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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932975/adaptations-of-prefrontal-brain-activity-executive-functions-and-gait-in-healthy-elderly-following-exergame-and-balance-training-a-randomized-controlled-study
#1
Alexandra Schättin, Rendel Arner, Federico Gennaro, Eling D de Bruin
During aging, the prefrontal cortex (PFC) undergoes age-dependent neuronal changes influencing cognitive and motor functions. Motor-learning interventions are hypothesized to ameliorate motor and cognitive deficits in older adults. Especially, video game-based physical exercise might have the potential to train motor in combination with cognitive abilities in older adults. The aim of this study was to compare conventional balance training with video game-based physical exercise, a so-called exergame, on the relative power (RP) of electroencephalographic (EEG) frequencies over the PFC, executive function (EF), and gait performance...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931188/measuring-moderate-intensity-walking-in-older-adults-using-the-actigraph-accelerometer
#2
Anthony Barnett, Daniel van den Hoek, David Barnett, Ester Cerin
BACKGROUND: Accelerometry is the method of choice for objectively assessing physical activity in older adults. Many studies have used an accelerometer count cut point corresponding to 3 metabolic equivalents (METs) derived in young adults during treadmill walking and running with a resting metabolic rate (RMR) assumed at 3.5 mL · kg(-1) · min(-1) (corresponding to 1 MET). RMR is lower in older adults; therefore, their 3 MET level occurs at a lower absolute energy expenditure making the cut point derived from young adults inappropriate for this population...
December 8, 2016: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927570/exercise-tolerance-in-children-with-early-onset-scoliosis-growing-rod-treatment-graduates
#3
Kelly A Jeans, Charles E Johnston, Wilshaw R Stevens, Dong-Phuong Tran
STUDY DESIGN: Prospectively enrolled early-onset scoliosis (EOS) patients undergoing growing rod treatment, who have had no surgery for >1 year and/or have received definitive fusion (growing rod "graduates"). OBJECTIVES: To assess oxygen consumption during exercise and determine if a diminished conventional pulmonary function test (PFT) correlates with metabolic, pulmonary, and cardiovascular measures during exercise. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Based on clinical impression and sequential PFT values, EOS patients who have undergone extensive treatment are thought to have limited capacity during exercise...
November 2016: Spine Deformity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924805/water-striders-adjust-leg-movement-speed-to-optimize-takeoff-velocity-for-their-morphology
#4
Eunjin Yang, Jae Hak Son, Sang-Im Lee, Piotr G Jablonski, Ho-Young Kim
Water striders are water-walking insects that can jump upwards from the water surface. Quick jumps allow striders to avoid sudden dangers such as predators' attacks, and therefore their jumping is expected to be shaped by natural selection for optimal performance. Related species with different morphological constraints could require different jumping mechanics to successfully avoid predation. Here we show that jumping striders tune their leg rotation speed to reach the maximum jumping speed that water surface allows...
December 7, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922836/a-novel-method-for-full-locomotion-compensation-of-an-untethered-walking-insect
#5
Shunsuke Shigaki, Shunpei Fukushima, Daisuke Kurabayashi, Takeshi Sakurai, Ryohei Kanzaki
In this study, we developed a novel unfixed-type experimental system that we call a '3-DOF servosphere.' This system comprises one sphere and three omniwheels that support the sphere. The measurement method is very simple. An experimental animal is placed on top of the sphere. The position and heading angle of the animal are observed by using a high-speed camera installed above the sphere. Because the system can rotate the sphere with three degrees of freedom (DOFs) independently, the position and heading angle at the origin can be maintained without fixing the body...
December 6, 2016: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919170/validation-of-the-fitbit-one-garmin-vivofit-and-jawbone-up-activity-tracker-in-estimation-of-energy-expenditure-during-treadmill-walking-and-running
#6
Kym Price, Stephen R Bird, Noel Lythgo, Isaac S Raj, Jason Y L Wong, Chris Lynch
OBJECTIVES: To determine the validity of energy expenditure estimation made by the Fitbit One, Garmin Vivofit and Jawbone UP activity trackers during treadmill walking and running. Determining validity of such trackers will inform the interpretation of the data they generate. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHOD: Fourteen adults walked at 0.70, 1.25, 1.80 ms(-1) and ran at 2.22, 2.78, 3.33 ms(-1) on a treadmill wearing a Fitbit One, Garmin Vivofit and Jawbone UP...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919101/the-risk-of-pedestrian-collisions-with-peripheral-visual-field-loss
#7
Eli Peli, Henry Apfelbaum, Eliot L Berson, Robert B Goldstein
Patients with peripheral field loss complain of colliding with other pedestrians in open-space environments such as shopping malls. Field expansion devices (e.g., prisms) can create artificial peripheral islands of vision. We investigated the visual angle at which these islands can be most effective for avoiding pedestrian collisions, by modeling the collision risk density as a function of bearing angle of pedestrians relative to the patient. Pedestrians at all possible locations were assumed to be moving in all directions with equal probability within a reasonable range of walking speeds...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918084/urinary-incontinence-in-older-women-the-role-of-body-composition-and-muscle-strength-from-the-health-aging-and-body-composition-study
#8
Anne M Suskind, Peggy M Cawthon, Sanae Nakagawa, Leslee L Subak, Ilse Reinders, Suzanne Satterfield, Steve Cummings, Jane A Cauley, Tamara Harris, Alison J Huang
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate prospective relationships between body composition and muscle strength with predominantly stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and urgency urinary incontinence (UUI) in older women. DESIGN: Prospective community-dwelling observational cohort study (Health, Aging, and Body Composition study). PARTICIPANTS: Women initially aged 70 to 79 recruited from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and Memphis, Tennessee (N = 1,475). MEASUREMENTS: Urinary incontinence was assessed using structured questionnaires...
December 5, 2016: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915223/children-require-less-gait-kinematic-adaptations-to-pull-a-trolley-than-to-carry-a-backpack
#9
Eva Orantes-Gonzalez, Jose Heredia-Jimenez, George J Beneck
To transport school materials, trolleys have been proposed for children as an alternative to carrying a backpack. However, there is limited evidence comparing the adaptations associated with carrying school trolley versus backpack. This study compared the effects of carrying a backpack and pulling a trolley on gait kinematics in children. Fifty-three students were evaluated. Children walked at self-selected speeds across a walkway with no bag (control), carrying a backpack with the 15% of child́s body weight (%BW) and pulling a trolley with the same load...
November 28, 2016: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915221/are-the-average-gait-speeds-during-the-10meter-and-6minute-walk-tests-redundant-in-parkinson-disease
#10
Ryan P Duncan, Stephanie A Combs-Miller, Marie E McNeely, Abigail L Leddy, James T Cavanaugh, Leland E Dibble, Terry D Ellis, Matthew P Ford, K Bo Foreman, Gammon M Earhart
We investigated the relationships between average gait speed collected with the 10Meter Walk Test (Comfortable and Fast) and 6Minute Walk Test (6MWT) in 346 people with Parkinson disease (PD) and how the relationships change with increasing disease severity. Pearson correlation and linear regression analyses determined relationships between 10Meter Walk Test and 6MWT gait speed values for the entire sample and for sub-samples stratified by Hoehn & Yahr (H&Y) stage I (n=53), II (n=141), III (n=135) and IV (n=17)...
November 22, 2016: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915210/functional-brain-imaging-of-walking-while-talking-an-fnirs-study
#11
Florian G Metzger, Ann-Christine Ehlis, Florian B Haeussinger, Patrick Schneeweiss, Justin Hudak, Andreas J Fallgatter, Sabrina Schneider
Since functional imaging of whole body movements is not feasible with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), the present study presents in vivo functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) as a suitable technique to measure body movement effects on fronto-temporo-parietal cortical activation in single and dual task paradigms. Previous fNIRS applications in studies addressing whole body movements were typically limited to the assessment of prefrontal brain areas. The current study investigated brain activation in the frontal, temporal and parietal cortex of both hemispheres using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) with two large 4 x 4 probe-sets with 24 channels each during single and dual gait tasks...
November 30, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915207/fixed-distance-walk-tests-at-comfortable-and-fast-speed-potential-tools-for-the-functional-assessment-of-coronary-patients
#12
Marie-Doriane Morard, Delphine Besson, Davy Laroche, Alexandre Naaïm, Vincent Gremeaux, Jean-Marie Casillas
OBJECTIVES: There is ambiguity concerning the walk tests available for functional assessment of coronary patients, particularly for the walking speed. This study explores the psychometric properties of two walking tests, based on fixed-distance tests, at comfortable and fast velocity, in stabilized patients at the end of a cardiac rehabilitation program. METHODS: At a three-day interval 58 coronary patients (mean age of 64.85±6.03 years, 50 men) performed three walk tests, the first two at a comfortable speed in a random order (6-minute walk test - 6MWT - and 400-metre comfortable walk test - 400mCWT) and the third at a brisk speed (200-metre fast walk test - 200mFWT)...
November 30, 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914920/can-lowering-the-guidance-force-of-robot-assisted-gait-training-induce-a-sufficient-metabolic-demand-in-subacute-dependent-ambulatory-stroke-patients
#13
So Young Lee, Eun Young Han, Bo Ryun Kim, Min Ho Chun, Yong Ki Lee
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of guidance force (GF) and gait speed (GS) on cardiorespiratory responses and energy cost in subacute dependent ambulatory stroke patients. DESIGN: Cross sectional study. SETTING: University rehabilitation hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Ten subacute stroke patients (mean age: 64.50±19.20), who were dependent ambulators (functional ambulation category [FAC] ≤2). INTERVENTIONS: Patients participated in cardiorespiratory tests during robot-assisted gait training...
November 30, 2016: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914848/falls-cognitive-impairment-and-gait-performance-results-from-the-good-initiative
#14
Gilles Allali, Cyrille P Launay, Helena M Blumen, Michele L Callisaya, Anne-Marie De Cock, Reto W Kressig, Velandai Srikanth, Jean-Paul Steinmetz, Joe Verghese, Olivier Beauchet
OBJECTIVES: Falls are highly prevalent in individuals with cognitive decline. The complex relationship between falls and cognitive decline (including both subtype and severity of dementia) and the influence of gait disorders have not been studied. This study aimed to examine the association between the subtype (Alzheimer disease [AD] versus non-AD) and the severity (from preclinical to moderate dementia) of cognitive impairment and falls, and to establish an association between falls and gait parameters during the course of dementia...
November 30, 2016: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914311/stepwatch-accuracy-during-walking-running-and-intermittent-activities
#15
Lindsay P Toth, David R Bassett, Scott E Crouter, Brittany S Overstreet, Samuel R LaMunion, Susan Park, Shahnawaz N Notta, Cary M Springer
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was two-fold: 1) to investigate effects of cadence and sensitivity settings for the StepWatch (SW3) on step count accuracy over a wide range of ambulatory speeds, and 2) to compare the preprogrammed "quick start" settings to modified settings during intermittent lifestyle activities. METHODS: Part 1: Fifteen participants (18-57 years of age) performed two trials of treadmill walking and running at ten speeds ranging from 26...
November 21, 2016: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912747/the-three-dimensional-kinematics-and-spatiotemporal-parameters-of-gait-in-6-10-year-old-typically-developed-children-in-the-cape-metropole-of-south-africa-a-pilot-study
#16
Yvonne Smith, Quinette Louw, Yolandi Brink
BACKGROUND: Functional gait is an integral part of life, allowing individuals to function within their environment and participate in activities of daily living. Gait assessment forms an essential part of a physical examination and can help screen for physical impairments. No three-dimensional (3D) gait analysis studies of children have been conducted in South Africa. South African gait analysis laboratory protocols and procedures may differ from laboratories in other countries, therefore a South African data base of normative values is required to make a valid assessment of South African children's gait...
December 3, 2016: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912681/how-valid-are-wearable-physical-activity-trackers-for-measuring-steps
#17
Hyun-Sung An, Gregory C Jones, Seoung-Ki Kang, Gregory J Welk, Jung-Min Lee
Wearable activity trackers have become popular for tracking individual's daily physical activity, but little information is available to substantiate the validity of these devices in step counts. Thirty-five healthy individuals completed three conditions of activity tracker measurement: walking/jogging on a treadmill, walking over-ground on an indoor track, and a 24-hour free-living condition. Participants wore 10 activity trackers at the same time for both treadmill and over-ground protocol. Of these 10 activity trackers three were randomly given for 24-hour free-living condition...
December 2, 2016: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903628/the-role-of-plantigrady-and-heel-strike-in-the-mechanics-and-energetics-of-human-walking-with-implications-for-the-evolution-of-the-human-foot
#18
James T Webber, David A Raichlen
Human bipedal locomotion is characterized by a habitual heel-strike (HS) plantigrade gait, yet the significance of walking foot-posture is not well understood. To date, researchers have not fully investigated the costs of non-heel-strike (NHS) walking. Therefore, we examined walking speed, walk-to-run transition speed, estimated locomotor costs (lower limb muscle volume activated during walking), impact transient (rapid increase in ground force at touchdown) and effective limb length (ELL) in subjects (n=14) who walked at self-selected speeds using HS and NHS gaits...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903626/a-unified-perspective-on-ankle-push-off-in-human-walking
#19
REVIEW
Karl E Zelik, Peter G Adamczyk
Muscle-tendon units about the ankle joint generate a burst of positive power during the step-to-step transition in human walking, termed ankle push-off, but there is no scientific consensus on its functional role. A central question embodied in the biomechanics literature is: does ankle push-off primarily contribute to leg swing, or to center of mass (COM) acceleration? This question has been debated in various forms for decades. However, it actually presents a false dichotomy, as these two possibilities are not mutually exclusive...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903588/discovery-and-validation-of-agonistic-angiotensin-receptor-autoantibodies-as-biomarkers-of-adverse-outcomes
#20
Peter Abadir, Alka Jain, Laura Powell, Qian-Li Xue, Jing Tian, Robert G Hamilton, David Bennett, Thomas Finucane, Jeremy D Walston, Neal S Fedarko
BACKGROUND: -Agonistic angiotensin II type I receptor autoantibodies (AT1RaAbs) have not been associated with functional measures or risk for adverse health outcomes. AT1RaAbs could be utilized to stratify patient risk and to identify patients who can benefit from angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) treatment. METHODS: -Demographic and physiologic covariates were measured in a discovery set of community dwelling adults from Baltimore (N=255) and AT1RaAb associations with physical function tests and outcomes assessed...
November 30, 2016: Circulation
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