = 1.0-3.5 μM). The results of in vivo testing, using the L1210 lymphocytic leukaemia model, at the equimolar doses of Pt with cisplatin (2 mg/kg) confirmed the activity of complex 8 comparable to cisplatin...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905973/the-paradox-of-verbal-autopsy-in-cause-of-death-assignment-symptom-question-unreliability-but-predictive-accuracy
#3
Peter Serina, Ian Riley, Bernardo Hernandez, Abraham D Flaxman, Devarsetty Praveen, Veronica Tallo, Rohina Joshi, Diozele Sanvictores, Andrea Stewart, Meghan D Mooney, Christopher J L Murray, Alan D Lopez
BACKGROUND: We believe that it is important that governments understand the reliability of the mortality data which they have at their disposable to guide policy debates. In many instances, verbal autopsy (VA) will be the only source of mortality data for populations, yet little is known about how the accuracy of VA diagnoses is affected by the reliability of the symptom responses. We previously described the effect of the duration of time between death and VA administration on VA validity...
October 18, 2016: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903766/sudden-unexpected-death-in-epilepsy-measures-to-reduce-risk
#4
REVIEW
Brendan Mclean, Rohit Shankar, Jane Hanna, Caryn Jory, Craig Newman
This review looks at the strategies that may help to reduce the risk of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy beyond that of trying to achieve seizure cessation, which is not possible for up to 30% of patients with epilepsy. These strategies include seizure safety checklists, mobile phone technology, telehealth and various devices currently available or in development. We highlight interventions where there is evidence of benefit, and draw attention for the need both to involve patients with epilepsy in risk reduction and to improve communication with those at risk...
November 30, 2016: Practical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903667/experiences-of-noninvasive-ventilation-in-adults-with-hypercapnic-respiratory-failure-a-review-of-evidence
#5
REVIEW
Hamadziripi Ngandu, Nichola Gale, Jane B Hopkinson
Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) has been shown to be beneficial for patients with respiratory failure; however, many patients fail to tolerate it and require other interventions. The objective of this thematic synthesis was to describe the nature of NIV experiences in adults with hypercapnic respiratory failure. A systematic, computerised literature search of English-language databases was undertaken with no restriction on date of publication. A total of 99 papers was identified and screened for eligibility from databases including CINAHL, Medline and PsycINFO, and some were hand searched...
December 2016: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903458/cardiac-arrest-among-patients-with-infections-causes-clinical-practice-and-research-implications
#6
REVIEW
Davide Leoni, Jordi Rello
The incidence of sepsis is increasing, and the condition is now the leading cause of death in general intensive care units (ICUs). Our review failed to identify studies of the causes of cardiac arrest among infected patients, even though non-cardiac causes represent 15% of out-of-hospital cardiac arrests and though one-third of events have positive blood cultures. Sudden cardiac arrest is the result of local damage to the heart and of the impact of systemic and pulmonary conditions on cardiac performance, and its danger is underestimated...
November 26, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900758/99mtc-hmpao-perfusion-spect-ct-in-the-diagnosis-of-brain-death
#7
Thorsten Derlin, Desiree Weiberg
This report describes a case of brain death (BD) evaluated by 99mTc-hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO) single photon emission tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT). A 16-year-old boy with a history of rapid unexpected brain herniation due to pilocytic astrocytoma underwent 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT/CT for evaluation of brain death in the context of organ donation. Flow images demonstrated lack of blood flow to the brain, and delayed images showed absence of demonstrable radionuclide activity within the brain...
2016: Nuclear Medicine Review. Central & Eastern Europe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896388/-dying-and-death-in-societal-transformation
#8
Andreas Heller, Klaus Wegleitner
Dying and death in modern societies are subject to profound social, professional and cultural-religious changes. Secularization and a stronger differentiation of societies have led to a change in the way humans handle the dying process. Normatively ritualized collective behaviour has been replaced by an individual, subjectivized approach. In late modern societies there are many different views of what "successful" or "good" dying means.In the article this change is described by the following seven theses: 1...
November 28, 2016: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895044/polymorphisms-in-the-gnas-gene-as-predictors-of-ventricular-tachyarrhythmias-and-sudden-cardiac-death-results-from-the-discovery-trial-and-oregon-sudden-unexpected-death-study
#9
Heinrich Wieneke, Jesper Hastrup Svendsen, Jeffrey Lande, Sebastian Spencker, Juan Gabriel Martinez, Bernhard Strohmer, Lauri Toivonen, Hervé Le Marec, F Javier Garcia-Fernandez, Domenico Corrado, Adriana Huertas-Vazquez, Audrey Uy-Evanado, Carmen Rusinaru, Kyndaron Reinier, Csaba Foldesi, Wieslaw Hulak, Sumeet S Chugh, Winfried Siffert
BACKGROUND: Population-based studies suggest that genetic factors contribute to sudden cardiac death (SCD). METHODS AND RESULTS: In the first part of the present study (Diagnostic Data Influence on Disease Management and Relation of Genetic Polymorphisms to Ventricular Tachy-arrhythmia in ICD Patients [DISCOVERY] trial) Cox regression was done to determine if 7 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 3 genes coding G-protein subunits (GNB3, GNAQ, GNAS) were associated with ventricular tachyarrhythmia (VT) in 1145 patients receiving an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD)...
November 28, 2016: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894597/unexpected-cardiac-death-during-anaesthesia-of-a-young-rabbit-associated-with-fibro-fatty-replacement-of-the-right-ventricular-myocardium
#10
M Romanucci, S V P Defourny, M Massimini, V Valerii, A Arbuatti, V Giordano, L Bongiovanni, C Perrone, L Della Salda
A 6-month-old female pet rabbit was presented for routine ovariectomy. The pre-anaesthetic evaluation was unremarkable and no anaesthetic complications occurred during the procedure. However, at the end of the surgery, the rabbit suddenly showed acute bradycardia and cardiac death. Necropsy examination revealed marked dilation of the right ventricle, associated with diffuse thinning of the right ventricular free wall. Gross and histopathological findings were suggestive of a congenital dilated cardiomyopathy characterized by fibro-fatty replacement of the right ventricular myocardium...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Comparative Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893779/rapid-recovery-of-visual-function-associated-with-blue-cone-ablation-in-zebrafish
#11
Gordon F Hagerman, Nicole C L Noel, Sylvia Y Cao, Michèle G DuVal, A Phillip Oel, W Ted Allison
Hurdles in the treatment of retinal degeneration include managing the functional rewiring of surviving photoreceptors and integration of any newly added cells into the remaining second-order retinal neurons. Zebrafish are the premier genetic model for such questions, and we present two new transgenic lines allowing us to contrast vision loss and recovery following conditional ablation of specific cone types: UV or blue cones. The ablation of each cone type proved to be thorough (killing 80% of cells in each intended cone class), specific, and cell-autonomous...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891632/randomised-clinical-trial-efficacy-and-safety-of-vonoprazan-vs-lansoprazole-in-patients-with-gastric-or-duodenal-ulcers-results-from-two-phase-3-non-inferiority-randomised-controlled-trials
#12
H Miwa, N Uedo, J Watari, Y Mori, Y Sakurai, Y Takanami, A Nishimura, T Tatsumi, N Sakaki
BACKGROUND: Vonoprazan is a new potassium-competitive acid blocker for treatment of acid-related diseases. AIM: To conduct two randomised-controlled trials, to evaluate the non-inferiority of vonoprazan vs. lansoprazole, a proton pump inhibitor, for treatment of gastric ulcer (GU) or duodenal ulcer (DU). METHODS: Patients aged ≥20 years with ≥1 endoscopically-confirmed GU or DU (≥5 mm white coating) were randomised 1:1 using double-dummy blinding to receive lansoprazole (30 mg) or vonoprazan (20 mg) for 8 (GU study) or 6 (DU study) weeks...
November 27, 2016: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891566/sudden-death-associated-with-syndromic-craniosynostosis
#13
Alžbeta Ginelliová, Daniel Farkaš, Silvia Farkašová Iannaccone, Vlasta Vyhnálková, Peter Vasovčák
In this paper we report the autopsy findings of a 7 year old girl who presented with headache, nausea and repeated vomiting and died unexpectedly at home. She had no previous history of major illnesses and no history of epileptic seizures. External examination revealed ocular abnormalities. Internal examination demonstrated severe cerebral edema with tonsillar herniation, premature fusion of the cranial bone sutures, and prominent convolutional markings of the inner table of the skull. Death was due to severe cerebral edema complicating syndromic craniosynostosis...
November 28, 2016: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890095/an-unexpected-death-due-to-massive-ascites-and-a-giant-mucinous-ovarian-cystadenoma
#14
Masayuki Kashiwagi, Mio Takayama, Tomoko Sugimura, Aya Matsusue, Kenji Hara, Brian Waters, Shin-Ichi Kubo
A female in her thirties fell face down in her room. She was motionless when her sister found her. She was transported to the hospital by ambulance and was in a state of cardiopulmonary arrest on admission. She did not respond to resuscitation. Her abdomen had started to swell 3years before her death. An autopsy was performed to clarify the decedent's cause of death. She was 172cm tall and weighed 146kg. Her maximum abdominal girth was 172.1cm. A subcutaneous hemorrhage measuring 4.5cm in diameter was observed in the epigastric region...
November 2016: Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888514/the-burden-of-premature-mortality-of-epilepsy-in-high-income-countries-a-systematic-review-from-the-mortality-task-force-of-the-international-league-against-epilepsy
#15
REVIEW
David J Thurman, Giancarlo Logroscino, Ettore Beghi, W Allen Hauser, Dale C Hesdorffer, Charles R Newton, Fulvio Alexandre Scorza, Josemir W Sander, Torbjörn Tomson
Since previous reviews of epidemiologic studies of premature mortality among people with epilepsy were completed several years ago, a large body of new evidence about this subject has been published. We aim to update prior reviews of mortality in epilepsy and to reevaluate and quantify the risks, potential risk factors, and causes of these deaths. We systematically searched the Medline and Embase databases to identify published reports describing mortality risks in cohorts and populations of people with epilepsy...
November 26, 2016: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886630/the-role-of-antiepileptic-drugs-in-sudden-unexpected-death-in-epilepsy
#16
REVIEW
Dag Aurlien, Leif Gjerstad, Erik Taubøll
Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) primarily affects young adults and is the leading cause of death related directly to seizures. High frequency of generalized tonic-clonic seizures is the most important risk factor, and effective seizure protection is probably the most important measure to prevent these tragic deaths. For several years a potential role of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) has been discussed, but at present there is wide agreement that choice of AED therapy does not influence the risk. However, although it is well known that the efficacy and safety profiles of AEDs may differ significantly when used in the treatment of genetic epilepsy compared to symptomatic or cryptogenic epilepsy, this has generally been overlooked in epidemiologic studies of possible relationships between AEDs and SUDEP...
November 14, 2016: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885669/occult-adrenocortical-carcinoma-and-unexpected-early-childhood-death
#17
Mark Pilla, John Gilbert, Lynette Moore, Roger W Byard
A four-year-old previously well boy collapsed unexpectedly and was taken immediately to hospital, where he developed seizures and cardiogenic shock with lethal, rapidly progressing multi-organ failure. At autopsy, the height was >90th percentile and there were indications of early virilization. Internally, a friable tumor of the left adrenal gland was identified that had invaded the left renal vein and inferior vena cava. Histology revealed typical features of an adrenocortical carcinoma with aggregated trabeculae of cells containing abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm and large pleomorphic nuclei...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885637/the-glutamate-glutamine-cycle-in-epilepsy
#18
Tore Eid, Shaun E Gruenbaum, Roni Dhaher, Tih-Shih W Lee, Yun Zhou, Niels Christian Danbolt
Epilepsy is a complex, multifactorial disease characterized by spontaneous recurrent seizures and an increased incidence of comorbid conditions such as anxiety, depression, cognitive dysfunction, and sudden unexpected death. About 70 million people worldwide are estimated to suffer from epilepsy, and up to one-third of all people with epilepsy are expected to be refractory to current medications. Development of more effective and specific antiepileptic interventions is therefore requisite. Perturbations in the brain's glutamate-glutamine cycle, such as increased extracellular levels of glutamate, loss of astroglial glutamine synthetase, and changes in glutaminase and glutamate dehydrogenase, are frequently encountered in patients with epilepsy...
2016: Advances in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884797/breathing-abnormalities-in-animal-models-of-rett-syndrome-a-female-neurogenetic-disorder
#19
REVIEW
Chun Jiang, Ningren Cui, Weiwei Zhong, Christopher M Johnson, Yang Wu
A characteristic feature of Rett syndrome (RTT) is abnormal breathing accompanied by several other neurological and cognitive disorders. Since RTT rodent models became available, studies have begun shedding insight into the breathing abnormalities at behavioral, cellular and molecular levels. Defects are found in several groups of brainstem neurons involved in respiratory control, and potential neural mechanisms have been suggested. The findings in animal models are helpful in therapeutic strategies for people with RTT with respect to lowering sudden and unexpected death, preventing secondary developmental consequences, and improving the quality of lives...
November 21, 2016: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884411/celsior-versus-microplegia-analysis-of-myocardial-protection-in-elective-aortic-valve-replacement
#20
Jose López-Menéndez, Javier Miguelena, Carlos Morales, Carmen L Díaz, Francisco Callejo, Juan Carlos Llosa, Jacobo Silva
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have analyzed the efficacy of crystalloid cardioplegic solutions, but the use of Celsior (Genzyme Corp, Boston, MA) as a crystalloid cardioplegic solution has not been evaluated. METHODS: In this observational retrospective study, Celsior crystalloid solution was compared with an all-blood continuous myocardial protection (microplegia). The study included all patients who underwent elective aortic valve replacement operations in whom the myocardial protection was Celsior or microplegia...
November 21, 2016: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
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