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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222485/dose-response-modeling-in-mental-health-using-stein-like-estimators-with-instrumental-variables
#1
Cedric E Ginestet, Richard Emsley, Sabine Landau
A mental health trial is analyzed using a dose-response model, in which the number of sessions attended by the patients is deemed indicative of the dose of psychotherapeutic treatment. Here, the parameter of interest is the difference in causal treatment effects between the subpopulations that take part in different numbers of therapy sessions. For this data set, interactions between random treatment allocation and prognostic baseline variables provide the requisite instrumental variables. While the corresponding two-stage least squares (TSLS) estimator tends to have smaller bias than the ordinary least squares (OLS) estimator; the TSLS suffers from larger variance...
February 21, 2017: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222471/telemedizin-potenziale-in-der-notfallmedizin
#2
Jörg C Brokmann, Marc Felzen, Stefan K Beckers, Michael Czaplik, Frederik Hirsch, Sebastian Bergrath, Rolf Rossaint
The telemedical support and networking between health personnel and medical specialists increases the quality of supply also in the prehospital emergency care. Till now only for some tracer diagnosis specifically designed telemedical services were used. However, now a unique holistic telemedicine system, which can be used for the whole emergency spectrum as a supplementary feature has been developed. It can be used for the whole prehospital emergency care. The needfulness and meaningfulness of telemedicine as well as the important structural characteristics in prehospital emergency care are pictured...
February 2017: Anästhesiologie, Intensivmedizin, Notfallmedizin, Schmerztherapie: AINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222450/it-s-time-to-screen-for-bullying
#3
EDITORIAL
John Hickner
Because bullying occurs so frequently, public health, community-based, and school-based approaches, rather than one-on-one office-based interventions, are likely to have the greatest overall impact on decreasing bullying. Randomized trials bear this out, showing that prevention programs in schools can effectively reduce the behavior.
February 2017: Journal of Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222363/very-short-term-reactive-forecasting-of-the-solar-ultraviolet-index-using-an-extreme-learning-machine-integrated-with-the-solar-zenith-angle
#4
Ravinesh C Deo, Nathan Downs, Alfio V Parisi, Jan F Adamowski, John M Quilty
Exposure to erythemally-effective solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) that contributes to malignant keratinocyte cancers and associated health-risk is best mitigated through innovative decision-support systems, with global solar UV index (UVI) forecast necessary to inform real-time sun-protection behaviour recommendations. It follows that the UVI forecasting models are useful tools for such decision-making. In this study, a model for computationally-efficient data-driven forecasting of diffuse and global very short-term reactive (VSTR) (10-min lead-time) UVI, enhanced by drawing on the solar zenith angle (θs) data, was developed using an extreme learning machine (ELM) algorithm...
February 18, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222340/a-comparative-retrospective-exploration-of-the-profiles-of-patients-in-south-africa-diagnosed-with-epileptic-and-psychogenic-non-epileptic-seizures
#5
David G Anderson, Maria Damianova, Skye Hanekom, Marilyn Lucas
Psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) have a high prevalence globally but the accurate diagnosis of this condition still remains a challenge. This is particularly the case in countries where there is scarce expertise and insufficient affordable medical facilities to which patients have access. The rate of PNES diagnosis in epilepsy units is typically within the range of 20 to 30%. In the context of developing countries, this rate tends to be higher and increases demand on the existing scarce health care capacities...
February 18, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222240/a-computerized-family-planning-counseling-aid-a%C3%A2-pilot%C3%A2-study-evaluation-of-smart-choices
#6
Helen P Koo, Ellen K Wilson, Alexandra M Minnis
CONTEXT: Resource constraints may make it challenging for family planning clinics to provide comprehensive contraceptive counseling; technological tools that help providers follow recommended practices without straining resources merit evaluation. METHODS: A pilot study using a two-group, posttest-only experimental design evaluated Smart Choices, a computer-based tool designed to help providers offer more patient-centered counseling and enable patients to participate proactively in the counseling session...
February 21, 2017: Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222159/the-role-of-spatial-mobility-in-malaria-transmission-in-the-brazilian-amazon-the-case-of-porto-velho-municipality-rond%C3%A3-nia-brazil-2010-2012
#7
Jussara Rafael Angelo, Tony Hiroshi Katsuragawa, Paulo Chagastelles Sabroza, Lino Augusto Sander de Carvalho, Luiz Hildebrando Pereira da Silva, Carlos Afonso Nobre
BACKGROUND: This study aims to describe the role of mobility in malaria transmission by discussing recent changes in population movements in the Brazilian Amazon and developing a flow map of disease transmission in this region. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study presents a descriptive analysis using an ecological approach on regional and local scales. The study location was the municipality of Porto Velho, which is the capital of Rondônia state, Brazil...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222127/unusual-pattern-of-chikungunya-virus-epidemic-in-the-americas-the-panamanian-experience
#8
Jean-Paul Carrera, Yamilka Díaz, Bernardino Denis, Itza Barahona de Mosca, Dennys Rodriguez, Israel Cedeño, Dimelza Arauz, Publio González, Lizbeth Cerezo, Lourdes Moreno, Lourdes García, Lisseth E Sáenz, María Aneth Atencio, Eddy Rojas-Fermin, Fernando Vizcaino, Nicolas Perez, Brechla Moreno, Sandra López-Vergès, Anayansi Valderrama, Blas Armién
BACKGROUND: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) typically causes explosive epidemics of fever, rash and polyarthralgia after its introduction into naïve populations. Since its introduction in Panama in May of 2014, few autochthonous cases have been reported; most of them were found within limited outbreaks in Panama City in 2014 and Puerto Obaldia town, near the Caribbean border with Colombia in 2015. In order to confirm that Panama had few CHIKV cases compared with neighboring countries, we perform an epidemiological analysis of chikungunya cases reported from May 2014 to July 2015...
February 21, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222117/two-dynamic-regimes-in-the-human-gut-microbiome
#9
Sean M Gibbons, Sean M Kearney, Chris S Smillie, Eric J Alm
The gut microbiome is a dynamic system that changes with host development, health, behavior, diet, and microbe-microbe interactions. Prior work on gut microbial time series has largely focused on autoregressive models (e.g. Lotka-Volterra). However, we show that most of the variance in microbial time series is non-autoregressive. In addition, we show how community state-clustering is flawed when it comes to characterizing within-host dynamics and that more continuous methods are required. Most organisms exhibited stable, mean-reverting behavior suggestive of fixed carrying capacities and abundant taxa were largely shared across individuals...
February 21, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222016/a-review-of-the-challenge-in-measuring-and-standardizing-bcr-abl1
#10
Shuping Yu, Ming Cui, Xiao He, Rongrong Jing, Huimin Wang
Breakpoint cluster region-Abelson (BCR-ABL1) translocation is the characteristic sign of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). The quantitation of BCR-ABL1 messenger RNA is requisite for patients with CML, and reverse-transcription real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RQ-PCR) is the method used most extensively in testing laboratories worldwide. Nevertheless, substantial variation in RQ-PCR results from different laboratories makes interlaboratory comparability inconvincible owing to the lack of standardization...
February 21, 2017: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221978/quantitative-microbial-risk-assessment-for-escherichia-coli-o157-h7-in-fresh-cut-lettuce
#11
Hao Pang, Elisabetta Lambertini, Robert L Buchanan, Donald W Schaffner, Abani K Pradhan
Leafy green vegetables, including lettuce, are recognized as potential vehicles for foodborne pathogens such as Escherichia coli O157:H7. Fresh-cut lettuce is potentially at high risk of causing foodborne illnesses, as it is generally consumed without cooking. Quantitative microbial risk assessments (QMRAs) are gaining more attention as an effective tool to assess and control potential risks associated with foodborne pathogens. This study developed a QMRA model for E. coli O157:H7 in fresh-cut lettuce and evaluated the effects of different potential intervention strategies on the reduction of public health risks...
February 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221900/mental-health-disorders-associated-with-foodborne-pathogens
#12
Declan J Bolton, Lucy J Robertson
Human infections with foodborne pathogenic organisms are relatively well described in terms of their overt physical symptoms, such as diarrhea, abdominal cramps, vomiting, fever, and associated sequelae. Indeed, some of these are key for diagnosis and treatment, although it should be noted that, for some foodborne pathogens, the physical symptoms might be more diffuse, particularly those associated with some of the foodborne parasites. In contrast, the impact of these pathogens on mental health is less well described, and symptoms such as depression, anxiety, and general malaise are usually ignored when foodborne infections are recorded...
November 2016: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221820/risks-benefits-and-importance-of-collecting-sexual-orientation-and-gender-identity-data-in-healthcare-settings-a-multi-method-analysis-of-patient-and-provider-perspectives
#13
Allysha C Maragh-Bass, Maya Torain, Rachel Adler, Eric Schneider, Anju Ranjit, Lisa M Kodadek, Ryan Shields, Danielle German, Claire Snyder, Susan Peterson, Jeremiah Schuur, Brandyn Lau, Adil H Haider
PURPOSE: Research suggests that LGBT populations experience barriers to healthcare. Organizations such as the Institute of Medicine recommend routine documentation of sexual orientation (SO) and gender identity (GI) in healthcare, to reduce LGBT disparities. We explore patient views regarding the importance of SO/GI collection, and patient and provider views on risks and benefits of routine SO/GI collection in various settings. METHODS: We surveyed LGBT/non-LGBT patients and providers on their views on SO/GI collection...
February 21, 2017: LGBT Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221774/surface-electronic-state-modulated-single-crystalline-001-tio2-nanosheets-for-sensitive-electrochemical-sensing-of-heavy-metal-ions
#14
Wen-Yi Zhou, Jinyun Liu, Jieyao Song, Jinjin Li, Jinhuai Liu, Xing-Jiu Huang
Intrinsically low conductivity and poor reactivity restrict many semiconductors from electrochemical detection. Usually, metal- and carbon-based modifications of semiconductors are necessary, making them complex, expensive, and unstable. Here, for the first time, we present a surface-electronic-state-modulation-based concept applied to semiconductors. This concept enables pure semiconductors to be directly available for ultrasensitive electrochemical detection of heavy-metal ions without any modifications. As an example, a defective single-crystalline (001) TiO2 nanosheet exhibits high electrochemical performance toward Hg(II), including a sensitivity of 270...
February 21, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221668/effect-of-physical-activity-versus-health-education-on-physical-function-grip-strength-and-mobility
#15
Adam J Santanasto, Nancy W Glynn, Laura C Lovato, Steven N Blair, Roger A Fielding, Thomas M Gill, Jack M Guralnik, Fang-Chi Hsu, Abby C King, Elsa S Strotmeyer, Todd M Manini, Anthony P Marsh, Mary M McDermott, Bret H Goodpaster, Marco Pahor, Anne B Newman
BACKGROUND: Physical activity (PA) reduces the rate of mobility disability, compared with health education (HE), in at risk older adults. It is important to understand aspects of performance contributing to this benefit. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate intervention effects on tertiary physical performance outcomes. DESIGN: The Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders (LIFE) was a multi-centered, single-blind randomized trial of older adults...
February 21, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221213/validation-of-the-european-health-literacy-survey-questionnaire-in-women-with-breast-cancer
#16
Yi-Jing Huang, Gong-Hong Lin, Wen-Shian Lu, Ka-Wai Tam, Chiehfeng Chen, Wen-Hsuan Hou, Ching-Lin Hsieh
BACKGROUND: Health literacy enables effective communication, participation, and cooperation with clinicians of patients with breast cancer in healthcare processes. The European Health Literacy Survey Questionnaire (HLS-EU-Q) comprehensively assesses multiple conceptual domains of health literacy in a diverse range of health contexts. However, the HLS-EU-Q has not been validated in women with breast cancer. OBJECTIVES: We examined the psychometric properties, particularly the factorial validity, of the HLS-EU-Q in women with breast cancer...
February 17, 2017: Cancer Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221186/evaluation-of-electronic-health-record-implementation-in-hospitals
#17
Ahmad Tubaishat
The effectiveness of electronic health records has not previously been widely evaluated. Thus, this national cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate electronic health records, from the perspective of nurses, by examining how they use the records, their opinions on the quality of the systems, and their overall levels of satisfaction with electronic health records. The relationship between these constructs was measured, and its predictors were investigated. A random sample of Jordanian hospitals that used electronic health records was selected, and data were gathered using a self-administered questionnaire, based on the DeLone and McLean Information Systems Success model...
February 17, 2017: Computers, Informatics, Nursing: CIN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221185/antipyretic-therapy-in-critically-ill-septic-patients-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#18
Anne M Drewry, Enyo A Ablordeppey, Ellen T Murray, Carolyn R T Stoll, Sonya R Izadi, Catherine M Dalton, Angela C Hardi, Susan A Fowler, Brian M Fuller, Graham A Colditz
OBJECTIVE: This meta-analysis aimed to examine the impact of antipyretic therapy on mortality in critically ill septic adults. DATA SOURCES: Literature searches were implemented in Ovid Medline, Embase, Scopus, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, NHS Economic Evaluation Database, and ClinicalTrials.gov through February 2016. STUDY SELECTION: Inclusion criteria were observational or randomized studies of septic patients, evaluation of antipyretic treatment, mortality reported, and English-language version available...
February 17, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221178/non-neuraxial-labor-analgesia-options
#19
John C Markley, Mark D Rollins
Although it is the most effective method to treat labor pain, neuraxial analgesia may be undesired, contraindicated, unsuccessful, or unavailable. Providing safe choices for labor pain relief is a central goal of health care providers alike. Consequently, knowledge of the efficacy, clinical implementation, and side effects of various non-neuraxial strategies is needed to provide appropriate options for laboring patients. In addition to nonpharmacologic alternatives, inhaled nitrous oxide and systemic opioids represent two broad classes of non-neuraxial pharmacologic labor analgesia most commonly available...
February 17, 2017: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221138/-epidemiology-of-urinary-lithiasis-in-spain-new-scenarios
#20
Julia Carrasco Valiente, Enrique Gómez Gómez, María José Requena Tapia
Renal lithiasis is one of the most common disorders in modern society, constituting an important health problem that associates a great economic burden. The nature of stone disease varies according to age and sex, being also influenced by dietary and lifestyle factors, and climatic variations among others. In spite of the advances made in the management of this pathology, it continues being a disease with a high recurrence rate. In recent years, several studies have pointed out that its prevalence is rising especially in developed countries...
January 2017: Archivos Españoles de Urología
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