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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213112/laminar-imaging-of-positive-and-negative-bold-in-human-visual-cortex-at-7t
#1
Alessio Fracasso, Peter R Luijten, Serge O Dumoulin, Natalia Petridou
Deciphering the direction of information flow is critical to understand the brain. Data from non-human primate histology shows that connections between lower to higher areas (e.g. retina→V1), and between higher to lower areas (e.g. V1←V2) can be dissociated based upon the distribution of afferent synapses at the laminar level. Ultra-high field scanners opened up the possibility to image brain structure and function at an unprecedented level of detail. Taking advantage of the increased spatial resolution available, it could theoretically be possible to disentangle activity from different cortical depths from human cerebral cortex, separately studying different compartments across depth...
February 14, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208069/neural-activity-during-production-of-rorschach-responses-an-fmri-study
#2
Luciano Giromini, Donald J Viglione, Alessandro Zennaro, Franco Cauda
Recently, a lot of effort has been made to ground Rorschach interpretations to their evidence base. To date, however, no studies have yet described, via fMRI, what brain areas get involved when one takes the Rorschach. To fill this gap in the literature, we administered the ten-inkblot stimuli to 26 healthy volunteers during fMRI. Analysis of BOLD signals revealed that, compared to fixating a cross, looking at the Rorschach inkblots while thinking of what they might be associated with higher temporo-occipital and fronto-parietal activations, and with greater activity in some small, sub-cortical regions included in the limbic system...
February 10, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207695/to-boldly-go
#3
Mariette DiChristina
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 14, 2017: Scientific American
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207389/an-efficient-reconstruction-algorithm-based-on-the-alternating-direction-method-of-multipliers-for-joint-estimation-of-r2-and-off-resonance-in-fmri
#4
Chenxi Hu, Stanley Reeves, Dana Peters, Donald Twieg
R 2 mapping is a useful tool in blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) fMRI due to its quantitative nature. However, like T 2 -weighted imaging, standard R 2 mapping based on multiecho EPI suffers from geometric distortion, due to strong offresonance near the air-tissue interface. Joint mapping of R 2 and off-resonance can correct the geometric distortion and is less susceptible to motion artifacts. Single-shot joint mapping of R 2 and off-resonance is possible with a rosette trajectory due to its frequent sampling of the k-space center...
February 13, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203153/bold-independent-computational-entropy-assesses-functional-donut-like-structures-in-brain-fmri-images
#5
James F Peters, Sheela Ramanna, Arturo Tozzi, Ebubekir İnan
We introduce a novel method for the measurement of information level in fMRI (functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging) neural data sets, based on image subdivision in small polygons equipped with different entropic content. We show how this method, called maximal nucleus clustering (MNC), is a novel, fast and inexpensive image-analysis technique, independent from the standard blood-oxygen-level dependent signals. MNC facilitates the objective detection of hidden temporal patterns of entropy/information in zones of fMRI images generally not taken into account by the subjective standpoint of the observer...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198067/verbal-spatial-iq-discrepancies-impact-brain-activation-associated-with-the-resolution-of-cognitive-conflict-in-children-and-adolescents
#6
Amy E Margolis, Katie S Davis, Lisa S Pao, Amy Lewis, Xiao Yang, Gregory Tau, Guihu Zhao, Zhishun Wang, Rachel Marsh
Verbal-spatial discrepancies are common in healthy individuals and in those with neurodevelopmental disorders associated with cognitive control deficits including: Autism Spectrum Disorder, Non-Verbal Learning Disability, Fragile X, 22q11 deletion, and Turner Syndrome. Previous data from healthy individuals suggest that the magnitude of the difference between verbal IQ (VIQ) and performance IQ (PIQ) scores (the VIQ>PIQ discrepancy) is associated with reduced thickness in frontal and parietal cortices (inferior frontal, anterior cingulate, inferior parietal lobule, and supramarginal gyrus) that support cognitive control...
February 15, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197105/investigating-the-role-of-glutamate-and-gaba-in-the-modulation-of-transthalamic-activity-a-combined-fmri-fmrs-study
#7
Nathalie Just, Sarah Sonnay
The Excitatory-Inhibitory balance (EIB) between glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons is known to regulate the function of thalamocortical neurocircuits. The thalamus is known as an important relay for glutamatergic and GABAergic signals ascending/descending to/from the somatosensory cortex in rodents. However, new investigations attribute a larger role to thalamic nuclei as modulators of information processing within the cortex. In this study, functional Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (fMRS) was used to measure glutamate (Glu) and GABA associations with BOLD responses during activation of the thalamus to barrel cortex (S1BF) pathway at 9...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190516/changes-in-the-correlation-between-spatial-and-temporal-source-memory-performance-and-bold-activity-across-the-adult-lifespan
#8
E Ankudowich, S Pasvanis, M N Rajah
Studies investigating age-related functional differences associated with source memory have recently focused on the importance of clarifying the relationship between effects of age and performance on memory-related brain activations. One methodological challenge has been in discriminating between effects of age on memory-related brain activations that are independent from age-related differences in performance. In the current study, event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to identify brain activity during spatial and temporal source encoding and retrieval across the adult lifespan...
January 12, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188814/how-people-with-multiple-sclerosis-cope-with-a-sustained-finger-motor-task-a-behavioural-and-fmri-study
#9
Laura Bonzano, Matteo Pardini, Luca Roccatagliata, Giovanni L Mancardi, Marco Bove
Motor and non-motor basal ganglia (BG) circuits can help healthy subjects cope with task-induced central fatigue and re-establish motor performance after deterioration. This work aimed to assess whether patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) were able to recover motor performance after deterioration due to a demanding task and whether BG activity played a role in performance recovery in this population. Fourteen patients with MS performed a finger-tapping sequence with their right hand during three fMRI sessions: at baseline, after a demanding finger motor task (5-min sequence repetition) and after a short rest period...
February 7, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187284/clonal-heterogeneity-and-tumor-evolution-past-present-and-the-future
#10
REVIEW
Nicholas McGranahan, Charles Swanton
Intratumor heterogeneity, which fosters tumor evolution, is a key challenge in cancer medicine. Here, we review data and technologies that have revealed intra-tumor heterogeneity across cancer types and the dynamics, constraints, and contingencies inherent to tumor evolution. We emphasize the importance of macro-evolutionary leaps, often involving large-scale chromosomal alterations, in driving tumor evolution and metastasis and consider the role of the tumor microenvironment in engendering heterogeneity and drug resistance...
February 9, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186661/brain-neurochemical-and-hemodynamic-findings-in-the-ny1dd-mouse-model-of-mild-sickle-cell-disease
#11
Min-Hui Cui, Sandra M Suzuka, Nicholas A Branch, Kamalakar Ambadipudi, Sangeetha Thangaswamy, Seetharama A Acharya, Henny H Billett, Craig A Branch
To characterize the cerebral profile associated with sickle cell disease (SCD), we used in vivo proton MRI and MRS to quantify hemodynamics and neurochemicals in the thalamus of NY1DD mice, a mild model of SCD, and compared them with wild-type (WT) control mice. Compared with WT mice, NY1DD mice at steady state had elevated cerebral blood flow (CBF) and concentrations of N-acetylaspartate (NAA), glutamate (Glu), alanine, total creatine and N-acetylaspartylglutamate. Concentrations of glutathione (GSH) at steady state showed a negative correlation with BOLD signal change in response to 100% oxygen, a marker for oxidative stress, and mean diffusivity assessed using diffusion-tensor imaging, a marker for edematous inflammation...
February 10, 2017: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185951/evaluation-of-slice-dithered-enhanced-resolution-simultaneous-multislice-slider-sms-for-human-fmri
#12
An T Vu, Alex Beckett, Kawin Setsompop, David A Feinberg
High isotropic resolution fMRI is challenging primarily due to long repetition times (TR) and insufficient SNR, especially at lower field strengths. Recently, Simultaneous Multi-Slice (SMS) imaging with blipped-CAIPI has substantially reduced scan time and improved SNR efficiency of fMRI. Similarly, super-resolution techniques utilizing sub- voxel spatial shifts in the slice direction have increased both resolution and SNR efficiency. Here we demonstrate the synergistic combination of SLIce Dithered Enhanced Resolution (SLIDER) and SMS for high-resolution, high-SNR whole brain fMRI in comparison to standard resolution fMRI data as well as high-resolution data...
February 6, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182906/ventromedial-prefrontal-cortex-encodes-a-latent-estimate-of-cumulative-reward
#13
Keno Juechems, Jan Balaguer, Maria Ruz, Christopher Summerfield
Humans and other animals accumulate resources, or wealth, by making successive risky decisions. If and how risk attitudes vary with wealth remains an open question. Here humans accumulated reward by accepting or rejecting successive monetary gambles within arbitrarily defined temporal contexts. Risk preferences changed substantially toward risk aversion as reward accumulated within a context, and blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signals in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (PFC) tracked the latent growth of cumulative economic outcomes...
February 8, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179553/mouth-and-voice-a-relationship-between-visual-and-auditory-preference-in-the-human-superior-temporal-sulcus
#14
Lin L Zhu, Michael S Beauchamp
Cortex in and around the human posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) is known to be critical for speech perception. The pSTS responds to both the visual modality (especially biological motion) and the auditory modality (especially human voices). Using fMRI in single subjects with no spatial smoothing, we show that visual and auditory selectivity are linked. Regions of the pSTS were identified that preferred visually-presented moving mouths (presented in isolation or as part of a whole face) or moving eyes...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179153/activation-of-npffr2-leads-to-hyperalgesia-through-the-spinal-inflammatory-mediator-cgrp-in-mice
#15
Ya-Tin Lin, Ho-Ling Liu, Yuan-Ji Day, Che-Chien Chang, Po-Hung Hsu, Jin-Chung Chen
Neuropeptide FF (NPFF) is recognized as an opioid modulating peptide that regulates morphine-induced analgesia. The aim of this study was to delineate the role of NPFFR2 in pain transmission. We found the expression levels of NPFF and NPFFR2 were increased in the lumbar dorsal horn of animals with CFA- and carrageenan-induced inflammation and both NPFFR2 over-expressing transgenic (NPFFR2-Tg) and NPFFR2 agonist-treated mice displayed hyperalgesia. BOLD signals from functional MRI showed that NPFFR2-Tg mice exhibited increased activation of pain-related brain regions after painful stimulation when compared to WT mice...
February 5, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174427/the-sustainable-development-goals-and-the-global-health-security-agenda-exploring-synergies-for-a-sustainable-and-resilient-world
#16
Sulzhan Bali, Jessica Taaffe
Both the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and the Global Health Security Agenda (GHSA) represent bold initiatives to address systematically gaps in previous efforts to assure that societies can be resilient when confronted with potentially overwhelming threats to health. Despite their obvious differences, and differing criticisms of both, they shift away from vertical (problem- or disease-specific) to horizontal (comprehensive) solutions. Despite the comprehensiveness of the SDGs, they lack a specific target for global health security...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Public Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169448/bold-perch-live-life-in-the-fast-lane
#17
Bart Adriaenssens
A schematic summary showing the links between behaviour and life-history observed by Nakayama, Rapp & Arlinghaus in wild Eurasion perch (Perca fluviatilis). [Colour figure can be viewed at wileyonlinelibrary.com]. In Focus: Nakayama, S., Rapp, T. & Arlinghaus, R. (2017) Fast-slow life history is correlated with individual differences in movements and prey selection in an aquatic predator in the wild. Journal of Animal Ecology, 86, 192-201. The pace-of-life syndrome hypothesis (POLS) suggests that individual behavioural variation co-evolves with life-history variation, causing individuals on a fast life-history trajectory to display more active or bold personalities than individuals following a slow trajectory...
March 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168279/positive-and-negative-somatotopic-bold-responses-in-contralateral-versus-ipsilateral-penfield-homunculus
#18
Zohar Tal, Ran Geva, Amir Amedi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 7, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167512/e-cigarettes-and-dripping-among-high-school-youth
#19
Suchitra Krishnan-Sarin, Meghan Morean, Grace Kong, Krysten W Bold, Deepa R Camenga, Dana A Cavallo, Patricia Simon, Ran Wu
BACKGROUND: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) electrically heat and vaporize e-liquids to produce inhalable vapors. These devices are being used to inhale vapors produced by dripping e-liquids directly onto heated atomizers. The current study conducts the first evaluation of the prevalence rates and reasons for using e-cigarettes for dripping among high school students. METHODS: In the spring of 2015, students from 8 Connecticut high schools (n = 7045) completed anonymous surveys that examined tobacco use behaviors and perceptions...
February 6, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166878/co-designing-the-next-generation-of-home-energy-management-systems-with-lead-users
#20
Andrew D Peacock, Joel Chaney, Kristin Goldbach, Guy Walker, Paul Tuohy, Salvador Santonja, David Todoli, Edward H Owens
Home energy management systems are widely promoted as essential components of future low carbon economies. It is argued in this paper that assumptions surrounding their deployment, and the methods used to design them, emerge from discredited models of people and energy. This offers an explanation for why their field trial performance is so inconsistent. A first of a kind field trial is reported. Three eco communities took part in a comprehensive participatory design exercise as lead users. The challenge was to help users synchronise their energy use behaviours with the availability of locally generated renewable energy sources...
April 2017: Applied Ergonomics
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