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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030593/fish-perform-like-mammals-and-birds-in-inhibitory-motor-control-tasks
#1
Tyrone Lucon-Xiccato, Elia Gatto, Angelo Bisazza
Inhibitory control is an executive function that positively predicts performance in several cognitive tasks and has been considered typical of vertebrates with large and complex nervous systems such as primates. However, evidence is growing that some fish species have evolved complex cognitive abilities in spite of their relatively small brain size. We tested whether fish might also show enhanced inhibitory control by subjecting guppies, Poecilia reticulata, to the motor task used to test warm-blooded vertebrates...
October 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021127/fall-detection-in-individuals-with-lower-limb-amputations-using-mobile-phones-machine-learning-enhances-robustness-for-real-world-applications
#2
Nicholas Shawen, Luca Lonini, Chaithanya Krishna Mummidisetty, Ilona Shparii, Mark V Albert, Konrad Kording, Arun Jayaraman
BACKGROUND: Automatically detecting falls with mobile phones provides an opportunity for rapid response to injuries and better knowledge of what precipitated the fall and its consequences. This is beneficial for populations that are prone to falling, such as people with lower limb amputations. Prior studies have focused on fall detection in able-bodied individuals using data from a laboratory setting. Such approaches may provide a limited ability to detect falls in amputees and in real-world scenarios...
October 11, 2017: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019668/application-of-targeted-metabolomics-to-investigate-optimum-growing-conditions-to-enhance-bioactive-content-of-strawberry
#3
Ikram Akhatou, Ana Sayago, Raúl González-Domínguez, Angeles Fernández-Recamales
A simple, sensitive and rapid assay based on liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry was designed for simultaneous quantitation of secondary metabolites in order to investigate the influence of variety and agronomic conditions on the biosynthesis of bioactive compounds in strawberry. For this purpose, strawberries belonging to three varieties with different sensitivity to environmental conditions ('Camarosa', 'Festival', 'Palomar') were grown in soilless system under multiple agronomic conditions (electrical conductivity, substrate type and coverage)...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018630/a-versatile-ultrasound-simulation-system-for-education-and-training-in-high-fidelity-emergency-scenarios
#4
Saverio Farsoni, Luca Astolfi, Marcello Bonfe, Savino Spadaro, Carlo Alberto Volta
Point of care ultrasonography and the related focused assessment with sonography for trauma protocol, if performed by experienced physicians, is a highly sensitive examination, and specific for the detection of free fluids. Different systems and methods have been proposed for training, including simulation as one of the most efficient. This paper presents an ultrasound training system, specifically designed to be used during bedside high fidelity simulation scenarios, that could facilitate the learning process...
2017: IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018336/encoding-and-decoding-models-in-cognitive-electrophysiology
#5
REVIEW
Christopher R Holdgraf, Jochem W Rieger, Cristiano Micheli, Stephanie Martin, Robert T Knight, Frederic E Theunissen
Cognitive neuroscience has seen rapid growth in the size and complexity of data recorded from the human brain as well as in the computational tools available to analyze this data. This data explosion has resulted in an increased use of multivariate, model-based methods for asking neuroscience questions, allowing scientists to investigate multiple hypotheses with a single dataset, to use complex, time-varying stimuli, and to study the human brain under more naturalistic conditions. These tools come in the form of "Encoding" models, in which stimulus features are used to model brain activity, and "Decoding" models, in which neural features are used to generated a stimulus output...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975584/overview-of-pharmacovigilance-system-in-vietnam-lessons-learned-in-a-resource-restricted-country
#6
Khac-Dung Nguyen, Phuong-Thuy Nguyen, Hoang-Anh Nguyen, Anne Roussin, Jean-Louis Montastruc, Haleh Bagheri, Sten Olsson
Drug safety issues in developing countries are complex and sensitive, and health authorities cannot always simply implement decisions from developed countries because the health system, disease patterns, and lists of marketed drugs all differ. A system for proactive and effective surveillance of drugs in each nation is needed to identify and manage the exact drug-related problems faced by patients in these countries. Vietnam launched its university-based National Drug Information and Adverse Drug Reaction Monitoring Centre (NDIADRMC) in 2009, a significant step towards catching up with international trends...
October 3, 2017: Drug Safety: An International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Drug Experience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974240/association-of-a-novel-point-mutation-in-msh2-gene-with-familial-multiple-primary-cancers
#7
Hai Hu, Hong Li, Feng Jiao, Ting Han, Meng Zhuo, Jiujie Cui, Yixue Li, Liwei Wang
BACKGROUND: Multiple primary cancers (MPC) have been identified as two or more cancers without any subordinate relationship that occur either simultaneously or metachronously in the same or different organs of an individual. Lynch syndrome is an autosomal dominant genetic disorder that increases the risk of many types of cancers. Lynch syndrome patients who suffer more than two cancers can also be considered as MPC; patients of this kind provide unique resources to learn how genetic mutation causes MPC in different tissues...
October 3, 2017: Journal of Hematology & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971278/a-systematic-review-of-wearable-systems-for-cancer-detection-current-state-and-challenges
#8
Partha Pratim Ray, Dinesh Dash, Debashis De
Rapid growth of sensor and computing platforms have introduced the wearable systems. In recent years, wearable systems have led to new applications across all medical fields. The aim of this review is to present current state-of-the-art approach in the field of wearable system based cancer detection and identify key challenges that resist it from clinical adoption. A total of 472 records were screened and 11 were finally included in this study. Two types of records were studied in this context that includes 45% research articles and 55% manufactured products...
October 2, 2017: Journal of Medical Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963055/variation-across-individuals-and-items-determine-learning-outcomes-from-fast-mapping
#9
Marc N Coutanche, Griffin E Koch
An approach to learning words known as "fast mapping" has been linked to unique neurobiological and behavioral markers in adult humans, including rapid lexical integration. However, the mechanisms supporting fast mapping are still not known. In this study, we sought to help change this by examining factors that modulate learning outcomes. In 90 subjects, we systematically manipulated the typicality of the items used to support fast mapping (foils), and quantified learners' inclination to employ semantic, episodic, and spatial memory through the Survey of Autobiographical Memory (SAM)...
September 28, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961982/rapid-evolution-of-genes-involved-in-learning-and-energy-metabolism-for-domestication-of-the-laboratory-rat
#10
Lin Zeng, Chen Ming, Yan Li, Ling-Yan Su, Yan-Hua Su, Newton O Otecko, He-Qun Liu, Ming-Shan Wang, Yong-Gang Yao, Hai-Peng Li, Dong-Dong Wu, Ya-Ping Zhang
The laboratory rat, widely used in biomedical research, is domesticated from wild brown rat. The origin and genetic mechanism underlying domestication of the laboratory rat remain largely elusive. In the present study, large scale genomes supported a single origin for the laboratory rat, possibly from a sister group to wild rats from Europe/Africa/Middle East. Genomic and transcriptomic analyses uncovered many artificially selected genes (e.g. FOXP2, B3GAT1, and CLOCK) involved in the nervous system. These genes associate with learning ability and regulation of circadian rhythm, which likely enabled the successful domestication of the laboratory rat...
September 12, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960172/resting-state-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-for-surgical-planning-in-pediatric-patients-a-preliminary-experience
#11
Jarod L Roland, Natalie Griffin, Carl D Hacker, Ananth K Vellimana, S Hassan Akbari, Joshua S Shimony, Matthew D Smyth, Eric C Leuthardt, David D Limbrick
OBJECTIVE Cerebral mapping for surgical planning and operative guidance is a challenging task in neurosurgery. Pediatric patients are often poor candidates for many modern mapping techniques because of inability to cooperate due to their immature age, cognitive deficits, or other factors. Resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) is uniquely suited to benefit pediatric patients because it is inherently noninvasive and does not require task performance or significant cooperation. Recent advances in the field have made mapping cerebral networks possible on an individual basis for use in clinical decision making...
September 29, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918672/protein-complexes-big-data-machine-learning-and-integrative-proteomics-lessons-learned-over-a-decade-of-systematic-analysis-of-protein-interaction-networks
#12
Pierre C Havugimana, Pingzhao Hu, Andrew Emili
Elucidation of the networks of physical (functional) interactions present in cells and tissues is fundamental for understanding the molecular organization of biological systems, the mechanistic basis of essential and disease-related processes, and for functional annotation of previously uncharacterized proteins (via guilt-by-association or -correlation). After a decade in the field, we felt it timely to document our own experiences in the systematic analysis of protein interaction networks. Areas covered: Researchers worldwide have contributed innovative experimental and computational approaches that have driven the rapidly evolving field of 'functional proteomics'...
October 2017: Expert Review of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912686/roles-of-microglial-phagocytosis-and-inflammatory-mediators-in-the-pathophysiology-of-sleep-disorders
#13
REVIEW
Agnes Nadjar, Henna-Kaisa M Wigren, Marie-Eve Tremblay
Sleep serves crucial learning and memory functions in both nervous and immune systems. Microglia are brain immune cells that actively maintain health through their crucial physiological roles exerted across the lifespan, including phagocytosis of cellular debris and orchestration of neuroinflammation. The past decade has witnessed an explosive growth of microglial research. Considering the recent developments in the field of microglia and sleep, we examine their possible impact on various pathological conditions associated with a gain, disruption, or loss of sleep in this focused mini-review...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902270/public-health-response-and-lessons-learned-from-the-2014-chikungunya-epidemic-in-grenada
#14
Martin S Forde, Francis Martin, George Mitchell, Satesh Bidaisee
In June 2014, the first cases of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) were diagnosed on the island of Carriacou, part of the tri-island state of Grenada. In the three months that followed, CHIKV spread rapidly, with conservative estimates of the population infected of at least 60%. Multiple challenges were encountered in the battle to manage the spread and impact of this high-attack rate virus, including 1) limited indigenous laboratory diagnostic capabilities; 2) an under-resourced health care system; 3) a skeptical general public, hesitant to accept facts about the origin and mode of transmission of the new virus; and 4) resistance to the vector control strategies used...
August 21, 2017: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900155/inflexible-neurobiological-signatures-precede-atypical-development-in-infants-at-high-risk-for-autism
#15
Kristina Denisova, Guihu Zhao
Variability in neurobiological signatures is ubiquitous in early life but the link to adverse developmental milestones in humans is unknown. We examined how levels of signal and noise in movement signatures during the 1st year of life constrain early development in 71 healthy typically developing infants, either at High or Low familial Risk (HR or LR, respectively) for developing Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Delays in early learning developmental trajectories in HR infants (validated in an analysis of 1,445 infants from representative infant-sibling studies) were predicted by worse stochastic patterns in their spontaneous head movements as early as 1-2 months after birth, relative to HR infants who showed more rapid developmental progress, as well as relative to all LR infants...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898600/rapid-associative-learning-and-stable-long-term-memory-in-the-squid-euprymna-scolopes
#16
Emily A Zepeda, Robert J Veline, Robyn J Crook
Learning and memory in cephalopod molluscs have received intensive study because of cephalopods' complex behavioral repertoire and relatively accessible nervous systems. While most of this research has been conducted using octopus and cuttlefish species, there has been relatively little work on squid. Euprymna scolopes Berry, 1913, a sepiolid squid, is a promising model for further exploration of cephalopod cognition. These small squid have been studied in detail for their symbiotic relationship with bioluminescent bacteria, and their short generation time and successful captive breeding through multiple generations make them appealing models for neurobiological research...
June 2017: Biological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895943/machine-learned-and-codified-synthesis-parameters-of-oxide-materials
#17
Edward Kim, Kevin Huang, Alex Tomala, Sara Matthews, Emma Strubell, Adam Saunders, Andrew McCallum, Elsa Olivetti
Predictive materials design has rapidly accelerated in recent years with the advent of large-scale resources, such as materials structure and property databases generated by ab initio computations. In the absence of analogous ab initio frameworks for materials synthesis, high-throughput and machine learning techniques have recently been harnessed to generate synthesis strategies for select materials of interest. Still, a community-accessible, autonomously-compiled synthesis planning resource which spans across materials systems has not yet been developed...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886007/microglia-emerge-as-central-players-in-brain-disease
#18
REVIEW
Michael W Salter, Beth Stevens
There has been an explosion of new findings recently giving us insights into the involvement of microglia in central nervous system (CNS) disorders. A host of new molecular tools and mouse models of disease are increasingly implicating this enigmatic type of nervous system cell as a key player in conditions ranging from neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism to neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and chronic pain. Contemporaneously, diverse roles are emerging for microglia in the healthy brain, from sculpting developing neuronal circuits to guiding learning-associated plasticity...
September 8, 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882191/effects-of-sustained-i-c-v-infusion-of-lupus-csf-and-autoantibodies-on-behavioral-phenotype-and-neuronal-calcium-signaling
#19
Minesh Kapadia, Dunja Bijelić, Hui Zhao, Donglai Ma, Ljudmila Stojanovich, Milena Milošević, Pavle Andjus, Boris Šakić
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a potentially fatal autoimmune disease that is often accompanied by brain atrophy and diverse neuropsychiatric manifestations of unknown origin. More recently, it was observed that cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from patients and lupus-prone mice can be neurotoxic and that acute administration of specific brain-reactive autoantibodies (BRAs) can induce deficits in isolated behavioral tasks. Given the chronic and complex nature of CNS SLE, the current study examines broad behavioral performance and neuronal Ca(2+) signaling in mice receiving a sustained infusion of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from CNS SLE patients and putative BRAs (anti-NR2A, anti-ribosomal P, and anti-α-tubulin)...
September 7, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881973/biosses-a-semantic-sentence-similarity-estimation-system-for-the-biomedical-domain
#20
Gizem Sogancioglu, Hakime Öztürk, Arzucan Özgür
Motivation: The amount of information available in textual format is rapidly increasing in the biomedical domain. Therefore, natural language processing (NLP) applications are becoming increasingly important to facilitate the retrieval and analysis of these data. Computing the semantic similarity between sentences is an important component in many NLP tasks including text retrieval and summarization. A number of approaches have been proposed for semantic sentence similarity estimation for generic English...
July 15, 2017: Bioinformatics
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