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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088552/antipredator-tactics-are-largely-maternally-controlled-in-goitered-gazelle-a-hider-ungulate
#1
David Blank
Predation is usually the primary cause of infant death among ungulate species, with the annual variation in the survival of neonates over their first summer a major factor in the population dynamics of many ungulates. Consequently, the maternal rearing strategy of a species is crucial for its reproductive success. Since the roles mothers and fawns play in the implementation of antipredator strategies in hider species have been poorly understood until now, this paper considers this behavior in the goitered gazelle, which is a typical hider species...
January 11, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088203/a-3-arm-randomised-controlled-trial-of-communicating-healthy-beginnings-advice-by-telephone-chat-to-mothers-with-infants-to-prevent-childhood-obesity
#2
Li Ming Wen, Chris Rissel, Louise A Baur, Alison J Hayes, Huilan Xu, Anna Whelan, Myna Hua, Miranda Shaw, Philayrath Phongsavan
BACKGROUND: With an increasing prevalence of obesity in young children globally, there is an urgent need for the development of effective early interventions. A previous Healthy Beginnings Trial using a nurse-led home visiting program has demonstrated that providing mothers with evidence-based advice can improve maternal practice regarding obesity prevention, and can reduce Body Mass Index (BMI) in the first few years of life. However, the costs for scale-up of home visiting limit its population reach...
January 14, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078553/expression-of-apoptosis-regulatory-genes-in-the-hippocampus-of-rat-neonates-born-to-mothers-with-diabetes
#3
Hossein Haghir, Javad Hami, Nassim Lotfi, Mostafa Peyvandi, Simagol Ghasemi, Mehran Hosseini
Diabetes during pregnancy impairs the development of the central nervous system (CNS) and causes cognitive and behavioral abnormalities in offspring. However, the exact mechanism by which the maternal diabetes affects the development of the brain remains to be elucidated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of maternal diabetes in pregnancy on the expression of Bcl-2 and Bax genes and the numerical density of degenerating dark neurons (DNs) in the hippocampus of offspring at the first postnatal two weeks...
January 11, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076976/measuring-parenting-throughout-adolescence
#4
Martijn Van Heel, Patricia Bijttebier, Stephan Claes, Hilde Colpin, Luc Goossens, Wim Van Den Noortgate, Karine Verschueren, Karla Van Leeuwen
This study examined the structural validity of the parenting concept throughout adolescence. First, we examined whether an established five-dimension parenting model including support, proactive control, punitive control, harsh punitive control, and psychological control, showed longitudinal invariance across time (i.e., early, middle, and late adolescence) and measurement invariance across informants (i.e., mothers, fathers, and adolescents). Second, patterns of continuity and discontinuity in these dimensions were examined from the perspective of the different informants...
January 1, 2017: Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068929/are-freestanding-midwifery-units-a-safe-alternative-to-obstetric-units-for-low-risk-primiparous-childbirth-an-analysis-of-effect-differences-by-parity-in-a-matched-cohort-study
#5
Louise Fischer Christensen, Charlotte Overgaard
BACKGROUND: Intrapartum complications and the use of obstetric interventions are more common in primiparous childbirth than in multiparous childbirth, leading to concern about out of hospital birth for primiparous women. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the effect of birthplace on perinatal and maternal morbidity and the use of obstetric interventions differed by parity among low-risk women intending to give birth in a freestanding midwifery unit or in an obstetric unit in the North Denmark Region...
January 9, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065565/absence-epileptic-activity-in-wistar-albino-glaxo-rijswijk-rat-mothers
#6
Zsolt Kovács, Renáta Krisztina Lakatos, János Barna, Árpád Dobolyi
Absence epileptic activity was analyzed during pregnancy, the postpartum period and after weaning to establish alterations of seizures throughout the reproductive cycle. Wistar Albino Glaxo Rijswijk (WAG/Rij) rats were used in the study as a model of absence epilepsy and because their seizures do not interfere with rearing offspring. The number of spike-wave discharges (SWDs) was gradually elevated from the 19(th) pregnancy day to delivery. Meanwhile, the characteristics of individual SWDs did not change suggesting that SWD generation remained the same...
January 5, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062970/good-prognosis-of-postpartum-lower-limb-sensorimotor-deficit-a-combined-clinical-electrophysiological-and-radiological-follow-up
#7
A Richard, G Vellieux, S Abbou, J L Benifla, P Lozeron, N Kubis
Postpartum lower limb motor and/or sensory deficit is an uncommon obstetrical complication. We aimed to identify its incidence, etiology, and precipitating factors, as well as the neurological prognosis by retrospectively analyzing the successive neurological evaluations, electrophysiological, and MRI data from all the consecutive patients with postpartum motor and/or sensory deficits of the lower limbs referred from the Lariboisière Obstetrical Department to the Lariboisière Neurophysiology Department, from January 2012 to June 2016, as well as data concerning labor and morphological characteristics of mother and baby...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062230/the-influence-of-offspring-parity-and-oxytocin-on-cognitive-flexibility-during-the-postpartum-period
#8
Christopher C Albin-Brooks, Connor A Nealer, Sara Sabihi, Achikam Haim, Benedetta Leuner
Pregnancy and the postpartum period are times of profound behavioral change including alterations in cognitive function. This has been most often studied using hippocampal-dependent tasks assessing spatial learning and memory. However, less is known about the cognitive effects of motherhood for tasks that rely on areas other than the hippocampus. We have previously shown that postpartum females perform better on the extradimensional phase of an attentional set shifting task, a measure of cognitive flexibility which is dependent on the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC)...
January 3, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060815/consequences-of-epistasis-on-growth-in-an-erhualian-%C3%A3-white-duroc-pig-cross
#9
Lucy Crooks, Yuanmei Guo
Epistasis describes an interaction between the effects of loci. We included epistasis in quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping of growth at a series of ages in a cross of a Chinese pig breed, Erhualian, with a commercial line, White Duroc. Erhualian pigs have much lower growth rates than White Duroc. We improved a method for genomewide testing of epistasis and present a clear analysis workflow. We also suggest a new approach for interpreting epistasis results where significant additive and dominance effects of a locus in specific backgrounds are determined...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057106/-dietary-intake-status-of-chinese-lactating-women-during-the-first-month-postpartum-in-2013
#10
Y F Duan, S Jiang, J Wang, L Y Zhao, X H Pang, Y Bi, S A Yin, Z Y Yang
Objective: To assess the dietary intake status of Chinese lactating women during the first month postpartum. Methods: Data were extracted from Chinese National Nutrition and Health Surveillance, children aged 0-5 years and lactating women (2013). A total of 55 counties from 30 provinces in China (excluding the Tibet Autonomous Region) were selected using a multi-stage stratified cluster randomization sampling method. A group of 3 623 lactating women, at 1-6 months after delivery, were investigated in the study...
December 6, 2016: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054972/introduction-of-complementary-foods-in-a-cohort-of-infants-in-northeast-italy-do-parents-comply-with-who-recommendations
#11
Claudia Carletti, Paola Pani, Lorenzo Monasta, Alessandra Knowles, Adriano Cattaneo
Timing and type of complementary food in infancy affect nutritional status and health later in life. The objective of this paper was to assess complementary feeding practices, looking at timing, type, and compliance with World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations. Data were obtained from a birth cohort of 400 infants, enrolled in Trieste (Italy) between July 2007 and July 2008 and followed up for three years, using a "food introduction timing table". Five WHO recommendations standards were used to assess parental compliance and associated factors...
January 4, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042192/exploring-new-life-course-patterns-of-mother-s-continuing-secondary-and-college-education
#12
Jennifer March Augustine
A mounting body of evidence suggests that the life course sequence that once defined contemporary U.S. women's lives is changing as an increasing number of women now complete their education after the transition to motherhood. Despite such evidence, we know little about this changing pattern of life course events for many U.S. women. The aim of this study, therefore, is to produce population-based estimates that describe the prevalence of mothers' school reentry and secondary and college degree attainment, the timing of women's post-childbearing education vis-à-vis their transition into motherhood, and the characteristics of mothers who pursue additional schooling...
December 2016: Population Research and Policy Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040688/prevalence-of-pertussis-antibodies-in-maternal-blood-cord-serum-and-infants-from-mothers-with-and-those-without-tdap-booster-vaccination-during-pregnancy-in-argentina
#13
Aurelia A Fallo, Silvina E Neyro, Gabriela V Manonelles, Claudia Lara, Daniela Hozbor, Jonathan Zintgraff, Silvina Mazzeo, Héctor E Davison, Susana González, Estella Zapulla, Oscar Canle, Miguel Huespe, Marcelo Galas, Eduardo L López
BACKGROUND: Morbidity and mortality rates for pertussis in infants are high because disease often occurs before the onset of routine immunization or in those who do not complete a primary immunization series. Pertussis immunization is recommended during pregnancy to achieve antibody levels sufficient to protect young infants. To our knowledge, no previous reports of maternal pertussis immunization results in Latin America exist in the literature. METHODS: This study compared pertussis antibody levels in newborns from mothers who received or did not receive a tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis vaccination (TdapV) during pregnancy...
December 30, 2016: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039875/first-trimester-isolated-maternal-hypothyroxinemia-adverse-maternal-metabolic-profile-and-impact-on-the-obstetrical-outcome
#14
Raluca Maria Furnica, Damien Gruson, John H Lazarus, Dominique Maiter, Pierre Bernard, Chantal Daumerie
BACKGROUND: Isolated maternal hypothyroxinemia (IH) is defined as low maternal FT4 (<5(th) percentile) and normal TSH. There is concern on its potential negative effects on the mother and offspring. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of IH and to assess the consequences of hypothyroxinemia on the maternal and foetal outcomes. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: From a total of 1300 consecutive pregnant women recruited during the prenatal screen (mean gestational age, 11...
December 31, 2016: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034411/female-respondent-acceptance-of-computer-assisted-personal-interviewing-capi-for-maternal-newborn-and-child-health-coverage-surveys-in-rural-uganda
#15
Hannah Faye G Mercader, Jerome Kabakyenga, David Tumusiime Katuruba, Amy J Hobbs, Jennifer L Brenner
INTRODUCTION: High maternal and child mortality continues in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). Measurement of maternal, newborn and child health (MNCH) coverage indicators often involves an expensive, complex, and lengthy household data collection process that is especially difficult in less-resourced settings. Computer-assisted personal interviewing (CAPI) has been proposed as a cost-effective and efficient alternative to traditional paper-and-pencil interviewing (PAPI). However, the literature on respondent-level acceptance of CAPI in LMIC has reported mixed outcomes...
February 2017: International Journal of Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031546/sunlight-exposure-and-vitamin-d-status-in-breastfed-infants
#16
Pinky Meena, Aashima Dabas, Dheeraj Shah, Rajeev Kumar Malhotra, S V Madhu, Piyush Gupta
OBJECTIVE: To correlate the sunlight exposure in first 6 months to vitamin D status at 6 months of age in predominantly breastfed infants; and to quantify the sunlight exposure required to achieve serum 25(OH)D level > 20 ng/mL, by 6 months of age. DESIGN: Prospective cohort. SETTING: Tertiary care hospital predominantly catering to urban poor population in Delhi. PARTICIPANTS: 132 healthy infants, delivered at term, and predominantly breastfed were enrolled at 6-8 weeks of age...
December 5, 2016: Indian Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028704/assessment-of-mercury-exposure-and-maternal-foetal-transfer-in-miniopterus-schreibersii-chiroptera-miniopteridae-from-southeastern-iberian-peninsula
#17
Fulgencio Lisón, Silvia Espín, Bárbara Aroca, José F Calvo, Antonio J García-Fernández
Mercury (Hg) is a highly toxic and widely distributed metal that is bioaccumulated in insectivorous mammals and may cause adverse effects on the reproductive system. Bats are considered excellent Hg bioindicators due to their wide distribution, life span, trophic position, metabolic rate and food intake. However, few studies have analysed Hg residues in bats, and to the best of our knowledge, no studies have been made in the Iberian Peninsula. The main aim of this study was to undertake the first ever assessment of Hg exposure in Schreiber's bent-winged bats inhabiting a natural cave in the southeast of Spain...
December 27, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027719/childhood-body-mass-index-at-5-5-years-mediates-the-effect-of-prenatal-maternal-stress-on-daughters-age-at-menarche-project-ice-storm
#18
A Duchesne, A Liu, S L Jones, D P Laplante, S King
Early pubertal timing is known to put women at greater risk for adverse physiological and psychological health outcomes. Of the factors that influence girls' pubertal timing, stress experienced during childhood has been found to advance age at menarche (AAM). However, it is not known if stress experienced by mothers during or in the months before conception can be similarly associated with earlier pubertal timing. Prenatal maternal stress (PNMS) is associated with metabolic changes, such as increased childhood adiposity and risk of obesity, that have been associated with earlier menarchal age...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027631/factors-affecting-breastfeeding-intention-and-its-continuation-among-urban-mothers-in-west-jakarta-a-follow-up-qualitative-study-using-critical-point-contact-for-breastfeeding
#19
Rachmanida Nuzrina, Airin Roshita, Dian Nurcahyati Basuki
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Although breastfeeding is recommended by WHO, the breastfeeding rate in Indonesia remains low, because many women fail to maintain their breastfeeding intention during the breastfeeding period. The decision whether to breastfeed or not, like any other nutritional behaviour, may develop over a lifetime and is rooted in many aspects of life; however, many factors may affect a mother's decision about whether to stop or continue breastfeeding during the breastfeeding period...
December 2016: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027445/efficacy-of-an-osteopathic-treatment-coupled-with-lactation-consultations-for-infants-biomechanical-sucking-difficulties
#20
Juliette Herzhaft-Le Roy, Marianne Xhignesse, Isabelle Gaboury
BACKGROUND: Despite well-known recommendations from national and international bodies including the World Health Organization, few mothers achieve the goal of breastfeeding exclusively for 6 months. Half of mothers stop breastfeeding due to biomechanical issues in the first month, despite increasing support from lactation consultants. Osteopaths worldwide work with these babies, but there is little empirical evidence for this type of treatment. Research aim: This study aimed to determine the efficacy of an osteopathic treatment coupled with usual lactation consultations on infants' ability to latch...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Human Lactation: Official Journal of International Lactation Consultant Association
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