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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352754/providing-ethical-healthcare-in-resource-poor-environments
#1
Kenneth V Iserson
The ethics of providing health care in resource-poor environments is a complex topic. It implies two related questions: What can we do with the resources on hand? Of all the things we can do, which ones should we do? "Resource-poor" (i.e., resource-challenged, resource-constrained) environments are situations in which clinicians, organizations, or healthcare systems have the knowledge and skills, but not the means, to carry out highly effective and beneficial interventions. Determinants of a population's health often rely less on disease and injury management than on recognizing and meeting their basic needs...
January 19, 2018: HEC Forum: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Hospitals' Ethical and Legal Issues
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352641/can-you-do-health-disparities-research-with-publicly-available-datasets
#2
Danny R Hughes
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Given the growing importance of identifying and reducing health disparities, it is important for radiologist researchers to engage in this space to promote evidence-based imaging disparities policy. However, researchers are often hindered by access to appropriate data to perform quality research. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This paper reviews existing publicly available data sets that may be useful for performing imaging disparities research...
January 15, 2018: Academic Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352607/integrated-lung-tissue-mechanics-one-piece-at-a-time-computational-modeling-across-the-scales-of-biology
#3
REVIEW
Kelly S Burrowes, Amin Iravani, Wendy Kang
The lung is a delicately balanced and highly integrated mechanical system. Lung tissue is continuously exposed to the environment via the air we breathe, making it susceptible to damage. As a consequence, respiratory diseases present a huge burden on society and their prevalence continues to rise. Emergent function is produced not only by the sum of the function of its individual components but also by the complex feedback and interactions occurring across the biological scales - from genes to proteins, cells, tissue and whole organ - and back again...
January 12, 2018: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352598/who-consultation-on-etec-and-shigella-burden-of-disease-geneva-6-7th-april-2017-meeting-report
#4
Divya Hosangadi, Peter G Smith, David C Kaslow, Birgitte K Giersing
According to the 2015 Global Burden of Disease Study, diarrhea ranked ninth among causes of death for all ages, and fourth among children under 5 years old, accounting for an estimated 499,000 deaths in this young age group. It was also the second most common cause of years lived with disability (2.39 billion YLDs). The goal of the WHO/UNICEF Integrated Global Action Plan for the Prevention and Control of Pneumonia and Diarrhea (GAPPD) is to reduce deaths from diarrhea in children under 5 years of age to less than 1 per 1000 live births, by 2025...
January 15, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352579/informed-consent-in-physiotherapy-practice-it-is-not-what-is-said-but-how-it-is-said
#5
G Copnell
This paper discusses the concept of informed consent in the context of contemporary biomedical ethics. A change in UK law regarding what information should be provided to patients has brought to the fore the role of physiotherapists in the process of gaining informed consent. It is important that physiotherapists are aware of how this change in the law will affect their practice. For an individual to consent, they need to have both the capacity and freedom to exercise rational thought. These concepts are challenged in contemporary biomedical ethics...
August 7, 2017: Physiotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352553/why-measuring-quality-of-mental-health-care-is-still-an-unmet-challenge-and-how-to-meet-it
#6
Mirella Ruggeri
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: World Psychiatry: Official Journal of the World Psychiatric Association (WPA)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352514/an-integrative-review-exploring-the-physical-and-psychological-harm-inherent-in-using-restraint-in-mental-health-inpatient-settings
#7
Pauline Cusack, Frank Patrick Cusack, Sue McAndrew, Mick McKeown, Joy Duxbury
In Western society, policy and legislation seeks to minimize restrictive interventions, including physical restraint; yet research suggests the use of such practices continues to raise concerns. Whilst international agreement has sought to define physical restraint, diversity in the way in which countries use restraint remains disparate. Research to date has reported on statistics regarding restraint, how and why it is used, and staff and service user perspectives about its use. However, there is limited evidence directly exploring the physical and psychological harm restraint may cause to people being cared for within mental health inpatient settings...
January 19, 2018: International Journal of Mental Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352509/molecular-evidence-to-suggest-pigeon-type-chlamydia-psittaci-in-association-with-an-equine-foal-loss
#8
M Jelocnik, C Jenkins, B O'Rourke, J Barnwell, A Polkinghorne
Chlamydia psittaci is an important avian pathogen with spillover from infected wild and domesticated birds also posing a risk to human health. We recently reported a case of C. psittaci equine placentitis associated with further spillover to humans. Molecular typing of this case revealed it belonged to the 6BC clade of C. psittaci, a globally distributed highly virulent set of strains, typically linked to infection spillover from parrots. Equine chlamydiosis associated with C. psittaci infection has previously been reported elsewhere in countries where parrots are not endemic, however, raising questions over the identity of infecting C...
January 19, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352495/ultrasonographic-based-predictive-factors-influencing-successful-return-to-racing-after-superficial-digital-flexor-tendon-injuries-in-flat-racehorses-a-retrospective-cohort-study-in-469-thoroughbred-racehorses-in-hong-kong
#9
R Alzola, C Easter, C M Riggs, D S Gardner, S L Freeman
BACKGROUND: Superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) injury is an important health and welfare concern in racehorses. It is generally diagnosed with ultrasonography, predictive ultrasonographic features have not been reported. OBJECTIVES: To determine ultrasonographic features of forelimb SDFT injury at initial presentation in Thoroughbred racehorses, that could predict a successful return to racing (completing ≥5 races). STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study...
January 20, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352469/amoxicillin-current-use-in-swine-medicine
#10
REVIEW
D G S Burch, D Sperling
Amoxicillin has become a major antimicrobial substance in pig medicine for the treatment and control of severe, systemic infections such as Streptococcus suis. The minimum inhibitory concentration 90% (MIC 90) is 0.06 μg amoxicillin/ml, and the proposed epidemiological cut-off value (ECOFF) is 0.5 μg/ml, giving only 0.7% of isolates above the ECOFF or of reduced susceptibility. Clinical breakpoints have not been set for amoxicillin against porcine pathogens yet, hence the use of ECOFFs. It has also been successfully used for bacterial respiratory infections caused by Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and Pasteurella multocida...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352265/type-i-ifn-operates-pyroptosis-and-necroptosis-during-multidrug-resistant-a-baumannii-infection
#11
Yang Li, Xiaomin Guo, Chunmiao Hu, Yan Du, Chuansheng Guo, Di Wang, Weiheng Zhao, Gonghua Huang, Chunliang Li, Qiumin Lu, Ren Lai, Tao Xu, Xiaopeng Qi
Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii, a common pathogen responsible for nosocomial infections, is the main cause for outbreaks of infectious diseases, such as pneumonia, meningitis, and bacteremia, especially among critically ill patients. Epidemic A. baumannii is a growing public health concern as it is resistant to all existing antimicrobial agents, thereby necessitating the development of new therapeutic approaches to mount an effective immune response against this bacterial pathogen. In this study, we identified a critical role for type I interferon (IFN) in epigenetic regulation during A...
January 19, 2018: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352207/ethanol-sensitizes-hepatocytes-for-tgf-%C3%AE-triggered-apoptosis
#12
Haristi Gaitantzi, Christoph Meyer, Pia Rakoczy, Maria Thomas, Kristin Wahl, Franziska Wandrer, Heike Bantel, Hamed Alborzinia, Stefan Wölfl, Sabrina Ehnert, Andreas Nüssler, Ina Bergheim, Loredana Ciuclan, Matthias Ebert, Katja Breitkopf-Heinlein, Steven Dooley
Alcohol abuse is a global health problem causing a substantial fraction of chronic liver diseases. Abundant TGF-β-a potent pro-fibrogenic cytokine-leads to disease progression. Our aim was to elucidate the crosstalk of TGF-β and alcohol on hepatocytes. Primary murine hepatocytes were challenged with ethanol and TGF-β and cell fate was determined. Fluidigm RNA analyses revealed transcriptional effects that regulate survival and apoptosis. Mechanistic insights were derived from enzyme/pathway inhibition experiments and modulation of oxidative stress levels...
January 19, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352200/meta-analysis-of-soil-mercury-accumulation-by-vegetables
#13
Haixin Yu, Jing Li, Yaning Luan
Mercury pollution in soil poses serious risks to human health through consumption of contaminated vegetables. We used a meta-analysis to examine the mercury enrichment ability of different vegetables and the main factors affecting mercury uptake. We drew the following conclusions. (1) Plants with a lower bioconcentration factor (BCF) include cowpea, long bean, and radish, whereas plants with a higher BCF include green pepper, spinach, cabbage, and Chinese cabbage. (2) Leaf and cucurbit have the highest and lowest capacity, respectively, for mercury enrichment...
January 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352087/subtype-specific-selection-for-resistance-to-fluoroquinolones-but-not-to-tetracyclines-occurs-in-campylobacter-jejuni-from-beef-cattle-in-confined-feeding-operations-in-southern-alberta-canada
#14
Andrew L Webb, L Brent Selinger, Eduardo N Taboada, G Douglas Inglis
Campylobacter jejuni was longitudinally isolated from beef cattle housed in four confined feeding operations (CFOs) in southern Alberta over 18 months. All of the cattle were administered a variety of antimicrobial agents (AMAs) non-therapeutically and metaphylactically during their time in the CFOs. In total, 7966 C. jejuni isolates were recovered from cattle. More animals were colonized by the bacterium after >60 days in the CFO (i.e. interim) compared to individuals upon entry at the CFO (i.e. arrival)...
January 19, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352036/multiple-memory-systems-multiple-time-points-how-science-can-inform-treatment-to-control-the-expression-of-unwanted-emotional-memories
#15
REVIEW
Renée M Visser, Alex Lau-Zhu, Richard N Henson, Emily A Holmes
Memories that have strong emotions associated with them are particularly resilient to forgetting. This is not necessarily problematic, however some aspects of memory can be. In particular, the involuntary expression of those memories, e.g. intrusive memories after trauma, are core to certain psychological disorders. Since the beginning of this century, research using animal models shows that it is possible to change the underlying memory, for example by interfering with its consolidation or reconsolidation...
March 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352032/the-surprising-subtleties-of-changing-fear-memory-a-challenge-for-translational-science
#16
REVIEW
Merel Kindt
Current pharmacological and psychological treatments for disorders of emotional memory only dampen the affective response while leaving the original fear memory intact. Under adverse circumstances, these original memories regain prominence, causing relapses in many patients. The (re)discovery in neuroscience that after reactivation consolidated fear memories may return to a transient labile state, requiring a process of restabilization in order to persist, offers a window of opportunity for modifying fear memories with amnestic agents...
March 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352030/the-daunting-polygenicity-of-mental-illness-making-a-new-map
#17
REVIEW
Steven E Hyman
An epochal opportunity to elucidate the pathogenic mechanisms of psychiatric disorders has emerged from advances in genomic technology, new computational tools and the growth of international consortia committed to data sharing. The resulting large-scale, unbiased genetic studies have begun to yield new biological insights and with them the hope that a half century of stasis in psychiatric therapeutics will come to an end. Yet a sobering picture is coming into view; it reveals daunting genetic and phenotypic complexity portending enormous challenges for neurobiology...
March 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352028/the-mysteries-of-remote-memory
#18
REVIEW
Zimbul Albo, Johannes Gräff
Long-lasting memories form the basis of our identity as individuals and lie central in shaping future behaviours that guide survival. Surprisingly, however, our current knowledge of how such memories are stored in the brain and retrieved, as well as the dynamics of the circuits involved, remains scarce despite seminal technical and experimental breakthroughs in recent years. Traditionally, it has been proposed that, over time, information initially learnt in the hippocampus is stored in distributed cortical networks...
March 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351898/young-people-s-parents-and-professionals-views-on-required-components-of-mobile-apps-to-support-self-management-of-juvenile-arthritis-qualitative-study
#19
Jennifer M Waite-Jones, Rabiya Majeed-Ariss, Joanna Smith, Simon R Stones, Vanessa Van Rooyen, Veronica Swallow
BACKGROUND: There is growing evidence that supporting self-management of Juvenile Arthritis can benefit both patients and professionals. Young people with Juvenile Arthritis and their healthy peers increasingly use mobile technologies to access information and support in day-to-day life. Therefore, a user-led, rigorously developed and evaluated mobile app could be valuable for facilitating young people's self-management of Juvenile Arthritis. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to seek the views of young people with Juvenile Arthritis, their parents or carers, and health care professionals (HCPs) as to what should be included in a mobile app to facilitate young people's self-management of chronic Juvenile Arthritis...
January 19, 2018: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351894/the-use-of-technology-in-identifying-hospital-malnutrition-scoping-review
#20
REVIEW
Dino Trtovac, Joon Lee
BACKGROUND: Malnutrition is a condition most commonly arising from the inadequate consumption of nutrients necessary to maintain physiological health and is associated with the development of cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, and sarcopenia. Malnutrition occurring in the hospital setting is caused by insufficient monitoring, identification, and assessment efforts. Furthermore, the ability of health care workers to identify and recognize malnourished patients is suboptimal. Therefore, interventions focusing on the identification and treatment of malnutrition are valuable, as they reduce the risks and rates of malnutrition within hospitals...
January 19, 2018: JMIR Medical Informatics
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