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Benny O Manin, Heather M Ferguson, Indra Vythilingam, Kim Fornace, Timothy William, Steve J Torr, Chris Drakeley, Tock H Chua
BACKGROUND: In recent years, the primate malaria Plasmodium knowlesi has emerged in human populations throughout South East Asia, with the largest hotspot being in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. Control efforts are hindered by limited knowledge of where and when people get exposed to mosquito vectors. It is assumed that exposure occurs primarily when people are working in forest areas, but the role of other potential exposure routes (including domestic or peri-domestic transmission) has not been thoroughly investigated...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Amuza Byaruhanga Lucky, Miako Sakaguchi, Yuko Katakai, Satoru Kawai, Kazuhide Yahata, Thomas J Templeton, Osamu Kaneko
The malaria parasite, Plasmodium, exports protein products to the infected erythrocyte to introduce modifications necessary for the establishment of nutrient acquisition and surface display of host interaction ligands. Erythrocyte remodeling impacts parasite virulence and disease pathology and is well documented for the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, but has been less described for other Plasmodium species. For P. falciparum, the exported protein skeleton-binding protein 1 (PfSBP1) is involved in the trafficking of erythrocyte surface ligands and localized to membranous structures within the infected erythrocyte, termed Maurer's clefts...
2016: PloS One
Bridget E Barber, Matthew J Grigg, Timothy William, Tsin W Yeo, Nicholas M Anstey
Plasmodium knowlesi occurs across Southeast Asia and is the most common cause of malaria in Malaysia. High parasitaemias can develop rapidly, and the risk of severe disease in adults is at least as high as in falciparum malaria. Prompt initiation of effective treatment is therefore essential. Intravenous artesunate is highly effective in severe knowlesi malaria and in those with moderately high parasitaemia but otherwise uncomplicated disease. Both chloroquine and artemisinin-combination therapy (ACT) are highly effective for uncomplicated knowlesi malaria, with faster parasite clearance times and lower anaemia rates with ACT...
October 1, 2016: Trends in Parasitology
Ross J Hill, Alessa Ringel, Ellen Knuepfer, Robert W Moon, Michael J Blackman, Christiaan van Ooij
StAR-related lipid-transfer (START) domains are phospholipid or sterol binding modules that are present in many proteins. START-domain-containing proteins (START proteins) play important functions in eukaryotic cells, including the redistribution of phospholipids to subcellular compartments and delivering sterols to the mitochondrion for steroid synthesis. How the activity of the START domain is regulated remains unknown for most of these proteins. The Plasmodium falciparum START protein PFA0210c (PF3D7_0104200) is a broad-spectrum phospholipid transfer protein that is conserved in all sequenced Plasmodium species and is most closely related to the mammalian START proteins STARD2 and STARD7...
October 2, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Herdiana Herdiana, Chris Cotter, Farah N Coutrier, Iska Zarlinda, Brittany W Zelman, Yusrifar Kharisma Tirta, Bryan Greenhouse, Roly D Gosling, Peter Baker, Maxine Whittaker, Michelle S Hsiang
BACKGROUND: As malaria transmission declines, it becomes more geographically focused and more likely due to asymptomatic and non-falciparum infections. To inform malaria elimination planning in the context of this changing epidemiology, local assessments on the risk factors for malaria infection are necessary, yet challenging due to the low number of malaria cases. METHODS: A population-based, cross-sectional study was performed using passive and active surveillance data collected in Aceh Besar District, Indonesia from 2014 to 2015...
2016: Malaria Journal
Bridget E Barber, Matthew J Grigg, Timothy William, Tsin W Yeo, Nicholas M Anstey
BACKGROUND: Haemoglobinuria is an uncommon complication of severe malaria, reflecting acute intravascular haemolysis and potentially leading to acute kidney injury. It can occur early in the course of infection as a consequence of a high parasite burden, or may occur following commencement of anti-malarial treatment. Treatment with quinine has been described as a risk factor; however the syndrome may also occur following treatment with intravenous artesunate. In Malaysia, Plasmodium knowlesi is the most common cause of severe malaria, often associated with high parasitaemia...
2016: Malaria Journal
Xinjun Zhang, Khamisah Abdul Kadir, Leslie Fabiola Quintanilla-Zariñan, Jason Villano, Paul Houghton, Hongli Du, Balbir Singh, David Glenn Smith
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium knowlesi and Plasmodium cynomolgi are two malaria parasites naturally transmissible between humans and wild macaque through mosquito vectors, while Plasmodium inui can be experimentally transmitted from macaques to humans. One of their major natural hosts, the long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis), is host to two other species of Plasmodium (Plasmodium fieldi and Plasmodium coatneyi) and is widely distributed in Southeast Asia. This study aims to determine the distribution of wild macaques infected with malarial parasites by examining samples derived from seven populations in five countries across Southeast Asia...
2016: Malaria Journal
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0158544.].
2016: PloS One
Ahmet Özbilgin, İbrahim Çavuş, Ahmet Yıldırım, Cumhur Gündüz
Plasmodium knowlesi is now added to the known four Plasmodium species (P.vivax, P.falciparum, P.malariae, P.ovale) as a cause of malaria in humans because of the recent increasing rate of cases reported from countries of southeastern Asia. P.knowlesi which infects macaque monkeys (Macaca fascicularis and M.nemestrina) is transmitted to humans especially by Anopheles leucosphyrus and An.hackeri mosquitos. First human cases of P.knowlesi malaria have been detected in Malaysia which have reached high numbers in recent years and also have been reported from countries of Southeast Asia such as Thailand, Philippines, Myanmar, Singapore and Vietnam...
July 2016: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
Cheronie Shely Stanis, Beng Kah Song, Tock Hing Chua, Yee Ling Lau, Jenarun Jelip
BACKGROUND/AIM: Malaria is a major public health problem, especially in the Southeast Asia region, caused by 5 species of Plasmodium (P. falciparum, P. vivax, P. malariae, P. ovale, and P. knowlesi). The aim of this study was to compare parasite species identification methods using the new multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) against nested PCR and microscopy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Blood samples on filter papers were subject to conventional PCR methods using primers designed by us in multiplex PCR and previously designed primers of nested PCR...
2016: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
Freya M Shearer, Zhi Huang, Daniel J Weiss, Antoinette Wiebe, Harry S Gibson, Katherine E Battle, David M Pigott, Oliver J Brady, Chaturong Putaporntip, Somchai Jongwutiwes, Yee Ling Lau, Magnus Manske, Roberto Amato, Iqbal R F Elyazar, Indra Vythilingam, Samir Bhatt, Peter W Gething, Balbir Singh, Nick Golding, Simon I Hay, Catherine L Moyes
BACKGROUND: Infection by the simian malaria parasite, Plasmodium knowlesi, can lead to severe and fatal disease in humans, and is the most common cause of malaria in parts of Malaysia. Despite being a serious public health concern, the geographical distribution of P. knowlesi malaria risk is poorly understood because the parasite is often misidentified as one of the human malarias. Human cases have been confirmed in at least nine Southeast Asian countries, many of which are making progress towards eliminating the human malarias...
August 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Georg Fischer, Eli M Sarnat, Evan P Economo
The Fijian islands, a remote archipelago in the southwestern Pacific, are home to a number of spectacular endemic radiations of plants and animals. Unlike most Pacific archipelagos, these evolutionary radiations extend to social insects, including ants. One of the most dramatic examples of ant radiation in Fiji has occurred in the hyperdiverse genus Pheidole. Most of the 17 native Fijian Pheidole belong to one of two species groups that descended from a single colonization, yet have evolved dramatically contrasting morphologies: the spinescent P...
2016: PloS One
Ruhani Yusof, Md Atique Ahmed, Jenarun Jelip, Hie Ung Ngian, Sahlawati Mustakim, Hani Mat Hussin, Mun Yik Fong, Rohela Mahmud, Frankie Anak Thomas Sitam, J Rovie-Ryan Japning, Georges Snounou, Ananias A Escalante, Yee Ling Lau
Infections of humans with the zoonotic simian malaria parasite Plasmodium knowlesi occur throughout Southeast Asia, although most cases have occurred in Malaysia, where P. knowlesi is now the dominant malaria species. This apparently skewed distribution prompted an investigation of the phylogeography of this parasite in 2 geographically separated regions of Malaysia, Peninsular Malaysia and Malaysian Borneo. We investigated samples collected from humans and macaques in these regions. Haplotype network analyses of sequences from 2 P...
August 2016: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Hayley L Brant, Robert M Ewers, Indra Vythilingam, Chris Drakeley, Suzan Benedick, John D Mumford
BACKGROUND: Malaria cases caused by Plasmodium knowlesi, a simian parasite naturally found in long-tailed and pig-tailed macaques, are increasing rapidly in Sabah, Malaysia. One hypothesis is that this increase is associated with changes in land use. A study was carried out to identify the anopheline vectors present in different forest types and to observe the human landing behaviour of mosquitoes. METHODS: Mosquito collections were carried out using human landing catches at ground and canopy levels in the Tawau Division of Sabah...
2016: Malaria Journal
Elspeth M Bird, Uma Parameswaran, Timothy William, Tien Meng Khoo, Matthew J Grigg, Ammar Aziz, Jutta Marfurt, Tsin W Yeo, Sarah Auburn, Nicholas M Anstey, Bridget E Barber
BACKGROUND: Transfusion-transmitted malaria (TTM) is a well-recognized risk of receiving blood transfusions, and has occurred with Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium ovale, and Plasmodium malariae. The simian parasite Plasmodium knowlesi is also known to be transmissible through inoculation of infected blood, and this species is now the most common cause of malaria in Malaysia with a high rate of severity and fatal cases reported. No confirmed case of accidental transfusion-transmitted P...
2016: Malaria Journal
Jeremy Ryan De Silva, Yee-Ling Lau, Mun-Yik Fong
Malaria remains a major health threat in many parts of the globe and causes high mortality and morbidity with 214 million cases of malaria occurring globally in 2015. Recent studies have outlined potential diagnostic markers and vaccine candidates one of which is the merozoite surface protein (MSP)-3. In this study, novel recombinant Plasmodium knowlesi MSP-3 was cloned, expressed and purified in an Escherichia coli system. Subsequently, the recombinant protein was evaluated for its sensitivity and specificity...
2016: PloS One
Antonella Rossati, Olivia Bargiacchi, Vesselina Kroumova, Marco Zaramella, Annamaria Caputo, Pietro Luigi Garavelli
Malaria, the most common parasitic disease in the world, is transmitted to the human host by mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles. The transmission of malaria requires the interaction between the host, the vector and the parasite.The four species of parasites responsible for human malaria are Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium ovale, Plasmodium malariae and Plasmodium vivax. Occasionally humans can be infected by several simian species, like Plasmodium knowlesi, recognised as a major cause of human malaria in South-East Asia since 2004...
June 1, 2016: Le Infezioni in Medicina
Yee-Ling Lau, Wenn-Chyau Lee, Junhui Chen, Zhen Zhong, Jianbo Jian, Amirah Amir, Fei-Wen Cheong, Jia-Siang Sum, Mun-Yik Fong
Anopheles cracens has been incriminated as the vector of human knowlesi malaria in peninsular Malaysia. Besides, it is a good laboratory vector of Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax. The distribution of An. cracens overlaps with that of An. maculatus, the human malaria vector in peninsular Malaysia that seems to be refractory to P. knowlesi infection in natural settings. Whole genome sequencing was performed on An. cracens and An. maculatus collected here. The draft genome of An. cracens was 395 Mb in size whereas the size of An...
2016: PloS One
Elisabeth Baum, Jetsumon Sattabongkot, Jeeraphat Sirichaisinthop, Kirakorn Kiattibutr, Aarti Jain, Omid Taghavian, Ming-Chieh Lee, D Huw Davies, Liwang Cui, Philip L Felgner, Guiyun Yan
BACKGROUND: Despite largely successful control efforts, malaria remains a significant public health problem in Thailand. Based on microscopy, the northwestern province of Tak, once Thailand's highest burden area, is now considered a low-transmission region. However, microscopy is insensitive to detect low-level parasitaemia, causing gross underestimation of parasite prevalence in areas where most infections are subpatent. The objective of this study was to assess the current epidemiology of malaria prevalence using molecular and serological detection methods, and to profile the antibody responses against Plasmodium as it relates to age, seasonal changes and clinical manifestations during infection...
2016: Malaria Journal
Robert W Moon, Hazem Sharaf, Claire H Hastings, Yung Shwen Ho, Mridul B Nair, Zineb Rchiad, Ellen Knuepfer, Abhinay Ramaprasad, Franziska Mohring, Amirah Amir, Noor A Yusuf, Joanna Hall, Neil Almond, Yee Ling Lau, Arnab Pain, Michael J Blackman, Anthony A Holder
The dominant cause of malaria in Malaysia is now Plasmodium knowlesi, a zoonotic parasite of cynomolgus macaque monkeys found throughout South East Asia. Comparative genomic analysis of parasites adapted to in vitro growth in either cynomolgus or human RBCs identified a genomic deletion that includes the gene encoding normocyte-binding protein Xa (NBPXa) in parasites growing in cynomolgus RBCs but not in human RBCs. Experimental deletion of the NBPXa gene in parasites adapted to growth in human RBCs (which retain the ability to grow in cynomolgus RBCs) restricted them to cynomolgus RBCs, demonstrating that this gene is selectively required for parasite multiplication and growth in human RBCs...
June 28, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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