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Rui Zhang, Changwei Li, Tingting Liu, Liqiang Zheng, Shengxu Li
Background: Previous studies have reported that handgrip strength, a measure of muscular fitness, is associated with cardiovascular risk factors. However, the association of handgrip strength with blood pressure in children has been inconsistent. We tested the association of handgrip strength with systolic and diastolic blood pressure in children and adolescents from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2011-2014. Methods: The study included 3,929 participants aged 8-19 years who underwent a handgrip test...
February 26, 2018: American Journal of Hypertension
Kimi Estela Kobayashi-Cuya, Ryota Sakurai, Hiroyuki Suzuki, Susumu Ogawa, Toru Takebayashi, Yoshinori Fujiwara
BACKGROUND: Deterioration of hand motor function is a possible risk factor of cognitive impairment in older adults. Despite a growing body of research, a lack of clarity exists regarding the relationships. This review offers a synthesis of existing observational studies evaluating the associations of handgrip strength and hand dexterity with cognitive performance in community-dwelling older adults. METHODS: PubMed, PsycINFO, and ScienceDirect were systematically searched (search dates: 1990-2016), and relevant articles were cross-checked for related and relevant publications...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology
Michael J Falvo, John W Rohrbaugh, Thomas Alexander, Gammon M Earhart
Cortical activity during motor task performance is attenuated in individuals with Parkinson disease (PD) relative to age-matched adults without PD, and this activity is enhanced with antiparkinson medication. It remains unclear, however, whether the relative change in cortical activity over the duration of the task, i.e., central adaptation, is affected individuals with PD, and if so, whether medication corrects for any unique behaviors. Movement-related cortical potentials (MRCPs) were recorded from scalp electrode sites Cz and C1 during 150 repetitive handgrip contractions at 70% of maximal voluntary contraction, in individuals with PD (n = 10) both ON and OFF of their PD medication, and neurologically normal age- and sex-matched controls (n = 10)...
March 8, 2018: Life Sciences
Jeremy J Walsh
Participation in regular exercise is important for the maintenance and improvement of brain health across the lifespan. These beneficial effects are realized almost immediately, as a single bout of exercise transiently improves cognitive function after cessation from exercise. This postexercise time period represents an opportunity to strategically prescribe cognitively stimulating activities for enhancing brain plasticity and function. Mechanistically, acute exercise is proposed to upregulate brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression and increase regional activation and arousal of brain areas involved in cognitive control; however, the specific mechanisms underlying this facilitation are poorly understood...
March 9, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Eva-Maria Strasser, Marlene Hofmann, Bernhard Franzke, Barbara Schober-Halper, Stefan Oesen, Waltraud Jandrasits, Alexandra Graf, Markus Praschak, Barbara Horvath-Mechtler, Christine Krammer, Martin Ploder, Norbert Bachl, Michael Quittan, Karl-Heinz Wagner, Barbara Wessner
BACKGROUND: Age related loss of skeletal muscle mass is accompanied by changes in muscle quality leading to impairment of functional status. AIM: This study investigated the effect of resistance training and nutritional supply on muscle mass and muscle quality in very old institutionalized adults. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized, multi-arm parallel and controlled intervention study. SETTING: This study was conducted in five retirement care facilities...
March 7, 2018: European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Brett S Pexa, Eric D Ryan, Joseph B Myers
BACKGROUND: Previous research indicates that the amount of valgus torque placed on the elbow joint during overhead throwing is higher than the medial ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) can tolerate. Wrist and finger flexor muscle activity is hypothesized to make up for this difference, and in vitro studies that simulated activity of upper extremity musculature, specifically the flexor digitorum superficialis and flexor carpi ulnaris, support this hypothesis. PURPOSE: To assess the medial elbow joint space at rest, under valgus stress, and under valgus stress with finger and forearm flexor contraction by use of ultrasonography in vivo...
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Clare Minahan, Hailey O'Neill, Nelie Sikkema, Sarah Joyce, Brianna Larsen, Surendran Sabapathy
We sought to determine whether oral contraception alters the gender-related differences observed in the exercise pressor reflex during isometric handgrip exercise. Fifteen men, fifteen normally menstruating women (WomenNM), and fifteen women taking monophasic oral contraceptives (WomenOC) completed two trials of a 3-min isometric handgrip exercise protocol performed at 30% of their maximal voluntary contraction: (1) where arterial occlusion was applied to the previously exercising arm during a 3-min recovery period (Occlusion trial); (2) where no arterial occlusion was applied during recovery (Control trial)...
March 2018: Physiological Reports
Hsien-Chun Chiu, Chen-Yuan Chiu, Rong-Sen Yang, Ding-Cheng Chan, Shing-Hwa Liu, Chih-Kang Chiang
BACKGROUND: A global consensus on the loss of skeletal muscle mass and function in humans refers as sarcopenia and cachexia including diabetes, obesity, renal failure, and osteoporosis. Despite a current improvement of sarcopenia or cachexia with exercise training and supportive therapies, alternative and specific managements are needed to discover for whom are unable or unwilling to embark on these treatments. Alendronate is a widely used drug for osteoporosis in the elderly and postmenopausal women...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
Rafael Lima Kons, Juliano Dal Pupo, Jonathan Ache-Dias, Thyago Garcia, Romário Rodrigues da Silva, Luiz Felipe Guarise Katicips, Daniele Detanico
This study aimed to verify the effect of judo matches on handgrip strength and perceptual responses during an official tournament in medalists and nonmedalists. Thirty-four male judo athletes participated in an official judo tournament. Before the first match and immediately after each match, maximum isometric handgrip strength and rate of perceived exertion overall and in specific areas were assessed. Analysis of variance for repeated measures was used to compare variables before the first match and after each match, and t -test was used to compare medalists and nonmedalists with the level of significance set at 5%...
February 2018: Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation
Han Ying Tng, Win Pa Pa Thu, Susan Logan, Izzuddin M Aris, Jane Cauley, Eu Leong Yong
The relationship between sleep apnea and bone health remains controversial. This study explored the relationship between sleep apnea and femoral neck BMD in midlife Asian women. Partner-witnessed apnea predicted higher femoral neck BMD, an effect validated by the STOP index. Our findings suggest that sleep apnea may protect bone health. PURPOSE: The menopause transition is associated with decline in bone mineral density (BMD) and sleep quality. However, any relationship between these two factors remains controversial...
March 5, 2018: Archives of Osteoporosis
Yasuhiro Hijikata, Masahisa Katsuno, Keisuke Suzuki, Atsushi Hashizume, Amane Araki, Shinichiro Yamada, Tomonori Inagaki, Daisuke Ito, Akihiro Hirakawa, Fumie Kinoshita, Masahiko Gosho, Gen Sobue
BACKGROUND: Although spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) has been classified as a motor neuron disease, several reports have indicated the primary involvement of skeletal muscle in the pathogenesis of this devastating disease. Recent studies reported decreased intramuscular creatine levels in skeletal muscles in both patients with SBMA and transgenic mouse models of SBMA, which appears to contribute to muscle weakness. OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to examine the efficacy and safety of oral creatine supplementation to improve motor function in patients with SBMA...
March 5, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
Urvashi Mulasi, David M Vock, Adam J Kuchnia, Gautam Jha, Naomi Fujioka, Venkatesh Rudrapatna, Manish R Patel, Levi Teigen, Carrie P Earthman
BACKGROUND: Using the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics and American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (Academy/ASPEN) Consensus malnutrition definition, we estimated malnutrition prevalence in a sample of individuals with head and neck cancer (HNC) and compared it with the Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA). We also investigated the utility of the 50-kHz phase angle (PA) and 200-kHz/5-kHz impedance ratio (IR) to identify malnutrition. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Nineteen individuals (18 males, 1 female) scheduled to undergo chemoradiotherapy were seen at 5 time points during and up to 3 months after treatment completion...
January 2018: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Clara Suemi da Costa Rosa, Danilo Yuzo Nishimoto, Giovana Damasceno E Souza, Ariane Pereira Ramirez, Carla Oliveira Carletti, Célio Guilherme Lombardi Daibem, Giorgos K Sakkas, Henrique Luiz Monteiro
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the effect of continuous progressive resistance training on body composition, functional capacity and self-reported quality of life in end-stage renal disease patients. DESIGN: A randomized controlled trial. SUBJECTS: The study included 52 hemodialysis patients (aged 55.7 ± 14.03 years) randomized into exercise (progressive resistance training (PRT), n = 28) or control (CON, n = 24) groups...
March 1, 2018: Clinical Rehabilitation
A Gigante, E Rosato, B Barbano, F Di Mario, G Di Lazzaro-Giraldi, M L Gasperini, R Pofi, A Laviano
Cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) describes the concurrent failure of cardiac and renal function, each influencing the other. Malnutrition and cachexia frequently develop in patients with heart failure or kidney failure. However, no information is currently available on the prevalence of malnutrition in CRS patients. We studied CRS patients admitted to an internal medicine ward during a 5-month period and evaluated their clinical characteristics and nutritional status. Malnutrition risk was assessed by using the validated screening tool NRS-2002 whilst body composition was assessed by bioimpedance analysis and muscle function was measured by handgrip (HG) strength...
January 2018: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
Heather Reilly, Louise M Lane, Mikel Egaña
PURPOSE: Age-related exercising leg blood flow (LBF) responses during dynamic knee-extension exercise and forearm blood flow responses during handgrip exercise are preserved in normally active men but attenuated in activity-matched women. We explored whether these age- and sex-specific effects are also apparent during isometric calf plantar-flexion incremental exercise. METHODS: Normally active young men (YM, n = 15, 24 ± 2 years), young women (YW, n = 8, 22 ± 1 years), older men (OM, n = 13, 70 ± 7 years) and older women (OW, n = 10, 64 ± 7 years) were tested...
March 3, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Kotb Abbass Metwalley, Sherifa Ahmed Hamed, Hekma Saad Farghaly
Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) is a major complication of type 1 diabetes (T1D). This study aimed to evaluate cardiac autonomic nervous system (ANS) function in children with T1D and its relation to different demographic, clinical and laboratory variable. This cross-sectional study included 60 children with T1D (mean age = 15.1 ± 3.3 years; duration of diabetes = 7.95 ± 3.83 years). The following 8 non-invasive autonomic testing were used for evaluation: heart rate at rest and in response to active standing (30:15 ratio), deep breathing and Valsalva maneuver (indicating parasympathetic function); blood pressure response to standing (orthostatic hypotension or OH), sustained handgrip and cold; and heart rate response to standing or positional orthostatic tachycardia syndrome or POTs (indicating sympathetic function)...
March 2, 2018: European Journal of Pediatrics
Kai Wang, Xianmin Zhang, Jun Ota, Yanjiang Huang
This paper proposes a nonlinear correlation-based wavelet scale selection technology to select the effective wavelet scales for the estimation of handgrip force from surface electromyograms (SEMG). The SEMG signal corresponding to gripping force was collected from extensor and flexor forearm muscles during the force-varying analysis task. We performed a computational sensitivity analysis on the initial nonlinear SEMG-handgrip force model. To explore the nonlinear correlation between ten wavelet scales and handgrip force, a large-scale iteration based on the Monte Carlo simulation was conducted...
February 24, 2018: Sensors
Ming Yang, Xiaoyi Hu, Lingling Xie, Luoying Zhang, Jie Zhou, Jing Lin, Ying Wang, Yaqi Li, Zengli Han, Daipei Zhang, Yun Zuo, Ying Li, Linna Wu
OBJECTIVES: To compare the diagnostic value of the 5-component questionnaire that measures strength, assistance walking, rise from a chair, climb stairs, and falls (SARC-F) and SARC-F combined with calf circumference (SARC-CalF) for screening sarcopenia in community-dwelling older adults. DESIGN: A diagnostic accuracy study. SETTING: A community in Chengdu, China. PARTICIPANTS: Older adults aged 60 years or older. MEASUREMENTS: Muscle mass, muscle strength, and physical performance were estimated using a bioimpedance analysis device, handgrip strength, and gait speed, respectively...
March 2018: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
P Bezerra, Luis P Rodrigues, C Ayan, J M Cancela
Epidemiological studies have described the association between physical fitness and health. Few have reported the impact of seasonal variation on fitness determinants, in elderly. We investigated the effects of summer and winter environmental conditions on physical fitness, in both exercise and non-exercise elders. 371 non-institutionalized older adults (74.1% female; 78.4 ± 5.3 years) randomly recruited from a total sample of 1338 subjects from north of Portugal, were prospectively followed during 1 year and 3 assessments were performed - April (baseline), October (summer season) and April (winter season)...
February 15, 2018: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
Karla Fabiana Goessler, Roselien Buys, Dieter VanderTrappen, Lise Vanhumbeeck, Veronique Ann Cornelissen
Aerobic endurance exercise (AEX) is an effective treatment in the prevention and management of high blood pressure (BP). Growing evidence suggests potential benefits from isometric handgrip (IHG) exercise, which may promote similar or even larger reductions in BP than AEX. We compared the effects of home-based AEX and home-based IHG on BP. Sixty healthy individuals (31 men; mean age, 33.1 years; mean BP, 126.9 ± 1.6/84.7 ± 1.1 mm Hg) were randomized to IHG, AEX, or a control group. Both exercise interventions were performed in the home environment...
February 2, 2018: Journal of the American Society of Hypertension: JASH
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