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Cardiovascular disease prevention

Arne Ring, Tom Morris, Marcin Wozniak, Nikol Sullo, William Dott, Veerle Verheyden, Tracy Kumar, Nigel Brunskill, Rakesh Vaja, Gavin J Murphy
BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common and severe complication of cardiac surgery. There is no effective prevention or treatment. Sildenafil citrate (Revatio®, Pfizer Inc), a phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor, prevents post cardiac surgery AKI in pre-clinical studies, however its use is contraindicated in patients with symptomatic cardiovascular disease. METHODS: To assess the safety and pharmacokinetics of intravenous sildenafil in cardiac surgery patients we conducted an open label, dose escalation study with 6 patients per dose level...
October 25, 2016: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Eng Loon Tng
Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) represents a mild or compensated form of primary hypothyroidism. The diagnosis of SCH is controversial, as its symptoms are non-specific and its biochemical diagnosis is arbitrary. The treatment of SCH was examined among non-pregnant adults, pregnant adults and children. In non-pregnant adults, treatment of SCH may prevent its progression to overt hypothyroidism, reduce the occurrence of coronary heart disease, and improve neuropsychiatric and musculoskeletal symptoms associated with hypothyroidism...
October 2016: Singapore Medical Journal
Beata Olas
Diet and nutrition have an important influence on the prophylaxis and progression of cardiovascular disease; one example is the inhibition of blood platelet functions by specific components of fruits and vegetables. Garlic, onion, ginger, dark chocolate and polyunsaturated fatty acids all reduce blood platelet aggregation. A number of fruits contain a range of cardioprotective antioxidants and vitamins, together with a large number of non-nutrient phytochemicals such as phenolic compounds, which may possess both antioxidant properties and anti-platelet activity...
October 25, 2016: Platelets
Arshag D Mooradian
The availability of effective drugs targeting the major risk factors of cardiovascular disease (CVD) has reduced morbidity and mortality. Cumulative relative risk of CVD events can be reduced by 75 % with a combination of aspirin, a β-adrenoceptor antagonist (β-blocker), an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor (statin), and an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor. The principal pharmacodynamics of these drugs cannot explain the entirety of their cardioprotective action, as other drugs with similar pharmacologic targets have not been associated with favorable clinical effects...
October 24, 2016: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs: Drugs, Devices, and Other Interventions
Shannon Doocy, Emily Lyles, Baptiste Hanquart, Michael Woodman
BACKGROUND: Given the large burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) among both Syrian refugees and the host communities within which they are settled, humanitarian actors and the government of Lebanon face immense challenges in addressing health needs. This study assessed health status, unmet needs, and utilization of health services among Syrian refugees and host communities in Lebanon. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of Syrian refugees and host communities in Lebanon was conducted using a two-stage cluster survey design with probability proportional to size sampling...
2016: Conflict and Health
Christopher Coyle, Fay H Cafferty, Samuel Rowley, Mairead MacKenzie, Lindy Berkman, Sudeep Gupta, C S Pramesh, Duncan Gilbert, Howard Kynaston, David Cameron, Richard H Wilson, Alistair Ring, Ruth E Langley
BACKGROUND: There is a considerable body of pre-clinical, epidemiological and randomised data to support the hypothesis that aspirin has the potential to be an effective adjuvant cancer therapy. METHODS: Add-Aspirin is a phase III, multi-centre, double-blind, placebo-controlled randomised trial with four parallel cohorts. Patients who have undergone potentially curative treatment for breast (n=3100), colorectal (n=2600), gastro-oesophageal (n=2100) or prostate cancer (n=2120) are registered into four tumour specific cohorts...
October 21, 2016: Contemporary Clinical Trials
Chirag Bavishi, Sripal Bangalore, Franz H Messerli
The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of hypertension (HTN). Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) are first line anti-HTN drug classes that are potent, effective and largely safe. Direct renin inhibitors (DRIs) have shown similar blood pressure (BP) reduction but more side effects. The efficacy of ACEIs and ARBs (for cardiovascular, cerebrovascular and renal protection) has been promoted to extend beyond what could be explained by BP reduction alone...
October 21, 2016: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
Andrei C Sposito, José Rocha Faria Neto, Luiz Sergio F de Carvalho, Alberto Lorenzatti, Alberto Cafferata, Gerardo Elikir, Eduardo Esteban, Enrique C Morales Villegas, Luiz Carlos Bodanese, Rodrigo K Alonso, Alvaro J Ruiz Morales, Viviane Z Rocha, Andre A Faludi, Hermes T Xavier, Otávio Rizzi Coelho, Marcelo H Assad, Maria C Izar, Raul D Santos, Francisco A H Fonseca, Alberto Mello E Silva, Pedro Marques da Silva, Marcelo C Bertolami
In the last 2 decades, statin therapy has proved to be the most potent isolated therapy for attenuation of cardiovascular risk. Its frequent use has been appointed as one of the most important elements for the reduction of the cardiovascular mortality in developed countries. However, the recurrent incidence of muscle symptoms in statin users raised the possibility of causal association, leading to disease entity known as statin associated muscle symptoms (SAMS). Mechanistic studies and clinical trials, specifically designed for the study of SAMS allowed a deeper understanding of the natural history and the accurate incidence...
October 25, 2016: Current Medical Research and Opinion
Stephen L Kopecky, Douglas C Bauer, Martha Gulati, Jeri W Nieves, Andrea J Singer, Peter P Toth, James A Underberg, Taylor C Wallace, Connie M Weaver
Description: Calcium is the dominant mineral present in bone and a shortfall nutrient in the American diet. Supplements have been recommended for persons who do not consume adequate calcium from their diet as a standard strategy for the prevention of osteoporosis and related fractures. Whether calcium with or without vitamin D supplementation is beneficial or detrimental to vascular health is not known. Methods: The National Osteoporosis Foundation and American Society for Preventive Cardiology convened an expert panel to evaluate the effects of dietary and supplemental calcium on cardiovascular disease based on the existing peer-reviewed scientific literature...
October 25, 2016: Annals of Internal Medicine
Hillary T Graham, Daniel M Rotroff, Skylar W Marvel, John B Buse, Tammy M Havener, Alyson G Wilson, Michael J Wagner, Alison A Motsinger-Reif
Given the high costs of conducting a drug-response trial, researchers are now aiming to use retrospective analyses to conduct genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to identify underlying genetic contributions to drug-response variation. To prevent confounding results from a GWAS to investigate drug response, it is necessary to account for concomitant medications, defined as any medication taken concurrently with the primary medication being investigated. We use data from the Action to Control Cardiovascular Disease (ACCORD) trial in order to implement a novel scoring procedure for incorporating concomitant medication information into a linear regression model in preparation for GWAS...
2016: Frontiers in Genetics
Subha Rastogi, Madan Mohan Pandey, Aks Rawat
BACKGROUND: Dietary factors play a key role in the development as well as prevention of certain human diseases, including cardiovascular diseases. Currently there has been an increase in global interest to identify medicinal plants that are pharmacologically effective and have low or no side effects for use in preventive medicine. Culinary herbs and spices are an important part of human nutrition in all the cultures of the world. There is a growing amount of literature concerning the potential benefits of these herbs and spices from a health perspective especially in conferring protection against cardiovascular diseases...
October 21, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Julien Wils, Julie Favre, Jérémy Bellien
Diabetes induces a decrease in the number and function of different pro-angiogenic cells types generically designated as putative endothelial progenitor cells (EPC), which encompasses cells from myeloid origin that act in a paracrine fashion to promote angiogenesis and putative "true" EPC that contribute to endothelial replacement. This not only compromises neovasculogenesis in ischemic tissues but also impairs, at an early stage, the reendotheliziation process at sites of injury, contributing to the development of endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular complications...
October 20, 2016: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Alvaro Avezum, Gustavo B F Oliveira, Fernando Lanas, Patricio Lopez-Jaramillo, Rafael Diaz, J Jaime Miranda, Pamela Seron, Paul A Camacho-Lopez, Andres Orlandini, Antonio Bernabe-Ortiz, Antônio Cordeiro Mattos, Shofiqul Islam, Sumathy Rangarajan, Koon Teo, Salim Yusuf
BACKGROUND: Despite the availability of evidence-based therapies, there is no information on the use of medications for the secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease in urban and rural community settings in South America. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to assess the use, and its predictors, of effective secondary prevention therapies in individuals with a history of coronary heart disease (CHD) or stroke. METHODS: In the PURE (Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiological) study, we enrolled 24,713 individuals from South America ages 35 to 70 years from 97 rural and urban communities in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Colombia...
October 20, 2016: Global Heart
Xiu-Li Yang, Yerim Kim, Tae Jung Kim, Seunguk Jung, Chi Kyung Kim, Seung-Hoon Lee
BACKGROUND: Although high uric acid levels have been reported to be a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and stroke, the relationship between serum uric acid (SUA) levels and cardioembolic stroke (CES) has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we sought to investigate the relationship between the risk of CES and SUA levels. We hypothesized that SUA concentrations are associated with CES. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 2350 patients with acute ischemic stroke who were admitted to the Seoul National University Hospital between 2002 and 2010...
November 15, 2016: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Shankar Suman, Yogeshwer Shukla
Diallyl sulfide (C6H10S, DAS) is one of the novel natural organosulfur compounds, which is mostly obtained from the genus Allium plants. Numerous studies have revealed several unique properties of DAS in terms of its health-promoting effects. DAS has proved to be anticancer, antimicrobial, anti-angiogenic, and immunomodulatory like unique functions as demonstrated by the multiple investigations. Diallyl sulfide can also impede oxidative stress and chronic inflammation as suggested by the literature. Studies also explored that DAS could thwart the development of chronic diseases like cancer, neuronal, cardiovascular disease through modulating mechanistic pathways involved in pathogenesis...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Yohei Shirakami, Hiroyasu Sakai, Takahiro Kochi, Mitsuru Seishima, Masahito Shimizu
The mechanisms of action of polyphenols have attracted much attention. Catechins are generally known as tea polyphenols. Researchers have extensively investigated the molecular mechanisms of these substances, especially (-)-epigallocatechin gallate of green tea catechin, and have provided new insights in the prevention and therapy for chronic diseases. This chapter summarizes catechins and their effects on chronic diseases, including metabolic syndromes, cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, and cancer, focusing on the effects of green tea catechins...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Alejandro R Chade, John E Hall
Obesity is largely responsible for the growing incidence and prevalence of diabetes, cardiovascular and renal diseases. Current strategies to prevent and treat obesity and its consequences have been insufficient to reverse the ongoing trends. Lifestyle modification or pharmacological therapies often produce modest weight loss which is not sustained and recurrence of obesity is frequently observed, leading to progression of target organ damage in many obese subjects. Therefore, research efforts have focused not only on the factors that regulate energy balance, but also on understanding mechanisms of target organ injury in obesity...
October 22, 2016: American Journal of Nephrology
Michiko Nanao-Hamai, Bo-Kyung Son, Tsuyoshi Hashizume, Sumito Ogawa, Masahiro Akishita
Vascular calcification is one of the major complications of cardiovascular disease and is an independent risk factor for myocardial infarction and cardiac death. Postmenopausal women have a higher prevalence of vascular calcification compared with premenopausal women, suggesting protective effects of estrogen (E2). However, the underlying mechanisms of its beneficial effects remain unclear. In the present study, we examined the inhibitory effects of E2 on vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) calcification, and found that growth arrest-specific gene 6 (Gas6), a crucial molecule in vascular calcification, is transactivated by estrogen receptor α (ERα) in response to E2...
October 19, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Nam Su Oh, Ji Hoon Koh, Mi Ri Park, Younghoon Kim, Sae Hun Kim
This study examined the effects of Maillard reaction products reacted by casein and lactose (cMRP) and of cMRP fermented by Lactobacillus fermentum H9 (F-cMRP) on hypolipidemic and antiinflammatory effects in rats fed a high-fat and high-cholesterol diet (HD). The HD-fed rats had significantly increased hepatic triglyceride concentrations compared with the rats fed a normal diet. It was shown that treatment with simvastatin, L. fermentum H9 (H9), cMRP, and F-cMRP decreased total triglycerides in the liver compared with the HD group...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
Susan J Carson, Jacqueline Burns
DesignCohort studyCohort selectionParticipants were recruited between 1994 and 1998 from the general population with the preferred ages of 35 to 65 years in women and 40 to 65 years in men.Exposure measurementSmoking was assessed using a questionnaire from which pack years of smoking were calculated. Educational attainment, body mass index, hypertension, diabetes, alcohol consumption and vitamin or mineral supplements were assessed from measurements and questionnaires. Tooth loss was also assessed by questionnaire returned between 2004 and 2006...
September 2016: Evidence-based Dentistry
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