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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334154/ethical-issues-of-crispr-technology-and-gene-editing-through-the-lens-of-solidarity
#1
John J Mulvihill, Benjamin Capps, Yann Joly, Tamra Lysaght, Hub A E Zwart, Ruth Chadwick
Background: The avalanche of commentaries on CRISPR-Cas9 technology, a bacterial immune system modified to recognize any short DNA sequence, cut it out, and insert a new one, has rekindled hopes for gene therapy and other applications and raised criticisms of engineering genes in future generations. Sources of data: This discussion draws on articles that emphasize ethics, identified partly through PubMed and Google, 2014-2016. Areas of agreement: CRISPR-Cas9 has taken the pace and prospects for genetic discovery and applications to a high level, stoking anticipation for somatic gene engineering to help patients...
February 23, 2017: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326430/still-no-single-gold-standard-for-using-cementless-femoral-stems-routinely-in-total-hip-arthroplasty
#2
Joseph T Moskal, Susan G Capps, John A Scanelli
BACKGROUND: There is now a clear trend with increased usage of cementless femoral stems for all ages and most patients. As the number of total hip arthroplasties (THAs) performed annually continues to increase with expanding indications for THA and demands for improved quality of life, so will the prevalence of THA in the elderly and aging populations. This is worrisome as the risk of complications with cementless femoral stems increases in elderly patients and those with poor bone quality...
December 2016: Arthroplasty Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300476/ovarian-steroid-hormones-modulate-the-expression-of-progesterone-receptors-and-histone-acetylation-patterns-in-uterine-leiomyoma-cells
#3
Gabriela Dos Santos Sant'Anna, Ilma Simoni Brum, Gisele Branchini, Lolita Schneider Pizzolato, Edison Capp, Helena von Eye Corleta
Uterine leiomyomas are the most common benign smooth muscle cell tumors in women. Estrogen (E2), progesterone (P4) and environmental factors play important roles in the development of these tumors. New treatments, such as mifepristone, have been proposed. We evaluated the gene expression of total (PRT) and B (PRB) progesterone receptors, and the histone acetyltransferase (HAT) and deacetylase (HDAC) activity after treatment with E2, P4 and mifepristone (RU486) in primary cell cultures from uterine leiomyoma and normal myometrium...
March 16, 2017: Gynecological Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287436/plasma-based-degradation-of-mycotoxins-produced-by-fusarium-aspergillus-and-alternaria-species
#4
Lars Ten Bosch, Katharina Pfohl, Georg Avramidis, Stephan Wieneke, Wolfgang Viöl, Petr Karlovsky
The efficacy of cold atmospheric pressure plasma (CAPP) with ambient air as working gas for the degradation of selected mycotoxins was studied. Deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, enniatins, fumonisin B1, and T2 toxin produced by Fusarium spp., sterigmatocystin produced by Aspergillus spp. and AAL toxin produced by Alternaria alternata were used. The kinetics of the decay of mycotoxins exposed to plasma discharge was monitored. All pure mycotoxins exposed to CAPP were degraded almost completely within 60 s. Degradation rates varied with mycotoxin structure: fumonisin B1 and structurally related AAL toxin were degraded most rapidly while sterigmatocystin exhibited the highest resistance to degradation...
March 10, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274148/selection-of-developmentally-competent-human-oocytes-aspirated-during-cesarean-section
#5
Diego Duarte Alcoba, Edimárlei Gonsales Valério, Maiara Conzatti, Júlia Schneider, Edison Capp, Helena von Eye Corleta, Ilma Simoni Brum
PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficiency/safety of Brilliant Cresyl Blue (BCB) staining as a selection method of developmentally competent immature human oocytes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Immature oocytes of 32 pregnant women were recovered during cesarean section (CS). After retrieval, 92 oocytes were randomly divided into two groups: control (directly disposed to in vitro maturation - IVM) and treated - exposed to BCB 26 μM during 60 min. After staining, the treated group was classified as cytoplasm coloration, BCB positive (blue) or negative (colorless), and then disposed to IVM...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263380/a-global-database-of-nitrogen-and-phosphorus-excretion-rates-of-aquatic-animals
#6
Michael J Vanni, Peter B McIntyre, Dennis Allen, Diane L Arnott, Jonathan P Benstead, David J Berg, Åge Brabrand, Sébastien Brosse, Paul A Bukaveckas, Adriano Caliman, Krista A Capps, Luciana S Carneiro, Nanette E Chadwick, Alan D Christian, Andrew Clarke, Joseph D Conroy, Wyatt F Cross, David A Culver, Christopher M Dalton, Jennifer A Devine, Leah M Domine, Michelle A Evans-White, Bjørn A Faafeng, Alexander S Flecker, Keith B Gido, Claire Godinot, Rafael D Guariento, Susanne Haertel-Borer, Robert O Hall, Raoul Henry, Brian R Herwig, Brendan J Hicks, Karen A Higgins, James M Hood, Matthew E Hopton, Tsutomu Ikeda, William F James, Henrice M Jansen, Cody R Johnson, Benjamin J Koch, Gary A Lamberti, Stephanie Lessard-Pilon, John C Maerz, Martha E Mather, Ryan A McManamay, Joseph R Milanovich, Dai K J Morgan, Jennifer M Moslemi, Rahmat Naddafi, Jens Petter Nilssen, Marc Pagano, Alberto Pilati, David M Post, Modi Roopin, Amanda T Rugenski, Maynard H Schaus, Joseph Shostell, Gaston E Small, Christopher T Solomon, Sean C Sterrett, Øivind Strand, Marjo Tarvainen, Jason M Taylor, Lisette E Torres-Gerald, Caroline B Turner, Jotaro Urabe, Shin-Ichi Uye, Anne-Mari Ventelä, Sébastien Villeger, Matt R Whiles, Frank M Wilhelm, Henry F Wilson, Marguerite A Xenopoulos, Kyle D Zimmer
Animals can be important in modulating ecosystem-level nutrient cycling, although their importance varies greatly among species and ecosystems. Nutrient cycling rates of individual animals represent valuable data for testing the predictions of important frameworks such as the Metabolic Theory of Ecology (MTE) and ecological stoichiometry (ES). They also represent an important set of functional traits that may reflect both environmental and phylogenetic influences. Over the past two decades, studies of animal-mediated nutrient cycling have increased dramatically, especially in aquatic ecosystems...
March 6, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255991/factors-associated-with-early-readmission-among-patients-discharged-to-post-acute-care-facilities
#7
Carolyn Horney, Roberta Capp, Rebecca Boxer, Robert E Burke
BACKGROUND: Over a quarter of Medicare patients admitted to the hospital are discharged to post-acute care (PAC) facilities, but face high rates of readmission. Timing of readmission may be an important factor in identifying both risk for and preventability of future readmissions. This study aims to define factors associated with readmission within the first week of discharge to PAC facilities following hospitalization. DESIGN AND MEASUREMENTS: This was a secondary analysis of the 2011 Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) State Inpatient Databases (SID) for California, Massachusetts, and Florida...
March 3, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247202/ethical-and-regulatory-challenges-with-autologous-adult-stem-cells-a-comparative-review-of-international-regulations
#8
Tamra Lysaght, Ian H Kerridge, Douglas Sipp, Gerard Porter, Benjamin J Capps
Cell and tissue-based products, such as autologous adult stem cells, are being prescribed by physicians across the world for diseases and illnesses that they have neither been approved for or been demonstrated as safe and effective in formal clinical trials. These doctors often form part of informal transnational networks that exploit differences and similarities in the regulatory systems across geographical contexts. In this paper, we examine the regulatory infrastructure of five geographically diverse but socio-economically comparable countries with the aim of identifying similarities and differences in how these products are regulated and governed within clinical contexts...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212416/the-variability-of-multisensory-processes-of-natural-stimuli-in-human-and-non-human-primates-in-a-detection-task
#9
Cécile Juan, Céline Cappe, Baptiste Alric, Benoit Roby, Sophie Gilardeau, Pascal Barone, Pascal Girard
BACKGROUND: Behavioral studies in both human and animals generally converge to the dogma that multisensory integration improves reaction times (RTs) in comparison to unimodal stimulation. These multisensory effects depend on diverse conditions among which the most studied were the spatial and temporal congruences. Further, most of the studies are using relatively simple stimuli while in everyday life, we are confronted to a large variety of complex stimulations constantly changing our attentional focus over time, a modality switch that can impact on stimuli detection...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198846/femtosecond-two-photon-laser-induced-fluorescence-of-krypton-for-high-speed-flow-imaging
#10
Yejun Wang, Cade Capps, Waruna D Kulatilaka
Ultrashort-pulse (femtosecond-duration) two-photon laser-induced fluorescence (fs-TPLIF) of an inert gas tracer krypton (Kr) is investigated. A detailed spectroscopic study of fluorescence channels followed by the 5p<sup>'</sup>←←4p excitation of Kr at 204.1 nm is reported. The experimental line positions in the 750-840 nm emission region agree well with the NIST Atomic Spectra Database. The present work provides an accurate listing of relative line strengths in this spectral region. In the range of laser pulse energies investigated, a quadratic dependence was observed between the Kr-TPLIF signal and the laser pulse energy...
February 15, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146475/mega-evolutionary-dynamics-of-the-adaptive-radiation-of-birds
#11
Christopher R Cooney, Jen A Bright, Elliot J R Capp, Angela M Chira, Emma C Hughes, Christopher J A Moody, Lara O Nouri, Zoë K Varley, Gavin H Thomas
The origin and expansion of biological diversity is regulated by both developmental trajectories and limits on available ecological niches. As lineages diversify, an early and often rapid phase of species and trait proliferation gives way to evolutionary slow-downs as new species pack into ever more densely occupied regions of ecological niche space. Small clades such as Darwin's finches demonstrate that natural selection is the driving force of adaptive radiations, but how microevolutionary processes scale up to shape the expansion of phenotypic diversity over much longer evolutionary timescales is unclear...
February 16, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141671/community-health-workers-addressing-client-objectives-among-frequent-emergency-department-users
#12
Bethany M Kwan, Amy Rockwood, Brian Bandle, Douglas Fernald, Mika K Hamer, Roberta Capp
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate effectiveness of a community health worker (CHW) program designed to address client objectives among frequent emergency department (ED) users. DESIGN: Program evaluation using secondary analysis of client objectives from program records. Client objectives were characterized according to the World Health Organization's social determinants of health framework. Hierarchical generalized linear modeling was used to assess factors associated with objective achievement...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129409/justice-is-the-missing-link-in-one-health-results-of-a-mixed-methods-study-in-an-urban-city-state
#13
Tamra Lysaght, Benjamin Capps, Michele Bailey, David Bickford, Richard Coker, Zohar Lederman, Sangeetha Watson, Paul Anantharajah Tambyah
BACKGROUND: One Health (OH) is an interdisciplinary collaborative approach to human and animal health that aims to break down conventional research and policy 'silos'. OH has been used to develop strategies for zoonotic Emerging Infectious Diseases (EID). However, the ethical case for OH as an alternative to more traditional public health approaches is largely absent from the discourse. To study the ethics of OH, we examined perceptions of the human health and ecological priorities for the management of zoonotic EID in the Southeast Asia country of Singapore...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120925/mechanistic-insights-into-the-impact-of-cold-atmospheric-pressure-plasma-on-human-epithelial-cell-lines
#14
Marlène Dezest, Laurent Chavatte, Marion Bourdens, Damien Quinton, Mylène Camus, Luc Garrigues, Pascal Descargues, Stéphane Arbault, Odile Burlet-Schiltz, Louis Casteilla, Franck Clément, Valérie Planat, Anne-Laure Bulteau
Compelling evidence suggests that Cold Atmospheric Pressure Plasma (CAPP) has potential as a new cancer therapy. However, knowledge about cellular signaling events and toxicity subsequent to plasma treatment is still poorly documented. The aim of this study was to focus on the interaction between 3 different types of plasma (He, He-O2, He-N2) and human epithelial cell lines to gain better insight into plasma-cell interaction. We provide evidence that reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) are inducing cell death by apoptosis and that the proteasome, a major intracellular proteolytic system which is important for tumor cell growth and survival, is a target of (He or He-N2) CAPP...
January 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120813/control-of-spontaneous-emission-of-quantum-dots-using-correlated-effects-of-metal-oxides-and-dielectric-materials
#15
S M Sadeghi, W J Wing, R R Gutha, L Capps
We study the emission dynamics of semiconductor quantum dots in the presence of the correlated impact of metal oxides and dielectric materials. For this we used layered material structures consisting of a base substrate, a dielectric layer, and an ultrathin layer of a metal oxide. After depositing colloidal CdSe/ZnS quantum dots on the top of the metal oxide, we used spectral and time-resolved techniques to show that, depending on the type and thickness of the dielectric material, the metal oxide can characteristically change the interplay between intrinsic excitons, defect states, and the environment, offering new material properties...
January 25, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106554/recovery-from-proactive-semantic-interference-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-normal-aging-relationship-to-atrophy-in-brain-regions-vulnerable-to-alzheimer-s-disease
#16
David A Loewenstein, Rosie E Curiel, Clinton Wright, Xiaoyan Sun, Noam Alperin, Elzabeth Crocco, Sara J Czaja, Arlene Raffo, Ailyn Penate, Jose Melo, Kimberly Capp, Monica Gamez, Ranjan Duara
BACKGROUND: There is growing evidence that proactive semantic interference (PSI) and failure to recover from PSI may represent early features of Alzheimer's disease (AD). OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the association between PSI, recovery from PSI, and reduced MRI volumes in AD signature regions among cognitively impaired and unimpaired older adults. METHODS: Performance on the LASSI-L (a novel test of PSI and recovery from PSI) and regional brain volumetric measures were compared between 38 cognitively normal (CN) elders and 29 older participants with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI)...
2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063736/brilliant-cresyl-blue-staining-does-not-present-cytotoxic-effects-on-human-luteinized-follicular-cells-according-to-gene-protein-expression-as-well-as-to-cytotoxicity-tests
#17
Diego Duarte Alcoba, Júlia Schneider, Letícia Arruda, Patrícia Borba Martiny, Edison Capp, Helena von Eye Corleta, Ilma Simoni Brum
In vitro oocyte maturation presents many advantages and its success is related to the selection of fully grown oocytes. In animal models, staining of cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) with Brilliant Cresyl Blue (BCB) is widely used for this selection. However, a lack of information about the safety of BCB makes its applicability in humans questionable. Because granulosa and cumulus cells have a close relationship with the oocyte and taking into account that follicular cells are also exposed to BCB when this pre-selection method is applied, we aimed to evaluate the effects of BCB on human follicular cells exposed to BCB...
January 4, 2017: Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052327/tissue-disruption-increases-stochastic-gene-expression-thus-producing-tumours-cancer-initiation-without-driver-mutation
#18
REVIEW
Jean-Pascal Capp
Cancer research produced many paradoxical results in recent years. The reductionist approach now shows its limits. Considering the origin of the disease at the tissue level and increased stochastic gene expression (SGE) as a driving force, while admitting a role for genetic alterations in cancer progression, might solve these contradictions. Undifferentiated cells are characterized by open and accessible chromatin generating global and highly SGE (high expression noise) which is a hallmark of pluripotency, while differentiation is associated with progressive chromatin closing and decreased noise...
January 4, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042027/distant-heterotopic-callosal-connections-to-premotor-cortex-in-non-human-primates
#19
F Lanz, V Moret, R Ambett, C Cappe, E M Rouiller, G Loquet
Cortico-cortical connectivity has become a major focus of neuroscience in the last decade but most of the connectivity studies focused on intrahemispheric circuits. Little has been reported about information acquired and processed in the premotor cortex and its functional connection with its homotopic counterpart in the opposite hemisphere via the corpus callosum. In non-human primates (macaques) lateralization is not well documented and its exact role is still unknown. The present study confirms in two macaques the existence of homotopic contralateral projections and completes the picture by further exploring heterotopic (non-motor) callosal projections...
March 6, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027121/carcinogenesis-of-vulvar-lesions-morphology-and-immunohistochemistry-evaluation
#20
Raquel Camara Rivero, Deborah Garcia, Luciano Serpa Hammes, Marcelle Reesink Cerski, Valentino Magno, Lúcia Maria Kliemann, Edison Capp
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to assess the 2 pathways of vulvar carcinogenesis and correlate immunohistochemical expression of p53 with histopathological findings. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 76 cases. Patients were classified according to the 2004 International Society for the Study of Vulvovaginal Disease Terminology, followed by a review of clinical records and immunohistochemical staining for p53. RESULTS: Fifteen cases were in the human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated pathway (12 cases of usual vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia [VIN] and 3 of warty squamous cell carcinoma [SCC]), and 13 cases were in the HPV-independent pathway (5 cases of differentiated VIN and 8 of keratinizing SCC)...
January 2017: Journal of Lower Genital Tract Disease
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