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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550694/in-conversation-with-leslee-thompson
#1
(no author information available yet)
In healthcare, no organization was as synonymous with quality and safety as Accreditation Canada, an independent agency established in 1958 to verify and certify that healthcare service providers met process and outcome standards at national and even international levels. In Canada, some 1,000 organizations across 7,000 sites turned to Accreditation Canada for their compliance verification with current and emerging practices and outcomes. In early 2017, feedback from stakeholders drove a bold new direction for users where HSO specializes in the development of best-in-class standards and their assessment while its affiliate, Accreditation Canada, plans and provides accreditation services to Canadian and international clients...
2017: Healthcare Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550313/quantification-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-heterogeneity-with-multiparametric-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#2
Stefanie J Hectors, Mathilde Wagner, Octavia Bane, Cecilia Besa, Sara Lewis, Romain Remark, Nelson Chen, M Isabel Fiel, Hongfa Zhu, Sacha Gnjatic, Miriam Merad, Yujin Hoshida, Bachir Taouli
Tumour heterogeneity poses a significant challenge for treatment stratification. The goals of this study were to quantify heterogeneity in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) using multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI), and to report preliminary data correlating quantitative MRI parameters with advanced histopathology and gene expression in a patient subset. Thirty-two HCC patients with 39 HCC lesions underwent mpMRI including diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD), tissue-oxygenation-level-dependent (TOLD) and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE)-MRI...
May 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547846/multiline-balanced-ssfp-for-rapid-functional-imaging-at-ultrahigh-field
#3
Philipp Ehses, Klaus Scheffler
PURPOSE: The goal of this study is to develop and evaluate a multiline balanced steady-state free-precession (bSSFP) sequence for passband functional MRI at ultrahigh field. METHODS: Passband bSSFP functional MRI experiments using a visual task were performed on a 9.4 T system with echo trains ranging from one up to seven echoes. We analyze the acquisition efficiency, temporal and thermal signal-to-noise ratio, as well as the observed blood oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signal changes...
May 25, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547127/the-relationship-between-outcome-prediction-and-cognitive-fatigue-a-convergence-of-paradigms
#4
G R Wylie, H M Genova, J DeLuca, E Dobryakova
Cognitive fatigue is common after strenuous cognitive effort. A large body of literature has implicated a network of brain areas in fatigue, including the basal ganglia and cortical areas including ventro-medal prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Furthermore, the ACC has been shown to be involved in processes such as error and conflict monitoring, outcome prediction, and effort processing. Thus, the ACC appears to be one common denominator between clinical work on fatigue and research on outcome prediction and effort...
May 25, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546953/perspective-highlights-on-biodegradable-polymeric-nanosystems-for-targeted-therapy-of-solid-tumors
#5
REVIEW
Marziyeh Fathi, Jaleh Barar
Introduction: Polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) formulated using biodegradable polymers offer great potential for development of de novo drug delivery systems (DDSs) capable of delivering a wide range of bioactive agents. They can be engineered as advanced multifunctional nanosystems (NSs) for simultaneous imaging and therapy known as theranostics or diapeutics. Methods: A brief prospective is provided on biomedical importance and applications of biodegradable polymeric NSs through reviewing the recently published literature...
2017: BioImpacts: BI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546311/evidence-for-functional-networks-within-the-human-brain-s-white-matter
#6
Michael Peer, Mor Nitzan, Atira S Bick, Netta Levin, Shahar Arzy
Investigation of the functional macro-scale organization of the human cortex is fundamental in modern neuroscience. While numerous studies have identified networks of interacting functional modules in the grey-matter, limited research was directed to the functional organization of the white-matter. Recent studies have demonstrated that the white-matter exhibits blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal fluctuations similar to those of the grey-matter. Here we used these signal fluctuations to investigate whether the white-matter is organized as functional networks by applying a clustering analysis on resting-state functional MRI (RSfMRI) data from white-matter voxels, in 176 subjects (of both sexes)...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541130/measuring-functional-connectivity-in-stroke-approaches-and-considerations
#7
Joshua S Siegel, Gordon L Shulman, Maurizio Corbetta
Recent research has demonstrated the importance of global changes to the functional organization of brain network following stroke. Resting functional magnetic resonance imaging (R-fMRI) is a non-invasive tool that enables the measurement of functional connectivity (FC) across the entire brain while placing minimal demands on the subject. For these reasons, it is a uniquely appealing tool for studying the distant effects of stroke. However, R-fMRI studies rely on a number of premises that cannot be assumed without careful validation in the context of stroke...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539875/trait-rumination-influences-neural-correlates-of-the-anticipation-but-not-the-consumption-phase-of-reward-processing
#8
Natália Kocsel, Edina Szabó, Attila Galambos, Andrea Édes, Dorottya Pap, Rebecca Elliott, Lajos R Kozák, György Bagdy, Gabriella Juhász, Gyöngyi Kökönyei
Cumulative evidence suggests that trait rumination can be defined as an abstract information processing mode, which leads people to constantly anticipate the likely impact of present events on future events and experiences. A previous study with remitted depressed patients suggested that enhanced rumination tendencies distort brain mechanisms of anticipatory processes associated with reward and loss cues. In the present study, we explored the impact of trait rumination on neural activity during reward and loss anticipation among never-depressed people...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539141/individual-traits-personal-values-and-conflict-resolution-in-an-isolated-confined-extreme-environment
#9
Jesper G Corneliussen, Gloria R Leon, Anders Kjærgaard, Birgit A Fink, Noah C Venables
BACKGROUND: The study of personality traits, personal values, and the emergence of conflicts within groups performing in an isolated, confined, and extreme environment (ICE) may provide insights helpful for the composition and support of space crews for long duration missions. METHODS: Studied pre/post and over the 2-yr period of the investigation were 10 Danish military personnel deployed to stations in Greenland on a 26-mo staggered rotation. Subjects completed the NEO PI-R, Triarchic Psychopathy Measure, and Portrait Values Questionnaire, and participated in structured interviews...
June 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536517/differential-recruitment-of-parietal-cortex-during-spatial-and-non-spatial-reach-planning
#10
Pierre-Michel Bernier, Kevin Whittingstall, Scott T Grafton
The planning of goal-directed arm reaching movements is associated with activity in the dorsal parieto-frontal cortex, within which multiple regions subserve the integration of arm- and target-related sensory signals to encode a motor goal. Surprisingly, many of these regions show sustained activity during reach preparation even when target location is not specified, i.e., when a motor goal cannot be unambiguously formed. The functional role of these non-spatial preparatory signals remains unresolved. Here this process was investigated in humans by comparing reach preparatory activity in the presence or absence of information regarding upcoming target location...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535912/effect-of-induced-high-myopia-on-functional-mri-signal-changes
#11
Ali Mirzajani, Mohammad Ghorbani, Behrouz Rasuli, Ali Mahmoud-Pashazadeh
PURPOSE: The current study evaluated the effect of lens-induced high myopia (IHM) on the activity of the occipital visual cortex during two visual stimuli presentations to the subjects. This was done by measuring the Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent (BOLD) signal using functional MRI (fMRI). METHODS: BOLD contrast fMRI was performed with a 1.5T MRI scanner on 12 emmetropic subjects (refractive error <±0.25Diopter) with no history of neurologic disorder. IHM conditions were applied to subjects by three convex lenses of +5D, +7D and +10D...
May 2017: Physica Medica: PM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534870/time-compressed-preplay-of-anticipated-events-in-human-primary-visual-cortex
#12
Matthias Ekman, Peter Kok, Floris P de Lange
Perception is guided by the anticipation of future events. It has been hypothesized that this process may be implemented by pattern completion in early visual cortex, in which a stimulus sequence is recreated after only a subset of the visual input is provided. Here we test this hypothesis using ultra-fast functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure BOLD activity at precisely defined receptive field locations in visual cortex (V1) of human volunteers. We find that after familiarizing subjects with a spatial sequence, flashing only the starting point of the sequence triggers an activity wave in V1 that resembles the full stimulus sequence...
May 23, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534652/a-review-of-the-evidence-of-zolpidem-efficacy-in-neurological-disability-after-brain-damage-due-to-stroke-trauma-and-hypoxia-a-justification-of-further-clinical-trials
#13
J A Sutton, R P Clauss
During 15 years, 23 clinical reports and 6 studies have demonstrated associations between sub-sedative doses of zolpidem and recoveries from brain damage due to strokes, trauma and hypoxia. Clinical findings include unexpected awakenings from vegetative states and regressions of stroke symptoms after dosing that disappear during elimination and reappear on repeat dosing. Initially single-photon emission computed tomography scans showed improved perfusion within, around and distant from infarctions. Then positron emission tomography scans and electroencephalography detected renewed metabolic and neuronal activity...
May 23, 2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533529/the-sustainable-development-goals-and-the-global-health-security-agenda-exploring-synergies-for-a-sustainable-and-resilient-world
#14
Sulzhan Bali, Jessica Taaffe
Both the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and the Global Health Security Agenda (GHSA) represent bold initiatives to address systematically gaps in previous efforts to assure that societies can be resilient when confronted with potentially overwhelming threats to health. Despite their obvious differences, and differing criticisms of both, they shift away from vertical (problem- or disease-specific) to horizontal (comprehensive) solutions. Despite the comprehensiveness of the SDGs, they lack a specific target for global health security...
May 2017: Journal of Public Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533517/vortioxetine-reduces-bold-signal-during-performance-of-the-n-back-working-memory-task-a-randomised-neuroimaging-trial-in-remitted-depressed-patients-and-healthy-controls
#15
J Smith, M Browning, S Conen, R Smallman, J Buchbjerg, K G Larsen, C K Olsen, S R Christensen, G R Dawson, J F Deakin, P Hawkins, R Morris, G Goodwin, C J Harmer
Cognitive dysfunction is common in depression during both acute episodes and remission. Vortioxetine is a novel multimodal antidepressant that has improved cognitive function including executive function in depressed patients in randomised placebo-controlled clinical trials. However, it is unclear whether vortioxetine is able to target directly the neural circuitry implicated in the cognitive deficits in depression. Remitted depressed (n=48) and healthy volunteers (n=48) were randomised to receive 14 days treatment with 20 mg vortioxetine or placebo in a double-blind design...
May 23, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529298/an-aspect-of-the-history-of-medicine-in-ancient-korea-as-examined-through-silla-buddhist-monks-annotations-on-the-chapter-on-eliminating-disease-in-the-sutra-of-golden-light-suvarnabh%C3%A4-sa-s%C3%A5-tra
#16
Chaekun Oh, Jongwook Jeon, Dongwon Shin
Nearly nothing is known of medicine in ancient Korea due to insufficient materials. With several extant prescriptions and esoteric methods of treating diseases alone, it is impossible to gauge in depth the management of medicine during this period. If one exception were to be cited, that would be the fact that the annotations for understanding the contents on Indian medicine in the "Chapter on Eliminating Disease" in the Sutra of Golden Light, a Buddhist sutra originating from India, reflected the medical knowledge of Buddhist monks from Silla (57 BC-935 AD) who were active immediately after the nation's unification of the two other kingdoms on the Korean Peninsula (668 AD) such as Wonhyo (617-686 AD), Gyeongheung (620?-700? AD), and Seungjang (684-? AD)...
December 2016: Ŭi Sahak
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528845/comparison-of-3-and-7-t-asl-techniques-for-concurrent-functional-perfusion-and-bold-studies
#17
Dimo Ivanov, Anna Gardumi, Roy Am Haast, Josef Pfeuffer, Benedikt A Poser, Kâmil Uludağ
Arterial spin labeling (ASL) is the primary non-invasive MRI approach to measure baseline cerebral blood flow (CBF) in healthy subjects and patients. ASL also allows concurrent functional BOLD signal and CBF measurements, but the latter typically suffers from low contrast-to-noise (CNR) ratio. Ultra-high-field imaging significantly boosts BOLD signal CNR. However, it is contested whether also CBF CNR benefits from increasing magnetic field strength, especially given that technical challenges related to field inhomogeneities and power deposition constraints exist...
May 18, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528392/habitat-quality-mediates-personality-through-differences-in-social-context
#18
Benjamin A Belgrad, Blaine D Griffen
Assessing the stability of animal personalities has become a major goal of behavioral ecologists. Most personality studies have utilized solitary individuals, but little is known on the extent that individuals retain their personality across ecologically relevant group settings. We conducted a field survey which determined that mud crabs, Panopeus herbstii, remain scattered as isolated individuals on degraded oyster reefs while high quality reefs can sustain high crab densities (>10 m(-2)). We examined the impact of these differences in social context on personality by quantifying the boldness of the same individual crabs when in isolation and in natural cohorts...
May 20, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527694/voluntary-wheel-running-ameliorates-depression-like-behaviors-and-brain-blood-oxygen-level-dependent-signals-in-chronic-unpredictable-mild-stress-mice
#19
Peng Huang, Zhaoyang Dong, Weiliang Huang, Chuying Zhou, Weichao Zhong, Peiqian Hu, Ge Wen, Xuegang Sun, Heyu Hua, Huihui Cao, Lei Gao, Zhiping Lv
BACKGROUND: Physical exercise has been long recognized for its therapeutic effects on depressive disorders, but the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. In the study, we investigated whether the physical exercise by voluntary wheel running (VWR) alters depression-like behaviors and its impact on brain blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signals in mice. METHODS: Adult male C57BL/6 mice were assigned to one of the following groups; (1) no exercise control (noEx), housed in a standard cage; (2) exercise (Ex), 2hours/day in a running wheel apparatus; (3) chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS), which was imitating adult stress; and (4) CUMS+Ex...
May 17, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516827/bold-activation-of-the-ventromedial-prefrontal-cortex-in-patients-with-late-life-depression-and-comparison-participants
#20
Akshya Vasudev, Michael J Firbank, Joseph S Gati, Emily Ionson, Alan J Thomas
The ventromedial prefrontal cortex's (vMPFC) role in regulating emotions in late life depression (LLD) remains unclarified. We assessed vMPFC activation in an emotional valence blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic neuroimaging (fMRI) task and related the findings to extent of white matter hyperintensities (WMH). Sixteen participants with mild to moderate LLD were compared to 14 similar aged comparison participants. Participants in the scanner viewed words matched for length and arousal, indicated the perceived valence by pressing one of the three buttons i...
May 18, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
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