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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430249/study-of-a-reflection-grating-used-in-littrow-mount
#1
D M Capps
The near and far fields of a finite conductivity metallic grating with symmetrical triangular facets, used in Littrow mount, are studied. A new Green's function approach, based on the Hertz vector, is introduced and used to propagate throughout a two-dimensional domain. The field quantity of primary interest is Poynting's vector; however, the stored power is also calculated. In assessing the fields generated by the propagator, a quasi-periodic dependence of output characteristics on the grating depth to period ratio, discussed in the literature, is also found in the present study...
April 20, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408878/reward-based-motor-adaptation-mediated-by-basal-ganglia
#2
Taegyo Kim, Khaldoun C Hamade, Dmitry Todorov, William H Barnett, Robert A Capps, Elizaveta M Latash, Sergey N Markin, Ilya A Rybak, Yaroslav I Molkov
It is widely accepted that the basal ganglia (BG) play a key role in action selection and reinforcement learning. However, despite considerable number of studies, the BG architecture and function are not completely understood. Action selection and reinforcement learning are facilitated by the activity of dopaminergic neurons, which encode reward prediction errors when reward outcomes are higher or lower than expected. The BG are thought to select proper motor responses by gating appropriate actions, and suppressing inappropriate ones...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406176/male-alliance-behaviour-and-mating-access-varies-with-habitat-in-a-dolphin-social-network
#3
Richard C Connor, William R Cioffi, Srđan Randić, Simon J Allen, Jana Watson-Capps, Michael Krützen
Within-species variation in social structure has attracted interest recently because of the potential to explore phenotypic plasticity and, specifically, how demographic and ecological variation influence social structure. Populations of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops spp.) vary in male alliance formation, from no alliances to simple pairs to, in Shark Bay, Western Australia, the most complex nested alliances known outside of humans. Examination of ecological contributions to this variation is complicated by differences among populations in other potentially explanatory traits, such as phylogenetic distance, as well as female reproductive schedules, sexual size dimorphism, and body size...
April 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399596/antral-follicles-count-and-anti-m%C3%A3-llerian-hormone-levels-after-gonadotoxic-chemotherapy-in-patients-with-breast-cancer-cohort-study
#4
Ângela Marcon D'Avila, Edison Capp, Helena von Eye Corleta
Aim To assess ovarian reserve (OVR) by means of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), and antral follicle count (AFC) measurement in eumenorrheic women with breast cancer, exposed to gonadotoxic chemotherapy. Method Fifty-two women (35.3 ± 3.8 years old) with breast cancer and undergoing cyclophosphamide-containing chemotherapy were enrolled. The assessment was performed before chemotherapy (T1) and after 2 (T2) and 6 months (T3). Results Six months after chemotherapy, the prevalence of regular cycles was 60%...
April 2017: Revista Brasileira de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399311/molecular-markers-of-pesticide-resistance-and-pathogens-in-human-head-lice-phthiraptera-pediculidae-from-rural-georgia-usa
#5
Marina E Eremeeva, Danielle Capps, Emmanuel B Winful, Shamta S Warang, Sarah E Braswell, Nikolay K Tokarevich, Denise L Bonilla, Lance A Durden
Although the head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer, and body louse, Pediculus humanus humanus L., both have a worldwide distribution, the occurrence of head louse pediculosis appears to be more prevalent in modern societies despite systematic use of various pediculicides. This study tested head lice collected in rural Georgia and body lice collected in Russia for the prevalence of a kdr-biomarker that is associated with permethrin resistance. This study also screened lice for the presence of DNA from Bartonella quintana and Acinetobacter species...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398474/expect-the-unexpected-screening-for-secondary-findings-in-clinical-genomics-research
#6
Michael P Mackley, Benjamin Capps
Background: Due to decreasing cost, and increasing speed and precision, genomic sequencing in research is resulting in the generation of vast amounts of genetic data. The question of how to manage that information has been an area of significant debate. In particular, there has been much discussion around the issue of 'secondary findings' (SF)-findings unrelated to the research that have diagnostic significance. Sources of data: The following includes ethical commentaries, guidelines and policies in respect to large-scale clinical genomics studies...
April 7, 2017: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395370/intra-articular-tranexamic-acid-in-primary-total-knee-arthroplasty-meta-analysis
#7
Joseph T Moskal, Susan G Capps
Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is associated with an increased need for blood transfusions and thus an increase in risks associated with blood transfusion such as transfusion reactions, infections, fluid overload, and altered mental status. Tranexamic acid (TXA) is an antifibrinolytic medication that can reduce perioperative blood loss in TKA. However, the best method of delivery has not been defined although topical intra-articular TXA (IA-TXA) may have a theoretical advantage as it is applied directly when and where it is needed to control bleeding...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Knee Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358809/oxidative-modification-and-electrochemical-inactivation-of-escherichia-coli-upon-cold-atmospheric-pressure-plasma-exposure
#8
Marlène Dezest, Anne-Laure Bulteau, Damien Quinton, Laurent Chavatte, Mickael Le Bechec, Jean Pierre Cambus, Stéphane Arbault, Anne Nègre-Salvayre, Franck Clément, Sarah Cousty
Cold atmospheric pressure plasmas (CAPPs) are known to have bactericidal effects but the mechanism of their interaction with microorganisms remains poorly understood. In this study the bacteria Escherichia coli were used as a model and were exposed to CAPPs. Different gas compositions, helium with or without adjunctions of nitrogen or oxygen, were used. Our results indicated that CAPP induced bacterial death at decontamination levels depend on the duration, post-treatment storage and the gas mixture composition used for the treatment...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334154/ethical-issues-of-crispr-technology-and-gene-editing-through-the-lens-of-solidarity
#9
John J Mulvihill, Benjamin Capps, Yann Joly, Tamra Lysaght, Hub A E Zwart, Ruth Chadwick
Background: The avalanche of commentaries on CRISPR-Cas9 technology, a bacterial immune system modified to recognize any short DNA sequence, cut it out, and insert a new one, has rekindled hopes for gene therapy and other applications and raised criticisms of engineering genes in future generations. Sources of data: This discussion draws on articles that emphasize ethics, identified partly through PubMed and Google, 2014-2016. Areas of agreement: CRISPR-Cas9 has taken the pace and prospects for genetic discovery and applications to a high level, stoking anticipation for somatic gene engineering to help patients...
February 23, 2017: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326430/still-no-single-gold-standard-for-using-cementless-femoral-stems-routinely-in-total-hip-arthroplasty
#10
Joseph T Moskal, Susan G Capps, John A Scanelli
BACKGROUND: There is now a clear trend with increased usage of cementless femoral stems for all ages and most patients. As the number of total hip arthroplasties (THAs) performed annually continues to increase with expanding indications for THA and demands for improved quality of life, so will the prevalence of THA in the elderly and aging populations. This is worrisome as the risk of complications with cementless femoral stems increases in elderly patients and those with poor bone quality...
December 2016: Arthroplasty Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300476/ovarian-steroid-hormones-modulate-the-expression-of-progesterone-receptors-and-histone-acetylation-patterns-in-uterine-leiomyoma-cells
#11
Gabriela Dos Santos Sant'Anna, Ilma Simoni Brum, Gisele Branchini, Lolita Schneider Pizzolato, Edison Capp, Helena von Eye Corleta
Uterine leiomyomas are the most common benign smooth muscle cell tumors in women. Estrogen (E2), progesterone (P4) and environmental factors play important roles in the development of these tumors. New treatments, such as mifepristone, have been proposed. We evaluated the gene expression of total (PRT) and B (PRB) progesterone receptors, and the histone acetyltransferase (HAT) and deacetylase (HDAC) activity after treatment with E2, P4 and mifepristone (RU486) in primary cell cultures from uterine leiomyoma and normal myometrium...
March 16, 2017: Gynecological Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287436/plasma-based-degradation-of-mycotoxins-produced-by-fusarium-aspergillus-and-alternaria-species
#12
Lars Ten Bosch, Katharina Pfohl, Georg Avramidis, Stephan Wieneke, Wolfgang Viöl, Petr Karlovsky
The efficacy of cold atmospheric pressure plasma (CAPP) with ambient air as working gas for the degradation of selected mycotoxins was studied. Deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, enniatins, fumonisin B1, and T2 toxin produced by Fusarium spp., sterigmatocystin produced by Aspergillus spp. and AAL toxin produced by Alternaria alternata were used. The kinetics of the decay of mycotoxins exposed to plasma discharge was monitored. All pure mycotoxins exposed to CAPP were degraded almost completely within 60 s. Degradation rates varied with mycotoxin structure: fumonisin B1 and structurally related AAL toxin were degraded most rapidly while sterigmatocystin exhibited the highest resistance to degradation...
March 10, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274148/selection-of-developmentally-competent-human-oocytes-aspirated-during-cesarean-section
#13
Diego Duarte Alcoba, Edimárlei Gonsales Valério, Maiara Conzatti, Júlia Schneider, Edison Capp, Helena von Eye Corleta, Ilma Simoni Brum
PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficiency/safety of Brilliant Cresyl Blue (BCB) staining as a selection method of developmentally competent immature human oocytes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Immature oocytes of 32 pregnant women were recovered during cesarean section (CS). After retrieval, 92 oocytes were randomly divided into two groups: control (directly disposed to in vitro maturation - IVM) and treated - exposed to BCB 26 μM during 60 min. After staining, the treated group was classified as cytoplasm coloration, BCB positive (blue) or negative (colorless), and then disposed to IVM...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263380/a-global-database-of-nitrogen-and-phosphorus-excretion-rates-of-aquatic-animals
#14
Michael J Vanni, Peter B McIntyre, Dennis Allen, Diane L Arnott, Jonathan P Benstead, David J Berg, Åge Brabrand, Sébastien Brosse, Paul A Bukaveckas, Adriano Caliman, Krista A Capps, Luciana S Carneiro, Nanette E Chadwick, Alan D Christian, Andrew Clarke, Joseph D Conroy, Wyatt F Cross, David A Culver, Christopher M Dalton, Jennifer A Devine, Leah M Domine, Michelle A Evans-White, Bjørn A Faafeng, Alexander S Flecker, Keith B Gido, Claire Godinot, Rafael D Guariento, Susanne Haertel-Borer, Robert O Hall, Raoul Henry, Brian R Herwig, Brendan J Hicks, Karen A Higgins, James M Hood, Matthew E Hopton, Tsutomu Ikeda, William F James, Henrice M Jansen, Cody R Johnson, Benjamin J Koch, Gary A Lamberti, Stephanie Lessard-Pilon, John C Maerz, Martha E Mather, Ryan A McManamay, Joseph R Milanovich, Dai K J Morgan, Jennifer M Moslemi, Rahmat Naddafi, Jens Petter Nilssen, Marc Pagano, Alberto Pilati, David M Post, Modi Roopin, Amanda T Rugenski, Maynard H Schaus, Joseph Shostell, Gaston E Small, Christopher T Solomon, Sean C Sterrett, Øivind Strand, Marjo Tarvainen, Jason M Taylor, Lisette E Torres-Gerald, Caroline B Turner, Jotaro Urabe, Shin-Ichi Uye, Anne-Mari Ventelä, Sébastien Villeger, Matt R Whiles, Frank M Wilhelm, Henry F Wilson, Marguerite A Xenopoulos, Kyle D Zimmer
Animals can be important in modulating ecosystem-level nutrient cycling, although their importance varies greatly among species and ecosystems. Nutrient cycling rates of individual animals represent valuable data for testing the predictions of important frameworks such as the Metabolic Theory of Ecology (MTE) and ecological stoichiometry (ES). They also represent an important set of functional traits that may reflect both environmental and phylogenetic influences. Over the past two decades, studies of animal-mediated nutrient cycling have increased dramatically, especially in aquatic ecosystems...
March 6, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255991/factors-associated-with-early-readmission-among-patients-discharged-to-post-acute-care-facilities
#15
Carolyn Horney, Roberta Capp, Rebecca Boxer, Robert E Burke
BACKGROUND: Over a quarter of Medicare patients admitted to the hospital are discharged to post-acute care (PAC) facilities, but face high rates of readmission. Timing of readmission may be an important factor in identifying both risk for and preventability of future readmissions. This study aims to define factors associated with readmission within the first week of discharge to PAC facilities following hospitalization. DESIGN AND MEASUREMENTS: This was a secondary analysis of the 2011 Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) State Inpatient Databases (SID) for California, Massachusetts, and Florida...
March 3, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247202/ethical-and-regulatory-challenges-with-autologous-adult-stem-cells-a-comparative-review-of-international-regulations
#16
Tamra Lysaght, Ian H Kerridge, Douglas Sipp, Gerard Porter, Benjamin J Capps
Cell and tissue-based products, such as autologous adult stem cells, are being prescribed by physicians across the world for diseases and illnesses that they have neither been approved for or been demonstrated as safe and effective in formal clinical trials. These doctors often form part of informal transnational networks that exploit differences and similarities in the regulatory systems across geographical contexts. In this paper, we examine the regulatory infrastructure of five geographically diverse but socio-economically comparable countries with the aim of identifying similarities and differences in how these products are regulated and governed within clinical contexts...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212416/the-variability-of-multisensory-processes-of-natural-stimuli-in-human-and-non-human-primates-in-a-detection-task
#17
Cécile Juan, Céline Cappe, Baptiste Alric, Benoit Roby, Sophie Gilardeau, Pascal Barone, Pascal Girard
BACKGROUND: Behavioral studies in both human and animals generally converge to the dogma that multisensory integration improves reaction times (RTs) in comparison to unimodal stimulation. These multisensory effects depend on diverse conditions among which the most studied were the spatial and temporal congruences. Further, most of the studies are using relatively simple stimuli while in everyday life, we are confronted to a large variety of complex stimulations constantly changing our attentional focus over time, a modality switch that can impact on stimuli detection...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198846/femtosecond-two-photon-laser-induced-fluorescence-of-krypton-for-high-speed-flow-imaging
#18
Yejun Wang, Cade Capps, Waruna D Kulatilaka
Ultrashort-pulse (femtosecond-duration) two-photon laser-induced fluorescence (fs-TPLIF) of an inert gas tracer krypton (Kr) is investigated. A detailed spectroscopic study of fluorescence channels followed by the 5p<sup>'</sup>←←4p excitation of Kr at 204.1 nm is reported. The experimental line positions in the 750-840 nm emission region agree well with the NIST Atomic Spectra Database. The present work provides an accurate listing of relative line strengths in this spectral region. In the range of laser pulse energies investigated, a quadratic dependence was observed between the Kr-TPLIF signal and the laser pulse energy...
February 15, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146475/mega-evolutionary-dynamics-of-the-adaptive-radiation-of-birds
#19
Christopher R Cooney, Jen A Bright, Elliot J R Capp, Angela M Chira, Emma C Hughes, Christopher J A Moody, Lara O Nouri, Zoë K Varley, Gavin H Thomas
The origin and expansion of biological diversity is regulated by both developmental trajectories and limits on available ecological niches. As lineages diversify, an early and often rapid phase of species and trait proliferation gives way to evolutionary slow-downs as new species pack into ever more densely occupied regions of ecological niche space. Small clades such as Darwin's finches demonstrate that natural selection is the driving force of adaptive radiations, but how microevolutionary processes scale up to shape the expansion of phenotypic diversity over much longer evolutionary timescales is unclear...
February 16, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141671/community-health-workers-addressing-client-objectives-among-frequent-emergency-department-users
#20
Bethany M Kwan, Amy Rockwood, Brian Bandle, Douglas Fernald, Mika K Hamer, Roberta Capp
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate effectiveness of a community health worker (CHW) program designed to address client objectives among frequent emergency department (ED) users. DESIGN: Program evaluation using secondary analysis of client objectives from program records. Client objectives were characterized according to the World Health Organization's social determinants of health framework. Hierarchical generalized linear modeling was used to assess factors associated with objective achievement...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
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