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Cardiovascular disease prevention

Nathan S Bryan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To reveal the mechanisms of nitric oxide (NO) production in humans and how lifestyle, drug therapy, and hygienic practices can decrease NO production. Furthermore, to show how functional nitric oxide nutrition can overcome these limitations to restore endogenous NO production and combat cardiovascular disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Research over the past decade has revealed that inorganic nitrate and nitrite found naturally in green leafy vegetables and other vegetables such as beets can provide the human body with a source of bioactive nitric oxide...
March 17, 2018: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
Meng Xin, Yang Sun, Haijiao Chen, Quancai Li, Yunlou Dun, Huashi Guan, Jiejie Hao, Chunxia Li
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the No. 1 cause of death worldwide. Hyperlipidemia is one of the major risk factors for CVD. Maintaining lipid homeostasis is an effective way to prevent CVD. We prepared propylene glycol guluronate sulfate (PGGS), a sulfated polysaccharide, and investigated its effect on lipid metabolism in HepG2 cells. We found that total cholesterol (TC) and triglycerides (TG) were significantly decreased in the cells after PGGS treatment. We have also shown that the AMPK signaling is activated after PGGS treatment as evidenced by changes in the expression of many AMPK downstream targets including SREBP-1c, SIRT-1, CPT1, PPARα, and FAS...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Adriana Maggi, Sara Della Torre
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological and clinical studies have largely demonstrated major differences in the prevalence of metabolic disorders in males and females, but the biological cause of these dissimilarities remain to be elucidated. Mammals are characterized by a major change in reproductive strategies and it is conceivable that these changes subjected females to a significant evolutionary pressure that perfected the coupling between energy metabolism and reproduction. SCOPE OF REVIEW: This review will address the plausibility that female liver functions diverged significantly from males given the role of liver in the control of metabolism...
February 27, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
Hayley E Billingsley, Salvatore Carbone
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading global cause of death. Diet is known to be important in the prevention of CVD. The PREDIMED trial tested a relatively low-fat diet versus a high-fat Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) for the primary prevention of CVD. The resulting reduction of the CV composite outcome resulted in a paradigm shift in CV nutrition. Though many dietary factors likely contributed to this effect, this review focuses on the influence of the MedDiet on endogenous antioxidant systems and the effect of dietary polyphenols...
March 9, 2018: Nutrition & Diabetes
Matthew J Gurka, Stephanie L Filipp, Mark D DeBoer
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes remain significant public health concerns. Targeting of prevention efforts by geographical location has been suggested by the Institute of Medicine to coincide with the presence of area-based risk. The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a stronger risk factor than is obesity for the prediction of future CVD and diabetes, yet its prevalence has not previously been described geographically. Our objective is to determine geographical variation in the prevalence of obesity, MetS, and diabetes among US adults...
March 13, 2018: Nutrition & Diabetes
Min-Ho Oak, Cyril Auger, Eugenia Belcastro, Sin-Hee Park, Hyunho Lee, Valérie B Schini-Kerth
Epidemiological studies have indicated that regular intake of polyphenol-rich diets such as red wine and tea, are associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases. The beneficial effect of polyphenol-rich products has been attributable, at least in part, to their direct action on the endothelial function. Indeed, polyphenols from tea, grapes, cacao, berries, and plants have been shown to activate endothelial cells to increase the formation of potent vasoprotective factors including nitric oxide (NO) and to delay endothelial ageing...
March 13, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Patricio López-Jaramillo, Silvia González-Gómez, Diego Zarate-Bernal, Andrés Serrano, Leonor Atuesta, Christian Clausen, Claudia Castro-Valencia, Paul Camacho-Lopez, Johanna Otero
The simplification of fixed dose medications by using a single 'polypill' is an attractive strategy to improve adherence to medications which has shown benefit to cardiovascular risk factor control and cardiovascular disease prevention or delay in the progression of these diseases. We review the evidence obtained from a series of clinical trials demonstrating an improvement in adherence to the polypill compared to the use of each compound separately, and found similar or better control of the classical cardiovascular risk factors and a similar safety profile...
March 1, 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Cardiovascular Disease
Michaël R Laurent
An overview of selected papers related to bone published in 2017 is provided. PURPOSE: This paper accompanies a lecture at the 2018 Belgian Bone Club annual Clinical Update Symposium held in Brussels on January 20th, discussing the best papers (in the opinion of the author) published in the previous year. METHODS: A PubMed search using the keyword "bone" and articles published in 2017. RESULTS: Hot topics include screening for osteoporosis, novel anabolic drugs such as romosozumab and abaloparatide for osteoporosis and rare metabolic bone diseases, as well as long-term efficacy of denosumab and possible risk of multiple vertebral fractures following its discontinuation...
March 15, 2018: Archives of Osteoporosis
Mika Hilvo, Tuire Salonurmi, Aki S Havulinna, Dimple Kauhanen, Eva Ringdal Pedersen, Grethe S Tell, Klaus Meyer, Anna-Maria Teeriniemi, Tiina Laatikainen, Pekka Jousilahti, Markku J Savolainen, Ottar Nygård, Veikko Salomaa, Reijo Laaksonen
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Ceramide lipids have a role in the development of insulin resistance, diabetes and risk of cardiovascular disease. Here we investigated four ceramides and their ratios to find the best predictors of incident diabetes. METHODS: A validated mass-spectrometric method was applied to measure Cer(d18:1/16:0), Cer(d18:1/18:0), Cer(d18:1/24:0) and Cer(d18:1/24:1) from serum or plasma samples. These ceramides were analysed in a population-based risk factor study (FINRISK 2002, n = 8045), in a cohort of participants undergoing elective coronary angiography for suspected stable angina pectoris (Western Norway Coronary Angiography Cohort [WECAC], n = 3344) and in an intervention trial investigating improved methods of lifestyle modification for individuals at high risk of the metabolic syndrome (Prevent Metabolic Syndrome [PrevMetSyn], n = 371)...
March 15, 2018: Diabetologia
Ayesha Fawad, Andreas Bergmann, Joachim Struck, Peter M Nilsson, Marju Orho-Melander, Olle Melander
Context: The gut hormone neurotensin promotes fat absorption, diet-induced weight gain and liver steatosis. Its stable precursor-hormone fragment "proneurotensin" predicts cardiometabolic disease in middle-aged populations, especially in women. Objective: To test if proneurotensin predicts cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes development in an elderly population and whether there are gender differences in this respect. Design, Setting and Participants: Fasting proneurotensin was measured in plasma from 4804 participants (mean age 69±6 years) of the Malmö Preventive Project (MPP) and subjects were followed up for development of CVD and diabetes during 5...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Cécile Vors, Charles Couillard, Marie-Eve Paradis, Iris Gigleux, Johanne Marin, Marie-Claude Vohl, Patrick Couture, Benoît Lamarche
Background: High-fat meals induce postprandial inflammation. Resveratrol is a polyphenol known to prevent comorbidities associated with cardiovascular disease and exerts an anti-inflammatory action. There is also an increasing body of evidence supporting the role of curcumin, a polyphenol from the curcuminoid family, as a modulator of proinflammatory processes. Objective: The objectives of this study were to investigate the following: 1) the bioavailability of resveratrol consumed in combination with curcumin after consumption of a high-fat meal; and 2) the acute combined effects of this combination on the postprandial inflammatory response of subjects with abdominal obesity...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Lenette M Jones, Kathy D Wright, McKenzie K Wallace, Tiffany Veinot
Nearly half of African-American women have hypertension, which increases their risk for cardiovascular disease and stroke. A plethora of consumer health information products and services exist to inform people with hypertension and to promote self-management among them. Promotion of information sharing by African-American women represents a promising, culturally-applicable strategy for consumer health information services focused on hypertension self-management. Yet, how African-American women share hypertension information with others is unclear...
January 2018: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology
Bruce P Lanphear, Stephen Rauch, Peggy Auinger, Ryan W Allen, Richard W Hornung
BACKGROUND: Lead exposure is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease mortality, but the number of deaths in the USA attributable to lead exposure is poorly defined. We aimed to quantify the relative contribution of environmental lead exposure to all-cause mortality, cardiovascular disease mortality, and ischaemic heart disease mortality. METHODS: Our study population comprised a nationally representative sample of adults aged 20 years or older who were enrolled in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES-III) between 1988 and 1994 and followed up to Dec 31, 2011...
March 12, 2018: Lancet. Public Health
Wuxiang Xie, Fanfan Zheng, Evangelos Evangelou, Ou Liu, Zhenchun Yang, Queenie Chan, Paul Elliott, Yangfeng Wu
OBJECTIVE: To systematically evaluate the efficacy of five commonly used blood pressure-lowering drugs in reducing cardiovascular events among patients with nonacute cardiovascular disease, but without heart failure. METHODS: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials on 18 March 2017. The primary outcome was fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular events, and the secondary outcomes were all-cause death, fatal and nonfatal myocardial infarction, and stroke...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Hypertension
Susan Kane Patton, Bailey Phillips
Evidence-based strategies for nurses. ABSTRACT: Lyme disease is recognized as the most common vector-borne disease in the United States. Surveillance data indicate both increasing numbers of Lyme disease cases and geographic expansion of areas where the causative spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, can be found. With prompt diagnosis and appropriate treatment in the acute stage, most patients will recover fully. Without treatment, however, the infecting pathogen remains within the body, often producing long-term complications, including musculoskeletal, neurologic, and cardiovascular effects...
March 14, 2018: American Journal of Nursing
Noushin Mohammadifard, Carolyn Gotay, Karin H Humphries, Andrew Ignaszewski, Ahmad Esmaillzadeh, Nizal Sarrafzadegan
Appropriate intake of micronutrient, such as electrolyte minerals is critical for the well-being of the cardiovascular health system. However, there are some debates regarding the impacts of dietary and/or supplemental intake of these minerals, on the risk of cardiovascular events and associated risk factors. High sodium intake is adversely associated with the risk of hypertension. Although many reports refered to the positive association of Na intake and cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality, however, other studies indicated that low Na intake is related to higher risk of all-cause mortality and HF-related events...
March 15, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
M T Slockers, W J Nusselder, J Rietjens, E F van Beeck
OBJECTIVE: Get insight into excess mortality in the Rotterdam homeless population according to cause of death and changes in this mortality after introduction of social policies in Rotterdam, the Netherlands, in 2006. DESIGN: Uncontrolled before-and-after study. METHOD: We included homeless adults who visited the Rotterdam shelter in 2001 and followed them for 10 years (2001-2010). We then linked the data of this cohort to Statistics Netherlands mortality figures...
2018: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
Francesco Caso, Marco Tasso, Pasquale Ambrosino, Matteo Nicola, Dario Di Minno, Roberta Lupoli, Livio Criscuolo, Paolo Caso, Francesco Ursini, Antonio Del Puente, Raffaele Scarpa, Luisa Costa, Rosario Peluso
BACKGROUND: Psoriatic arthritis is a chronic inflammatory arthropathy that affects 14%-30% of patients with skin and/or nail psoriasis and leading to severe physical limitations and disability. It has been included in the group of spondyloarthropathy with which it shares clinical, radiologic, and serologic features in addition to familial and genetic relationship. Beyond skin and joint involvement, psoriatic arthritis is characterized by a high prevalence of extra-articular manifestation and comorbidities, such as autoimmune, infectious and neoplastic diseases...
March 13, 2018: Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials
S Witkowski, C Serviente
Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in women. There is a dramatic rise in risk factors for cardiovascular disease during the menopausal transition that is independent of aging. Endothelial dysfunction is an early hallmark of developing cardiovascular disease and has been shown to increase across the stages of menopause. Exercise is considered one of the most effective lifestyle therapies to maintain and improve endothelial function. However, accumulating evidence suggests that exercise does not have the same benefit on endothelial function in menopausal women as it does in other populations, and factors associated with menopause likely influence the endothelial responsiveness to exercise...
March 15, 2018: Climacteric: the Journal of the International Menopause Society
Yuhui Yang, Xue Liu, Yunpeng Liu, Hui Fu, Ying Gao, Xing Liu, Xiaoliang Jiang
Background and objective: Chronic inflammatory is involved in the development of salt-sensitive hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases. PSGL-1 plays an important role in the inflammatory response. Methods and results: In this study, we used PSGL-1-/- and PSGL-1+/+ mice fed with high salt diet to measure the blood pressure, inflammatory response and vascular injury. We found that, in PSGL-1+/+ mice, high salt diet resulted in high blood pressure with the increased expression of serum inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-1β and TNFɑ, vascular injury markers MCP-1, ET-1, and VWF, and renal macrophages and T cells infiltration, and endothelium-dependent acetylcholine vasodilation dysfunction...
2018: Cell & Bioscience
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