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Rapid learning system

Charlene Liew
The rapid development of Artificial Intelligence/deep learning technology and its implementation into routine clinical imaging will cause a major transformation to the practice of radiology. Strategic positioning will ensure the successful transition of radiologists into their new roles as augmented clinicians. This paper describes an overall vision on how to achieve a smooth transition through the practice of augmented radiology where radiologists-in-the-loop ensure the safe implementation of Artificial Intelligence systems...
May 2018: European Journal of Radiology
Beau A Alward, Charlotte A Cornil, Jacques Balthazart, Gregory F Ball
Sex steroid hormones act during early development to shape the circuitry upon which these same hormones act in adulthood to control behavioral responses to various stimuli. The "organizational" vs. "activational" distinction was proposed to explain this temporal difference in hormone action. In both of these cases steroids were thought to act genomically over a time-scale of days to weeks. However, sex steroids can affect behavior over short (e.g., seconds or minutes) time-scales. Here, we discuss how testosterone controls birdsong via actions at different sites and over different time-scales, with an emphasis on this process in canaries (Serinus canaria)...
April 18, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
Violeta Gaveikaite, Dimitris Filos, Helen Schonenberg, Remco van der Heijden, Nicos Maglaveras, Ioanna Chouvarda
Current healthcare systems are struggling with rising costs and unbalanced quality of care. Integrated care (IC) is a worldwide trend in healthcare reforms designed to tackle these problems. ACT@Scale is a partnership of leading European regions, industry and academia which aims to identify, transfer and scale-up existing integrated healthcare practices. In this context, participating programs are applying iterative process improvement cycles using collaborative methodologies. The vision of learning health systems (LHS) is similar to IC, but it focuses on IT means as a change enabler for rapid and continuous knowledge integration into better outcomes...
2018: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
Shaowei Jiang, Jun Liao, Zichao Bian, Kaikai Guo, Yongbing Zhang, Guoan Zheng
A whole slide imaging (WSI) system has recently been approved for primary diagnostic use in the US. The image quality and system throughput of WSI is largely determined by the autofocusing process. Traditional approaches acquire multiple images along the optical axis and maximize a figure of merit for autofocusing. Here we explore the use of deep convolution neural networks (CNNs) to predict the focal position of the acquired image without axial scanning. We investigate the autofocusing performance with three illumination settings: incoherent Kohler illumination, partially coherent illumination with two plane waves, and one-plane-wave illumination...
April 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
Xiaotian Hao, Jianye Hao, Li Wang, Hanxu Hou
BACKGROUND: The cooperation of cells in biological systems is similar to that of agents in cooperative multi-agent systems. Research findings in multi-agent systems literature can provide valuable inspirations to biological research. The well-coordinated states in cell systems can be viewed as desirable social norms in cooperative multi-agent systems. One important research question is how a norm can rapidly emerge with limited communication resources. RESULTS: In this work, we propose a learning approach which can trade off the agents' performance of coordinating on a consistent norm and the communication cost involved...
April 11, 2018: BMC Bioinformatics
Gabriella Gamberale-Stille, Baharan Kazemi, Alexandra Balogh, Olof Leimar
The importance of receiver biases in shaping the evolution of many signalling systems is widely acknowledged. Here, we show that receiver bias can explain which traits evolve to become warning signals. For warning coloration, a generalization bias for a signalling trait can result from predators learning to discriminate unprofitable from profitable prey. However, because the colour patterns of prey are complex traits with multiple components, it is crucial to understand which of the many aspects of prey appearance evolve into signals...
April 25, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Nicole Wenderoth
Behavioral changes characteristic for motor learning result from synaptic plasticity within the sensorimotor system. This review summarizes how the central nervous system responds rapidly to motor activity while awake. It then discusses evidence for the hypothesis that sleep is essential for both stabilizing previously acquired motor memories and maintaining the brain's efficacy to undergo plastic changes to learn new skills.
April 16, 2018: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews
Fang Ren, Logan Ward, Travis Williams, Kevin J Laws, Christopher Wolverton, Jason Hattrick-Simpers, Apurva Mehta
With more than a hundred elements in the periodic table, a large number of potential new materials exist to address the technological and societal challenges we face today; however, without some guidance, searching through this vast combinatorial space is frustratingly slow and expensive, especially for materials strongly influenced by processing. We train a machine learning (ML) model on previously reported observations, parameters from physiochemical theories, and make it synthesis method-dependent to guide high-throughput (HiTp) experiments to find a new system of metallic glasses in the Co-V-Zr ternary...
April 2018: Science Advances
Y Rong, A V Padron, K J Hagerty, N Nelson, S Chi, N O Keyhani, J Katz, S P A Datta, C Gomes, E S McLamore
Impedimetric biosensors for measuring small molecules based on weak/transient interactions between bioreceptors and target analytes are a challenge for detection electronics, particularly in field studies or in the analysis of complex matrices. Protein-ligand binding sensors have enormous potential for biosensing, but achieving accuracy in complex solutions is a major challenge. There is a need for simple post hoc analytical tools that are not computationally expensive, yet provide near real time feedback on data derived from impedance spectra...
April 9, 2018: Analyst
Ji Yeong An, Su Mi Kim, Soohyun Ahn, Min-Gew Choi, Jun-Ho Lee, Tae Sung Sohn, Jae-Moon Bae, Sung Kim
Purpose: We evaluated the learning curve and short-term surgical outcomes of robot-assisted distal gastrectomy (RADG) performed by a single surgeon experienced in open, but not laparoscopic, gastrectomy. We aimed to verify the feasibility of performing RADG without extensive laparoscopic experience. Materials and Methods: Between July 2012 and December 2016, 60 RADG procedures were performed by a single surgeon using the da VinciĀ® Surgical System (Intuitive Surgical)...
March 2018: Journal of Gastric Cancer
Mei Lu, Xiaoyun Zhao, Haonan Xing, Zhe Xun, Tianzhi Yang, Cuifang Cai, Dongkai Wang, Pingtian Ding
Cell-free (CF) protein synthesis has emerged as a powerful technique platform for efficient protein production in vitro. Liposomes have been widely studied as therapeutic carriers due to their biocompatibility, biodegradability, low toxicity, flexible surface manipulation, easy preparation, and higher cargo encapsulation capability. However, rapid immune clearance, insufficient targeting capacity, and poor cytoplasmic delivery efficiency substantially restrict their clinical application. The incorporation of functional membrane proteins (MPs) or peptides allows the transfer of biological properties to liposomes and imparts them with improved circulation, increased targeting, and efficient intracellular delivery...
April 3, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Donna Keyser, Jane Kogan, Marion McGowan, Pamela Peele, Diane Holder, William Shrank
National-level demonstration projects and real-world studies continue to inform health care transformation efforts and catalyze implementation of value-based service delivery and payment models, though evidence generation and diffusion of learnings often occurs at a relatively slow pace. Rapid-cycle learning models, however, can help individual organizations to more quickly adapt health care innovations to meet the challenges and demands of a rapidly changing health care landscape. Integrated delivery and financing systems (IDFSs) offer a unique platform for rapid-cycle learning and innovation...
March 30, 2018: Healthcare
Natasha Marrus, Stefanie Kennon-McGill, Brooke Harris, Yi Zhang, Anne L Glowinski, John N Constantino
Reciprocal social behavior (RSB), an early-emerging capacity to engage in social contingency-which is foundational for both social learning and social competency-is hypothesized to be disrupted in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The ability to quantify the full range of RSB during the toddler period, when core symptoms of ASD often arise, is pivotal for evaluating early risk for ASD, characterizing social development, and tracking response to early interventions. However, important parameters of variation in RSB-especially prior to the development of verbal language-can be nuanced and difficult to characterize using questionnaire-based methods...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Joo H Yoon, Michael R Pinsky
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The art of predicting future hemodynamic instability in the critically ill has rapidly become a science with the advent of advanced analytical processed based on computer-driven machine learning techniques. How these methods have progressed beyond severity scoring systems to interface with decision-support is summarized. RECENT FINDINGS: Data mining of large multidimensional clinical time-series databases using a variety of machine learning tools has led to our ability to identify alert artifact and filter it from bedside alarms, display real-time risk stratification at the bedside to aid in clinical decision-making and predict the subsequent development of cardiorespiratory insufficiency hours before these events occur...
March 29, 2018: Current Opinion in Critical Care
Steffen R Hage
Monkey vocalization is a complex behavioral pattern, which is flexibly used in audio-vocal communication. A recently proposed dual neural network model suggests that cognitive control might be involved in this behavior, originating from a frontal cortical network in the prefrontal cortex and mediated via projections from the rostral portion of the ventral premotor cortex (PMvr) and motor cortex to the primary vocal motor network in the brainstem. For the rapid adjustment of vocal output to external acoustic events, strong interconnections between vocal motor and auditory sites are needed, which are present at cortical and subcortical levels...
March 20, 2018: Hearing Research
HiJee Kang, Denis Lancelin, Daniel Pressnitzer
Perception deals with temporal sequences of events, like series of phonemes for audition, dynamic changes in pressure for touch textures, or moving objects for vision. Memory processes are thus needed to make sense of the temporal patterning of sensory information. Recently, we have shown that auditory temporal patterns could be learnt rapidly and incidentally with repeated exposure [Kang, Agus, & Pressnitzer, J. Acoust Soc. Am. 2017]. Here, we tested whether rapid incidental learning of temporal patterns was specific to audition, or if it was a more general property of sensory systems...
March 22, 2018: Neuroscience
Yuqian Li, Bruno Cornelis, Alexandra Dusa, Geert Vanmeerbeeck, Dries Vercruysse, Erik Sohn, Kamil Blaszkiewicz, Dimiter Prodanov, Peter Schelkens, Liesbet Lagae
Three-part white blood cell differentials which are key to routine blood workups are typically performed in centralized laboratories on conventional hematology analyzers operated by highly trained staff. With the trend of developing miniaturized blood analysis tool for point-of-need in order to accelerate turnaround times and move routine blood testing away from centralized facilities on the rise, our group has developed a highly miniaturized holographic imaging system for generating lens-free images of white blood cells in suspension...
March 14, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Xinghua Xu, Yi Zheng, Shujing Yao, Guochen Sun, Bainan Xu, Xiaolei Chen
Background: With rapid advances in technology, wearable devices as head-mounted display (HMD) have been adopted for various uses in medical science, ranging from simply aiding in fitness to assisting surgery. We aimed to investigate the feasibility and practicability of a low-cost multimodal HMD system in neuroendoscopic surgery. Methods: A multimodal HMD system, mainly consisted of a HMD with two built-in displays, an action camera, and a laptop computer displaying reconstructed medical images, was developed to assist neuroendoscopic surgery...
January 2018: Brain and Behavior
Anja Joachim, Barbara Hinney, Georg Duscher, Ingrid Preusche, Petra Winter
In a changing world with rapidly evolving new technologies, even in the "sheltered world" of teachers and lecturers at universities, we are challenged by new developments. As diversification is increasing in many aspects of our professional life, there is also a need to employ new ways of teaching, learning and assessments in veterinary curricula, taking into account the increasing numbers of students and limited teaching resources. The "classical" Austrian veterinary curriculum, with a series of consecutive lectures followed by practical courses in the different disciplines, separated from each other in the curricular time table and by annual examinations, has been a long-standing concept for teaching in the past...
March 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Madeline Williams, Smrithi Prem, Xiaofeng Zhou, Paul Matteson, Percy Luk Yeung, Chi-Wei Lu, Zhiping Pang, Linda Brzustowicz, James H Millonig, Emanuel Dicicco-Bloom
Human brain development proceeds through a series of precisely orchestrated processes, with earlier stages distinguished by proliferation, migration, and neurite outgrowth; and later stages characterized by axon/dendrite outgrowth and synapse formation. In neurodevelopmental disorders, often one or more of these processes are disrupted, leading to abnormalities in brain formation and function. With the advent of human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) technology, researchers now have an abundant supply of human cells that can be differentiated into virtually any cell type, including neurons...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
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