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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319492/simulation-faculty-development-a-tiered-approach
#1
Dawn Taylor Peterson, Penni I Watts, Chad A Epps, Marjorie Lee White
Simulation faculty development has become a high priority for the past couple of years because simulation programs have rapidly expanded in health systems and universities worldwide. A formalized, structured model for developing quality facilitators of simulation is helpful to support and sustain this continued growth in the field of simulation. In this article, we present a tiered faculty development plan that has been implemented at a university in the United States and includes the essentials of faculty development...
March 18, 2017: Simulation in Healthcare: Journal of the Society for Simulation in Healthcare
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318904/dual-memory-neural-networks-for-modeling-cognitive-activities-of-humans-via-wearable-sensors
#2
Sang-Woo Lee, Chung-Yeon Lee, Dong-Hyun Kwak, Jung-Woo Ha, Jeonghee Kim, Byoung-Tak Zhang
Wearable devices, such as smart glasses and watches, allow for continuous recording of everyday life in a real world over an extended period of time or lifelong. This possibility helps better understand the cognitive behavior of humans in real life as well as build human-aware intelligent agents for practical purposes. However, modeling the human cognitive activity from wearable-sensor data stream is challenging because learning new information often results in loss of previously acquired information, causing a problem known as catastrophic forgetting...
February 20, 2017: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316957/the-evolution-of-computer-assisted-total-hip-arthroplasty-and-relevant-applications
#3
EDITORIAL
Jun-Dong Chang, In-Sung Kim, Atul M Bhardwaj, Ramachandra N Badami
In total hip arthroplasty (THA), the accurate positioning of implants is the key to achieve a good clinical outcome. Computer-assisted orthopaedic surgery (CAOS) has been developed for more accurate positioning of implants during the THA. There are passive, semi-active, and active systems in CAOS for THA. Navigation is a passive system that only provides information and guidance to the surgeon. There are 3 types of navigation: imageless navigation, computed tomography (CT)-based navigation, and fluoroscopy-based navigation...
March 2017: Hip & Pelvis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292629/the-5-clinical-pillars-of-value-for-total-joint-arthroplasty-in-a-bundled-payment-paradigm
#4
Kelvin Kim, Richard Iorio
BACKGROUND: Our large, urban, tertiary, university-based institution reflects on its 4-year experience with Bundled Payments for Care Improvement. We will describe the importance of 5 clinical pillars that have contributed to the early success of our bundled payment initiative. We are convinced that value-based care delivered through bundled payment initiatives is the best method to optimize patient outcomes while rewarding surgeons and hospitals for adapting to the evolving healthcare reforms...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287837/scientific-training-in-the-era-of-big-data-a-new-pedagogy-for-graduate-education
#5
Jay Aikat, Thomas M Carsey, Karamarie Fecho, Kevin Jeffay, Ashok Krishnamurthy, Peter J Mucha, Arcot Rajasekar, Stanley C Ahalt
The era of "big data" has radically altered the way scientific research is conducted and new knowledge is discovered. Indeed, the scientific method is rapidly being complemented and even replaced in some fields by data-driven approaches to knowledge discovery. This paradigm shift is sometimes referred to as the "fourth paradigm" of data-intensive and data-enabled scientific discovery. Interdisciplinary research with a hard emphasis on translational outcomes is becoming the norm in all large-scale scientific endeavors...
March 13, 2017: Big Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286213/carbonic-anhydrase-activation-enhances-object-recognition-memory-in-mice-through-phosphorylation-of-the-extracellular-signal-regulated-kinase-in-the-cortex-and-the-hippocampus
#6
Lucas Canto de Souza, Gustavo Provensi, Daniela Vullo, Fabrizio Carta, Andrea Scozzafava, Alessia Costa, Scheila Daiane Schmidt, Maria Beatrice Passani, Claudiu T Supuran, Patrizio Blandina
Rats injected with by d-phenylalanine, a carbonic anhydrase (CA) activator, enhanced spatial learning, whereas rats given acetazolamide, a CA inhibitor, exhibited impairments of fear memory consolidation. However, the related mechanisms are unclear. We investigated if CAs are involved in a non-spatial recognition memory task assessed using the object recognition test (ORT). Systemic administration of acetazolamide to male CD1 mice caused amnesia in the ORT and reduced CA activity in brain homogenates, while treatment with d-phenylalanine enhanced memory and increased CA activity...
March 9, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282257/human-microbiome-and-learning-healthcare-systems-integrating-research-and-precision-medicine-for-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#7
Kim H Chuong, David R Mack, Alain Stintzi, Kieran C O'Doherty
Healthcare institutions face widespread challenges of delivering high-quality and cost-effective care, while keeping up with rapid advances in biomedical knowledge and technologies. Moreover, there is increased emphasis on developing personalized or precision medicine targeted to individuals or groups of patients who share a certain biomarker signature. Learning healthcare systems (LHS) have been proposed for integration of research and clinical practice to fill major knowledge gaps, improve care, reduce healthcare costs, and provide precision care...
March 10, 2017: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271490/structure-and-assembly-of-clathrin-cages
#8
Mary Halebian, Kyle Morris, Corinne Smith
The unusual structure of clathrin, combined with its ability to assemble and disassemble rapidly in cells provides a model system for us to learn about the ways in which proteins can contribute mechanically to a functioning cell. In this article, we discuss the structural properties of clathrin cages and the triskelions which assemble to form them. The function of clathrin depends on the structure of these triskelions and the interactions they make both with each other during assembly and with the adaptor protein network that drives coated vesicle formation...
2017: Sub-cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247304/an-ensemble-rule-learning-approach-for-automated-morphological-classification-of-erythrocytes
#9
Maitreya Maity, Tushar Mungle, Dhiraj Dhane, A K Maiti, Chandan Chakraborty
The analysis of pathophysiological change to erythrocytes is important for early diagnosis of anaemia. The manual assessment of pathology slides is time-consuming and complicated regarding various types of cell identification. This paper proposes an ensemble rule-based decision-making approach for morphological classification of erythrocytes. Firstly, the digital microscopic blood smear images are pre-processed for removal of spurious regions followed by colour normalisation and thresholding. The erythrocytes are segmented from background image using the watershed algorithm...
April 2017: Journal of Medical Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240922/formalizing-neurath-s-ship-approximate-algorithms-for-online-causal-learning
#10
Neil R Bramley, Peter Dayan, Thomas L Griffiths, David A Lagnado
Higher-level cognition depends on the ability to learn models of the world. We can characterize this at the computational level as a structure-learning problem with the goal of best identifying the prevailing causal relationships among a set of relata. However, the computational cost of performing exact Bayesian inference over causal models grows rapidly as the number of relata increases. This implies that the cognitive processes underlying causal learning must be substantially approximate. A powerful class of approximations that focuses on the sequential absorption of successive inputs is captured by the Neurath's ship metaphor in philosophy of science, where theory change is cast as a stochastic and gradual process shaped as much by people's limited willingness to abandon their current theory when considering alternatives as by the ground truth they hope to approach...
February 27, 2017: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235433/efforts-to-increase-implementation-of-evidence-based-clinical-practices-to-improve-adolescent-friendly-reproductive-health-services
#11
Lisa M Romero, Oluwatosin Olaiya, Rachel Hallum-Montes, Balalakshmi Varanasi, Trisha Mueller, L Duane House, Karen Schlanger, Dawn Middleton
PURPOSE: The purposes of this study were to describe changes in implementation of evidence-based clinical practices among health center partners as part of a multicomponent, community-wide teen pregnancy prevention initiative; to better understand the barriers to and facilitators of implementation of the evidence-based clinical practices; and to describe the technical assistance and training provided to the health center partners and key lessons learned. METHODS: Health center data from the second and third years (2012 and 2013) of the teen pregnancy prevention community-wide initiative were analyzed from 10 communities (the first year was a planning year; program implementation began in the second year)...
March 2017: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210819/evidence-for-instructions-based-updating-of-task-set-representations-the-informed-fadeout-effect
#12
Maayan Pereg, Nachshon Meiran
The cognitive system can be updated rapidly and efficiently to maximize performance in cognitive tasks. This paper used a task-switching task to explore updating at the level of the plausible task-sets held for future performance. Previous research suggested a "fadeout effect", performance improvement when moving from task-switching context to single-task context, yet this effect could reflect passive learning rather than intentional control. In a novel "informed fadeout paradigm", one of two tasks was canceled for a certain number of trials and participants were informed or uninformed regarding task cancelation...
February 16, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202728/satellite-based-assessment-of-yield-variation-and-its-determinants-in-smallholder-african-systems
#13
Marshall Burke, David B Lobell
The emergence of satellite sensors that can routinely observe millions of individual smallholder farms raises possibilities for monitoring and understanding agricultural productivity in many regions of the world. Here we demonstrate the potential to track smallholder maize yield variation in western Kenya, using a combination of 1-m Terra Bella imagery and intensive field sampling on thousands of fields over 2 y. We find that agreement between satellite-based and traditional field survey-based yield estimates depends significantly on the quality of the field-based measures, with agreement highest ([Formula: see text] up to 0...
February 28, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197918/sumoylation-implications-for-neurodegenerative-diseases
#14
Dina B Anderson, Camila A Zanella, Jeremy M Henley, Helena Cimarosti
The covalent posttranslational modifications of proteins are critical events in signaling cascades that enable cells to efficiently, rapidly and reversibly respond to extracellular stimuli. This is especially important in the CNS where the processes affecting synaptic communication between neurons are highly complex and very tightly regulated. Sumoylation regulates the function and fate of a diverse array of proteins and participates in the complex cell signaling pathways required for cell survival. One of the most complex signaling pathways is synaptic transmission...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193444/surgical-navigation-a-systematic-review-of-indications-treatments-and-outcomes-in-oral-and-maxillofacial-surgery
#15
REVIEW
Iman Azarmehr, Kasper Stokbro, R Bryan Bell, Torben Thygesen
PURPOSE: This systematic review investigates the most common indications, treatments, and outcomes of surgical navigation (SN) published from 2010 to 2015. The evolution of SN and its application in oral and maxillofacial surgery have rapidly developed over recent years, and therapeutic indications are discussed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic search in relevant electronic databases, journals, and bibliographies of the included articles was carried out. Clinical studies with 5 or more patients published between 2010 and 2015 were included...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192624/mr-based-synthetic-ct-generation-using-a-deep-convolutional-neural-network-method
#16
Xiao Han
PURPOSE: Interests have been rapidly growing in the field of radiotherapy to replace CT with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), due to superior soft tissue contrast offered by MRI and the desire to reduce unnecessary radiation dose. MR-only radiotherapy also simplifies clinical workflow and avoids uncertainties in aligning MR with CT. Methods, however, are needed to derive CT-equivalent representations, often known as synthetic CT (sCT), from patient MR images for dose calculation and DRR-based patient positioning...
February 13, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186912/pattern-based-nn-control-of-a-class-of-uncertain-nonlinear-systems
#17
Feifei Yang, Cong Wang
This paper presents a pattern-based neural network (NN) control approach for a class of uncertain nonlinear systems. The approach consists of two phases of identification and another two phases of recognition and control. First, in the phase (i) of identification, adaptive NN controllers are designed to achieve closed-loop stability and tracking performance of nonlinear systems for different control situations, and the corresponding closed-loop control system dynamics are identified via deterministic learning...
February 7, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186050/a-survey-of-standard-information-models-for-clinical-decision-support-systems
#18
Seyed Ali Mussavi Rizi, Abdul Roudsari
HL7 CDA, vMR, and openEHR archetypes have been utilized as standard information models for clinical decision support systems. Compared to openEHR archetypes, vMR typically requires less time to develop and extend which makes it a good fit for rapid prototyping and pilot projects, while openEHR archetypes handle the data and semantic specification better. Using CDA for clinical decision support systems is discouraged due to its complexity, steep learning curve, and potential safety issues.
2017: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185097/change-in-the-relative-contributions-of-habit-and-working-memory-facilitates-serial-reversal-learning-expertise-in-rhesus-monkeys
#19
Thomas C Hassett, Robert R Hampton
Functionally distinct memory systems likely evolved in response to incompatible demands placed on learning by distinct environmental conditions. Working memory appears adapted, in part, for conditions that change frequently, making rapid acquisition and brief retention of information appropriate. In contrast, habits form gradually over many experiences, adapting organisms to contingencies of reinforcement that are stable over relatively long intervals. Serial reversal learning provides an opportunity to simultaneously examine the processes involved in adapting to rapidly changing and relatively stable contingencies...
February 9, 2017: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176860/massively-parallel-digital-high-resolution-melt-for-rapid-and-absolutely-quantitative-sequence-profiling
#20
Daniel Ortiz Velez, Hannah Mack, Julietta Jupe, Sinead Hawker, Ninad Kulkarni, Behnam Hedayatnia, Yang Zhang, Shelley Lawrence, Stephanie I Fraley
In clinical diagnostics and pathogen detection, profiling of complex samples for low-level genotypes represents a significant challenge. Advances in speed, sensitivity, and extent of multiplexing of molecular pathogen detection assays are needed to improve patient care. We report the development of an integrated platform enabling the identification of bacterial pathogen DNA sequences in complex samples in less than four hours. The system incorporates a microfluidic chip and instrumentation to accomplish universal PCR amplification, High Resolution Melting (HRM), and machine learning within 20,000 picoliter scale reactions, simultaneously...
February 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
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