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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689084/does-intrauterine-crowding-affect-locomotor-development-a-comparative-study-of-motor-performance-neuromotor-maturation-and-gait-variability-among-piglets-that-differ-in-birth-weight-and-vitality
#1
Charlotte Vanden Hole, Peter Aerts, Sara Prims, Miriam Ayuso, Steven Van Cruchten, Chris Van Ginneken
In polytocous species, such as pigs, the growth of an individual fetus is affected by competition from its littermates and the sow. This intrauterine competition greatly influences postnatal traits such as birth weight and vitality (physical strength). A lowered vitality is most often observed among low birth weight piglets. Since it has been argued that locomotion might be key to unraveling vitality-related differences, we compared gait development in piglets with a low birth weight and low vitality (L piglets) with piglets with a normal birth weight and normal vitality (N piglets) by means of spatio-temporal gait analysis during locomotion at self-selected speed...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687267/muscle-quality-characteristics-of-muscles-in-the-thigh-upper-arm-and-lower-back-in-elderly-men-and-women
#2
Akito Yoshiko, Takashi Kaji, Hiroki Sugiyama, Teruhiko Koike, Yoshiharu Oshida, Hiroshi Akima
PURPOSE: The ratio of fat within skeletal muscle is an important parameter that is indicative of muscle quality, and can be assessed using ultrasonography to measure echo intensity (EI). Muscle EI indicates muscle strength and risk of physical dysfunction; however, this observation was determined following examinations of only selected muscle. The purpose of this study was to investigate the EI characteristics of muscles in several regions in elderly men and women, using physical function tests and serum cholesterol levels...
April 23, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686281/gauging-force-by-tapping-tendons
#3
Jack A Martin, Scott C E Brandon, Emily M Keuler, James R Hermus, Alexander C Ehlers, Daniel J Segalman, Matthew S Allen, Darryl G Thelen
Muscles are the actuators that drive human movement. However, despite many decades of work, we still cannot readily assess the forces that muscles transmit during human movement. Direct measurements of muscle-tendon loads are invasive and modeling approaches require many assumptions. Here, we introduce a non-invasive approach to assess tendon loads by tracking vibrational behavior. We first show that the speed of shear wave propagation in tendon increases with the square root of axial stress. We then introduce a remarkably simple shear wave tensiometer that uses micron-scale taps and skin-mounted accelerometers to track tendon wave speeds in vivo...
April 23, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685145/post-stroke-unilateral-spatial-neglect-virtual-reality-based-navigation-and-detection-tasks-reveal-lateralized-and-non-lateralized-deficits-in-tasks-of-varying-perceptual-and-cognitive-demands
#4
Tatiana Ogourtsova, Philippe S Archambault, Anouk Lamontagne
BACKGROUND: Unilateral spatial neglect (USN), a highly prevalent and disabling post-stroke impairment, has been shown to affect the recovery of locomotor and navigation skills needed for community mobility. We recently found that USN alters goal-directed locomotion in conditions of different cognitive/perceptual demands. However, sensorimotor post-stroke dysfunction (e.g. decreased walking speed) could have influenced the results. Analogous to a previously used goal-directed locomotor paradigm, a seated, joystick-driven navigation experiment, minimizing locomotor demands, was employed in individuals with and without post-stroke USN (USN+ and USN-, respectively) and healthy controls (HC)...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684885/abnormal-muscle-activation-patterns-are-associated-with-chronic-gait-deficits-following-traumatic-brain-injury
#5
Samuel A Acuña, Mitchell E Tyler, Yuri P Danilov, Darryl G Thelen
BACKGROUND: Gait and balance disorders are common among individuals who have experienced a mild to moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, little is known about how the neuromuscular control of gait is altered following a TBI. RESEARCH QUESTION: Investigate the relationship between lower limb muscle activation patterns and chronic gait deficits in individuals who previously experienced a mild to moderate TBI. METHODS: Lower extremity electromyographic (EMG) signals were collected bilaterally during treadmill and overground walking in 44 ambulatory individuals with a TBI >1 year prior and 20 unimpaired controls...
April 12, 2018: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680863/going-the-distance-and-beyond-simulated-low-vision-increases-perception-of-distance-traveled-during-locomotion
#6
Kristina M Rand, Erica M Barhorst-Cates, Eren Kiris, William B Thompson, Sarah H Creem-Regehr
In a series of experiments, we tested the hypothesis that severely degraded viewing conditions during locomotion distort the perception of distance traveled. Some research suggests that there is little-to-no systematic error in perceiving closer distances from a static viewpoint with severely degraded acuity and contrast sensitivity (which we will refer to as blur). However, several related areas of research-extending across domains of perception, attention, and spatial learning-suggest that degraded acuity and contrast sensitivity would affect estimates of distance traveled during locomotion...
April 21, 2018: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680801/cross-sectional-relationship-between-haemoglobin-concentration-and-measures-of-physical-and-cognitive-function-in-an-older-rural-south-african-population
#7
Collin F Payne, Justine I Davies, F Xavier Gomez-Olive, Katherine J Hands, Kathleen Kahn, Lindsay C Kobayashi, Brent Tipping, Stephen M Tollman, Alisha Wade, Miles D Witham
BACKGROUND: Age cohort differences in haemoglobin concentrations and associations with physical and cognitive performance among populations of lower income and middle-income countries have not previously been described. We examined the association between these factors among older men and women in rural South Africa. METHODS: We analysed cross-sectional data from a population-based study of rural South African men and women aged 40 and over (n=4499), with data drawn from questionnaire responses, a cognitive battery, objective physical function tests and blood tests...
April 21, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680380/a-single-hydrotherapy-session-increases-range-of-motion-and-stride-length-in-labrador-retrievers-diagnosed-with-elbow-dysplasia
#8
T Preston, A P Wills
Canine elbow dysplasia is a debilitating condition of unknown aetiology and is a common cause of forelimb lameness in dogs. Canine hydrotherapy is a therapeutic approach rapidly increasing in popularity for the treatment of a range of musculoskeletal pathologies. In this study, kinematic analysis was used to assess the effect of a customised hydrotherapy session on the range of motion, stride length and stride frequency of healthy Labrador retrievers (n=6) and Labrador retrievers diagnosed with bilateral elbow dysplasia (n=6)...
April 2018: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680203/cognitive-based-interventions-to-improve-mobility-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#9
REVIEW
Uros Marusic, Joe Verghese, Jeannette R Mahoney
OBJECTIVE: A strong relation between cognition and mobility has been identified in aging, supporting a role for enhancement mobility through cognitive-based interventions. However, a critical evaluation of the consistency of treatment effects of cognitive-based interventions is currently lacking. The objective of this study was 2-fold: (1) to review the existing literature on cognitive-based interventions aimed at improving mobility in older adults and (2) to assess the clinical effectiveness of cognitive interventions on gait performance...
April 18, 2018: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679933/slip-avoidance-strategies-in-children-with-bilateral-spastic-cerebral-palsy-and-crouch-gait
#10
Ana Francisca Rozin Kleiner, Ilaria Pacifici, Claudia Condoluci, Chiarella Sforza, Manuela Galli
BACKGROUND: A slip occurs when the required friction (RCOF) to prevent slipping at the foot/floor interfaces exceeds the available friction. The RCOF is dependent upon the biomechanics features of individuals and their gait. On the other hand, the available friction depends on environmental features. Once individuals with crouch gait have their biomechanics of gait completely altered, how do they interact with a supporting surface? The aim was to quantify the RCOF in children with bilateral spastic cerebral palsy (BSCP) and crouch gait...
April 11, 2018: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679922/the-reliability-of-gait-variability-measures-for-individuals-with-parkinson-s-disease-and-healthy-older-adults-the-effect-of-gait-speed
#11
Linda Rennie, Niklas Löfgren, Rolf Moe-Nilssen, Arve Opheim, Espen Dietrichs, Erika Franzén
BACKGROUND: Step-to-step variability is a marker of reduced motor control and a frequently studied outcome measure in neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD) as compared to healthy older adults (HOA). To challenge motor control of gait, walking should be tested at different gait speeds. Good reliability is essential, and gait variability estimates show good reproducibility when sampled at normal gait speed. The aim was therefore to investigate if gait variability could be reliably sampled at slow and fast speeds for individuals with PD and HOA by evaluating test-retest reliability...
April 14, 2018: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678806/a-novel-algorithm-for-determining-the-contextual-characteristics-of-movement-behaviors-by-combining-accelerometer-features-and-wireless-beacons-development-and-implementation
#12
Daniele Magistro, Salvatore Sessa, Andrew P Kingsnorth, Adam Loveday, Alessandro Simeone, Massimiliano Zecca, Dale W Esliger
BACKGROUND: Unfortunately, global efforts to promote "how much" physical activity people should be undertaking have been largely unsuccessful. Given the difficulty of achieving a sustained lifestyle behavior change, many scientists are reexamining their approaches. One such approach is to focus on understanding the context of the lifestyle behavior (ie, where, when, and with whom) with a view to identifying promising intervention targets. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to develop and implement an innovative algorithm to determine "where" physical activity occurs using proximity sensors coupled with a widely used physical activity monitor...
April 20, 2018: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678696/sarcopenic-obesity-revisited-insights-from-the-mr-and-ms-os-cohort
#13
Jean Woo, Jason Leung
OBJECTIVES: Following the concept of a metabolic load-capacity model, we propose the use of appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) to total body fat (TBF) ratio in predicting 4-year physical limitations, physical performance measures, 6-year incident diabetes and cardiovascular diseases, and 12-year mortality. DESIGN: Cross-sectional and prospective cohort study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: 4000 men and women aged 65 years and older living in the community...
April 17, 2018: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678649/nine-month-outcomes-of-the-durability-iliac-study-on-self-expanding-stents-for-symptomatic-peripheral-artery-disease
#14
Peter Faries, Michael Jaff, Patrick Peeters, Yazan Khatib, David Roberts, Marc Bosiers, Rajesh Malik, Reid Ravin, John Rundback
OBJECTIVE: The DURABILITY Iliac clinical study evaluated the safety and effectiveness of two nitinol self-expanding stents for the treatment of atherosclerotic common and external iliac artery lesions up to 10 cm in length and >50% stenosis in subjects with Rutherford Classification peripheral arterial disease stages 2-4. METHODS: DURABILITY Iliac was a prospective, multicenter, core lab adjudicated, nonrandomized clinical study enrolling 75 subjects from 15 sites in the United States and Europe...
April 17, 2018: Annals of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676210/reduced-purposeful-head-movements-during-community-ambulation-following-unilateral-vestibular-loss
#15
Serene Sulyn Paul, Leland E Dibble, Raymond G Walther, Clough Shelton, Richard Klaus Gurgel, Mark Eric Lester
BACKGROUND: Individuals with unilateral vestibular hypofunction (UVH) alter their movement and reduce mobility to try to stabilize their gaze and avoid symptoms of dizziness and vertigo. OBJECTIVE: To determine if individuals with UVH 6 weeks after surgery demonstrate altered head and trunk kinematics during community ambulation. METHODS: A total of 15 vestibular schwannoma patients with documented postoperative unilateral vestibular loss and 9 healthy controls with symmetrical vestibulo-ocular reflexes participated in this cross-sectional study...
April 1, 2018: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673267/moderate-walking-speed-predicts-hospitalisation-in-hypertensive-patients-with-cardiovascular-disease
#16
Carlotta Merlo, Nicola Sorino, Jonathan Myers, Biagio Sassone, Giovanni Pasanisi, Simona Mandini, Franco Guerzoni, Nicola Napoli, Francesco Conconi, Gianni Mazzoni, Giorgio Chiaranda, Giovanni Grazzi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2018: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672515/decision-making-improves-sperm-chemotaxis-in-the-presence-of-noise
#17
Justus A Kromer, Steffen Märcker, Steffen Lange, Christel Baier, Benjamin M Friedrich
To navigate their surroundings, cells rely on sensory input that is corrupted by noise. In cells performing chemotaxis, such noise arises from the stochastic binding of signalling molecules at low chemoattractant concentrations. We reveal a fundamental relationship between the speed of chemotactic steering and the strength of directional fluctuations that result from the amplification of noise in a chemical input signal. This relation implies a trade-off between steering that is slow and reliable, and steering that is fast but less reliable...
April 19, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672352/association-of-activities-of-daily-living-with-the-load-during-step-ascent-motion-in-nursing-home-residing-elderly-individuals
#18
Mitsuhiro Masaki, Tome Ikezoe, Midori Kamiya, Kojiro Araki, Ryo Isono, Takehiro Kato, Ken Kusano, Masayo Tanaka, Syunsuke Sato, Tetsuya Hirono, Kiyoshi Kita, Tadao Tsuboyama, Noriaki Ichihashi
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the association of independence in ADL with the loads during step ascent motion and other motor functions in 32 nursing home-residing elderly individuals. DESIGN: Independence in ADL was assessed by using the functional independence measure (FIM). The loads at the upper (i.e., pulling up) and lower (i.e., pushing up) levels during step ascent task was measured on a step ascent platform. Hip extensor, knee extensor, plantar flexor muscle, and quadriceps setting strengths; lower extremity agility using the stepping test; and hip and knee joint pain severities were measured...
April 19, 2018: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671152/predictive-simulations-of-neuromuscular-coordination-and-joint-contact-loading-in-human-gait
#19
Yi-Chung Lin, Jonathan P Walter, Marcus G Pandy
We implemented direct collocation on a full-body neuromusculoskeletal model to calculate muscle forces, ground reaction forces and knee contact loading simultaneously for one cycle of human gait. A data-tracking collocation problem was solved for walking at the normal speed to establish the practicality of incorporating a 3D model of articular contact and a model of foot-ground interaction explicitly in a dynamic optimization simulation. The data-tracking solution then was used as an initial guess to solve predictive collocation problems, where novel patterns of movement were generated for walking at slow and fast speeds, independent of experimental data...
April 18, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668613/brain-mapping-for-long-term-recovery-of-gait-after-supratentorial-stroke-a-retrospective-cross-sectional-study
#20
Dae Hyun Kim, Sunghyon Kyeong, Kyung Hee Do, Seong Kyu Lim, Hyong Keun Cho, Suk Jung, Hye Won Kim
The recovery of independent gait after stroke is a main goal of patients and understanding the relationship between brain lesions and the recovery of gait can help physicians set viable rehabilitation plans. Our study investigated the association between variables of gait parameters and brain lesions.Fifty poststroke patients with a mean age of 67.5 ± 1.3 years and an average duration after onset of 62.2 ± 7.9 months were included. Three-dimensional gait analysis and magnetic resonance imaging were conducted for all patients...
April 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
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