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Md Atique Ahmed, Muh Fauzi, Eun-Taek Han
BACKGROUND: Human infections due to the monkey malaria parasite Plasmodium knowlesi is on the rise in most Southeast Asian countries specifically Malaysia. The C-terminal 19 kDa domain of PvMSP1P is a potential vaccine candidate, however, no study has been conducted in the orthologous gene of P. knowlesi. This study investigates level of polymorphisms, haplotypes and natural selection of full-length pkmsp1p in clinical samples from Malaysia. METHODS: A total of 36 full-length pkmsp1p sequences along with the reference H-strain and 40 C-terminal pkmsp1p sequences from clinical isolates of Malaysia were downloaded from published genomes...
March 14, 2018: Malaria Journal
Robert G E Krause, J P Dean Goldring
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium knowlesi is recognised as the main cause of human malaria in Southeast Asia. The disease is often misdiagnosed as P. falciparum or P. malariae infections by microscopy, and the disease is difficult to eliminate due to its presence in both humans and monkeys. P. knowlesi infections can rapidly cause severe disease and require prompt diagnosis and treatment. No protein biomarker exists for the rapid diagnostic test (RDT) detection of P. knowlesi infections. Plasmodium knowlesi infections can be diagnosed by PCR...
2018: PloS One
Bridget E Barber, Bruce Russell, Matthew J Grigg, Rou Zhang, Timothy William, Amirah Amir, Yee Ling Lau, Mark D Chatfield, Arjen M Dondorp, Nicholas M Anstey, Tsin W Yeo
The simian parasite Plasmodium knowlesi can cause severe and fatal human malaria. However, little is known about the pathogenesis of this disease. In falciparum malaria, reduced red blood cell deformability (RBC-D) contributes to microvascular obstruction and impaired organ perfusion. In P knowlesi infection, impaired microcirculatory flow has been observed in Macaca mulatta (rhesus macaques), unnatural hosts who develop severe and fatal disease. However, RBC-D has not been measured in human infection or in the natural host M fascicularis (long-tailed macaques)...
February 27, 2018: Blood Advances
Aloysious Ssemaganda, Leanne M Low, Krista R Verhoeft, Mathias Wambuzi, Barbarah Kawoozo, Sharon B Nabasumba, Juliet Mpendo, Bernard S Bagaya, Noah Kiwanuka, Danielle I Stanisic, Susan J Berners-Price, Michael F Good
Here, the anti-malarial activity of two gold(i) phosphine compounds auranofin and [Au(d2pype)2 ]Cl (where d2pype is 1,2-bis(di-2-pyridylphosphino)ethane), were examined to inform their use as potential drugs and malaria parasite-attenuating agents. In vitro, the gold compounds were active against Plasmodium falciparum and P. knowlesi as well as the rodent parasite P. chabaudi AS. Attenuation of the parasite was observed when mice were inoculated with P. chabaudi AS infected red blood cells treated in vitro with [Au(d2pype)2 ]Cl (1 or 2 μM) or auranofin (2 μM) for 2 or 3 h...
February 21, 2018: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
Eric Tzyy Jiann Chong, Joveen Wan Fen Neoh, Tiek Ying Lau, Yvonne Ai-Lian Lim, Kek Heng Chua, Ping-Chin Lee
Malaria is a notorious disease which causes major global morbidity and mortality. This study aims to investigate the genetic and haplotype differences of Plasmodium knowlesi (P. knowlesi) isolates in Malaysian Borneo and Peninsular Malaysia based on the molecular analysis of the cytochrome b (cyt b) gene. The cyt b gene of 49 P. knowlesi isolates collected from Sabah, Malaysian Borneo and Peninsular Malaysia was amplified using PCR, cloned into a commercialized vector and sequenced. In addition, 45 cyt b sequences were retrieved from humans and macaques bringing to a total of 94 cyt b gene nucleotide sequences for phylogenetic analysis...
February 1, 2018: Acta Tropica
Adriana Calderaro, Giovanna Piccolo, Sara Montecchini, Mirko Buttrini, Sabina Rossi, Maria Loretana Dell'Anna, Valeria De Remigis, Maria Cristina Arcangeletti, Carlo Chezzi, Flora De Conto
BACKGROUND: Malaria is no longer endemic in Italy since 1970 when the World Health Organization declared Italy malaria-free, but it is now the most commonly imported disease. The aim of the study was to analyse the trend of imported malaria cases in Parma, Italy, during January 2013-June 2017, reporting also the treatment and the outcome of cases, exploring the comparison of the three diagnostic tests used for malaria diagnosis: microscopy, immunochromatographic assay (ICT) (BinaxNOW®) and Real-time PCR assays detecting Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium malariae, Plasmodium ovale curtisi, Plasmodium ovale wallikeri, and Plasmodium knowlesi...
February 5, 2018: Malaria Journal
Alejandra Ortiz-Ruiz, María Postigo, Sara Gil-Casanova, Daniel Cuadrado, José M Bautista, José Miguel Rubio, Miguel Luengo-Oroz, María Linares
BACKGROUND: Routine field diagnosis of malaria is a considerable challenge in rural and low resources endemic areas mainly due to lack of personnel, training and sample processing capacity. In addition, differential diagnosis of Plasmodium species has a high level of misdiagnosis. Real time remote microscopical diagnosis through on-line crowdsourcing platforms could be converted into an agile network to support diagnosis-based treatment and malaria control in low resources areas. This study explores whether accurate Plasmodium species identification-a critical step during the diagnosis protocol in order to choose the appropriate medication-is possible through the information provided by non-trained on-line volunteers...
January 30, 2018: Malaria Journal
Kanako Komaki-Yasuda, Jeanne Perpétue Vincent, Masami Nakatsu, Yasuyuki Kato, Norio Ohmagari, Shigeyuki Kano
A microscopy-based diagnosis is the gold standard for the detection and identification of malaria parasites in a patient's blood. However, the detection of cases involving a low number of parasites and the differentiation of species sometimes requires a skilled microscopist. Although PCR-based diagnostic methods are already known to be very powerful tools, the time required to apply such methods is still much longer in comparison to traditional microscopic observation. Thus, improvements to PCR systems are sought to facilitate the more rapid and accurate detection of human malaria parasites Plasmodium falciparum, P...
2018: PloS One
Federica Verra, Andrea Angheben, Elisa Martello, Giovanni Giorli, Francesca Perandin, Zeno Bisoffi
BACKGROUND: Transfusion-transmitted malaria (TTM) is an accidental Plasmodium infection caused by whole blood or a blood component transfusion from a malaria infected donor to a recipient. Infected blood transfusions directly release malaria parasites in the recipient's bloodstream triggering the development of high risk complications, and potentially leading to a fatal outcome especially in individuals with no previous exposure to malaria or in immuno-compromised patients. A systematic review was conducted on TTM case reports in non-endemic areas to describe the epidemiological characteristics of blood donors and recipients...
January 16, 2018: Malaria Journal
Sabine Vygen-Bonnet, Klaus Stark
BACKGROUND: German surveillance data showed a sharp rise of malaria cases in 2014 and 2015 due to the increased arrival of refugees from malaria endemic countries. A time series analysis of data from 2001 to 2016 was performed in order to describe the epidemiology of imported malaria in Germany in general and of the recent increase in particular. RESULTS: In total, 11,678 malaria cases were notified between 2001 and 2016 (range 526-1063 cases/year). Newly arriving refugees averaged 10 cases/year (1...
January 15, 2018: Malaria Journal
Meng-Yee Lai, Choo-Huck Ooi, Yee-Ling Lau
The aim of this study was to develop a recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) combined with a lateral flow (LF) strip method for specific diagnosis of Plasmodium knowlesi. With incubation at 37°C, the 18S rRNA gene of P. knowlesi was successfully amplified within 12 minutes. By adding a specifically designed probe to the reaction solution, the amplified RPA product can be visualized on a LF strip. The RPA assay exhibited high sensitivity with limits of detection down to 10 parasites/μL of P. knowlesi...
December 18, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Ernest Diez Benavente, Paola Florez de Sessions, Robert W Moon, Munira Grainger, Anthony A Holder, Michael J Blackman, Cally Roper, Christopher J Drakeley, Arnab Pain, Colin J Sutherland, Martin L Hibberd, Susana Campino, Taane G Clark
Plasmodium knowlesi, a common parasite of macaques, is recognised as a significant cause of human malaria in Malaysia. The P. knowlesi A1H1 line has been adapted to continuous culture in human erythrocytes, successfully providing an in vitro model to study the parasite. We have assembled a reference genome for the PkA1-H.1 line using PacBio long read combined with Illumina short read sequence data. Compared with the H-strain reference, the new reference has improved genome coverage and a novel description of methylation sites...
December 16, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
Jae-Yeon Choi, Yulia V Surovtseva, Sam M Van Sickle, Jan Kumpf, Uwe H F Bunz, Choukri Ben Mamoun, Dennis R Voelker
Phosphatidylserine decarboxylases (PSDs) are central enzymes in phospholipid metabolism that produce phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) in bacteria, protists, plants and animals. We developed a fluorescence-based assay for selectively monitoring production of PE, in reactions using a maltose binding protein fusion with Plasmodium knowlesi PSD (MBP-His6-∆34PkPSD) as the enzyme. The PE detection by fluorescence (λex = 403 nm, λem = 508 nm ) occurred after the lipid reacted with a water soluble distyrylbenzene-bis-aldehyde (DSB-3), and provided strong discrimination against the PS substrate...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Janet Cox-Singh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 16, 2017: Parasitology
Angela Siner, Sze-Tze Liew, Khamisah Abdul Kadir, Dayang Shuaisah Awang Mohamad, Felicia Kavita Thomas, Mohammad Zulkarnaen, Balbir Singh
After publication of the article [1], it has been brought to our attention that two of the labels on Figure 4 have transposed. The labels "S-type SSU rRNA" and "A-type SSU rRNA" should be in opposite places.
November 6, 2017: Malaria Journal
Erik J Scully, Usheer Kanjee, Manoj T Duraisingh
Non-human primates harbor diverse species of malaria parasites, including the progenitors of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax. Cross-species transmission of some malaria parasites-most notably the macaque parasite, Plasmodium knowlesi-continues to this day, compelling the scientific community to ask whether these zoonoses could impede malaria control efforts by acting as a source of recurrent human infection. Host-restriction varies considerably among parasite species and is governed by both ecological and molecular variables...
October 30, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
Yoshimasa Maeno
Human infection caused by non-human primate malarial parasites, such as Plasmodium knowlesi and Plasmodium cynomolgi, occurs naturally in Southeast Asian countries, including Vietnam. Members of the Anopheles dirus species complex are known to be important vectors of human malarial parasites in the forested areas of southern and central Vietnam, including those in Khanh Phu commune and Khanh Hoa Province. Recent molecular epidemiological studies in Vietnam have reported cases of co-infection with Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium malariae, and P...
2017: Tropical Medicine and Health
Angela Siner, Sze-Tze Liew, Khamisah Abdul Kadir, Dayang Shuaisah Awang Mohamad, Felicia Kavita Thomas, Mohammad Zulkarnaen, Balbir Singh
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium knowlesi, a simian malaria parasite, has become the main cause of malaria in Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo. Epidemiological data on malaria for Sarawak has been derived solely from hospitalized patients, and more accurate epidemiological data on malaria is necessary. Therefore, a longitudinal study of communities affected by knowlesi malaria was undertaken. METHODS: A total of 3002 blood samples on filter paper were collected from 555 inhabitants of 8 longhouses with recently reported knowlesi malaria cases in the Betong Division of Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo...
October 17, 2017: Malaria Journal
Matthew J Grigg, Timothy William, Bridget E Barber, Giri S Rajahram, Jayaram Menon, Emma Schimann, Christopher S Wilkes, Kaajal Patel, Arjun Chandna, Ric N Price, Tsin W Yeo, Nicholas M Anstey
Background: Plasmodium knowlesi is reported increasingly across Southeast Asia, and is the commonest cause of malaria in Malaysia. No randomized trials have assessed comparative efficacy of artemether-lumefantrine (AL) for knowlesi malaria. Methods: A randomized-controlled trial was conducted in 3 district hospitals in Sabah, Malaysia to compare the efficacy of AL against chloroquine (CQ) for uncomplicated knowlesi malaria. Participants were included if >10kg, parasitemia <20,000/μL, and had a negative Pf-HRP2 rapid-diagnostic-test...
September 4, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Roberto R Moraes Barros, Tyler J Gibson, Whitney A Kite, Juliana M Sá, Thomas E Wellems
Human infections from Plasmodium knowlesi present challenges to malaria control in Southeast Asia. P. knowlesi also offers a model for other human malaria species including Plasmodium vivax. P. knowlesi parasites can be cultivated in the laboratory, and their transformation is standardly performed by direct electroporation of schizont-infected red blood cells (RBCs) with plasmid DNA. Here we show that the efficiency of direct electroporation is exquisitely dependent on developmental age of the schizonts. Additionally, we show that transformation of P...
December 2017: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
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