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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218403/the-storage-and-recall-of-memories-in-the-hippocampo-cortical-system
#1
REVIEW
Edmund T Rolls
A quantitative computational theory of the operation of the hippocampus as an episodic memory system is described. The CA3 system operates as a single attractor or autoassociation network (1) to enable rapid one-trial associations between any spatial location (place in rodents or spatial view in primates) and an object or reward and (2) to provide for completion of the whole memory during recall from any part. The theory is extended to associations between time and object or reward to implement temporal order memory, which is also important in episodic memory...
December 7, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211654/does-extensive-training-at-individuating-novel-objects-in-adulthood-lead-to-visual-expertise-the-role-of-facelikeness
#2
Aliette Lochy, Friederike G S Zimmermann, Renaud Laguesse, Verena Willenbockel, Bruno Rossion, Quoc C Vuong
Human adults have a rich visual experience with seeing human faces since birth, which may contribute to the acquisition of perceptual processes that rapidly and automatically individuate faces. According to a generic visual expertise hypothesis, extensive experience with nonface objects may similarly lead to efficient processing of objects at the individual level. However, whether extensive training in adulthood leads to visual expertise remains debated. One key issue is the extent to which the acquisition of visual expertise depends on the resemblance of objects to faces in terms of the spatial configuration of parts...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211649/hearing-shapes-event-related-potentials-reveal-the-time-course-of-auditory-visual-sensory-substitution
#3
Christian Graulty, Orestis Papaioannou, Phoebe Bauer, Michael A Pitts, Enriqueta Canseco-Gonzalez
In auditory-visual sensory substitution, visual information (e.g., shape) can be extracted through strictly auditory input (e.g., soundscapes). Previous studies have shown that image-to-sound conversions that follow simple rules [such as the Meijer algorithm; Meijer, P. B. L. An experimental system for auditory image representation. Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, 39, 111-121, 1992] are highly intuitive and rapidly learned by both blind and sighted individuals. A number of recent fMRI studies have begun to explore the neuroplastic changes that result from sensory substitution training...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208230/learning-from-connectomics-on-the-fly
#4
REVIEW
Philipp Schlegel, Marta Costa, Gregory Sxe Jefferis
Parallels between invertebrates and vertebrates in nervous system development, organisation and circuits are powerful reasons to use insects to study the mechanistic basis of behaviour. The last few years have seen the generation in Drosophila melanogaster of very large light microscopy data sets, genetic driver lines and tools to report or manipulate neural activity. These resources in conjunction with computational tools are enabling large scale characterisation of neuronal types and their functional properties...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206268/infusing-systems-and-quality-improvement-throughout-an-undergraduate-nursing-curriculum
#5
Sara A McComb, Jane M Kirkpatrick
BACKGROUND: Nurse educators are constantly revising curricula to ensure that graduating nurses have the requisite skills for today's fast-paced, rapidly changing, nonlinear complex care environment. Key nursing education and practice organizations identify systems thinking and quality improvement as essential skills for nurses at the point of care. METHOD: Systems thinking and quality improvement were embedded across a Bachelor of Nursing (BSN) curriculum in a manner that does not dislocate other, more traditional content...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Nursing Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203327/ros-induced-ros-release-in-plant-and-animal-cells
#6
Sara I Zandalinas, Ron Mittler
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a key signaling role in plant and animal cells. Among the many cellular mechanisms used to generate and transduce ROS signals, ROS-induced ROS release (RIRR) is emerging as an important pathway involved in different human pathologies and plant responses to environmental stress. RIRR is a process in which one cellular compartment or organelle generates or releases ROS, triggering the enhanced production or release of ROS by another compartment or organelle. It was initially described in animal cells and proposed to mediate mitochondria-to-mitochondria communication, but later expanded to include communication between mitochondria and plasma membrane-localized NADPH oxidases...
December 1, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203121/using-a-memory-systems-lens-to-view-the-effects-of-estrogens-on-cognition-implications-for-human-health
#7
Donna L Korol, Wei Wang
Understanding the organizing and activating effects of gonadal steroids on adult physiology can guide insight into sex differences in and hormonal influences on health and disease, ranging from diabetes and other metabolic disorders, emotion and stress regulation, substance abuse, pain perception, immune function and inflammation, cognitive function and dysfunction accompanying neurological disorders. Because the brain is highly sensitive to many forms of estrogens, it is not surprising that many adult behaviors, including cognitive function, are modulated by estrogens...
December 1, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200134/medical-monitoring-for-occupational-asthma-among-toluene-diisocyanate-production-workers-in-the-united-states
#8
Laura D Cassidy, Brent Doney, Mei Lin Wang, Laura Kurth, Patrick R Conner, James J Collins, Michael Carson, Don Molenaar, Carrie A Redlich, Eileen Storey
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe a study of medical monitoring methods and lessons learned in detecting health outcomes in U.S. plants producing toluene diisocyanate (TDI). METHODS: A multidisciplinary team implemented a medical and environmental monitoring program in three TDI plants. RESULTS: Of 269 eligible workers, 197 (73%) participated and 42 (21%) met symptom and/or lung function criteria that would trigger evaluation for possible asthma over 5 years of data collection...
December 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189649/physician-assistant-student-training-for-the-inpatient-setting-a-needs-assessment
#9
Poonam Sharma, Megan Brooks, Pahresah Roomiany, Lalit Verma, Lisa Criscione-Schreiber
PURPOSE: The number of physician assistants (PAs) practicing hospital medicine is rapidly expanding. Little research has been done to determine which inpatient medicine rotation experiences are most helpful to prepare PA students for a career in inpatient medicine. We aimed to determine those skills that practicing hospitalists believe are most critical for PA students to master and to describe hospitalists' current understanding of PA training. We also sought to evaluate the current performance of our own inpatient medicine rotation for PA students...
December 2017: Journal of Physician Assistant Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186378/pipelinedog-a-simple-and-flexible-graphic-pipeline-construction-and-maintenance-tool
#10
Anbo Zhou, Yeting Zhang, Yazhou Sun, Jinchuan Xing
Summary: Analysis pipelines are an essential part of bioinformatics research, and ad hoc pipelines are frequently created by researchers for prototyping and proof-of-concept purposes. However, most existing pipeline management system or workflow engines are too complex for rapid prototyping or learning the pipeline concept. A lightweight, user-friendly, and flexible solution is thus desirable. In this study, we developed a new pipeline construction and maintenance tool, PipelineDog. This is a web-based integrated development environment with a modern web graphical user interface...
November 23, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186346/pharmacokinetic-assessments-of-liquiritin-protocatechuic-aldehyde-and-rosmarinic-acid-in-rat-plasma-by-uplc-ms-ms-after-administration-of-zibupiyin-recipe
#11
Lin Zhang, Huiying Xu, Libin Zhan
The three analytes of the Traditional Chinese Medicine ZibuPiyin Recipe (ZBPYR), namely, liquiritin, protocatechuic aldehyde and rosmarinic acid, may synergistically play an important role in regulating memory and learning. However, the pharmacokinetic behaviors of these compounds after their co-administration remain unclear. To this end, a selective and sensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated in rat plasma for the study of these three major bioactive ingredients in ZBPYR...
November 24, 2017: Journal of Chromatographic Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184668/can-surgical-simulation-be-used-to-train-detection-and-classification-of-neural-networks
#12
Odysseas Zisimopoulos, Evangello Flouty, Mark Stacey, Sam Muscroft, Petros Giataganas, Jean Nehme, Andre Chow, Danail Stoyanov
Computer-assisted interventions (CAI) aim to increase the effectiveness, precision and repeatability of procedures to improve surgical outcomes. The presence and motion of surgical tools is a key information input for CAI surgical phase recognition algorithms. Vision-based tool detection and recognition approaches are an attractive solution and can be designed to take advantage of the powerful deep learning paradigm that is rapidly advancing image recognition and classification. The challenge for such algorithms is the availability and quality of labelled data used for training...
October 2017: Healthcare Technology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180702/developing-a-machine-learning-system-for-identification-of-severe-hand-foot-and-mouth-disease-from-electronic-medical-record-data
#13
Guangjian Liu, Yi Xu, Xinming Wang, Xutian Zhuang, Huiying Liang, Yun Xi, Fangqin Lin, Liyan Pan, Taishan Zeng, Huixian Li, Xiaojun Cao, Gansen Zhao, Huimin Xia
Children of severe hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) often present with same clinical features as those of mild HFMD during the early stage, yet later deteriorate rapidly with a fulminant disease course. Our goal was to: (1) develop a machine learning system to automatically identify cases with high risk of severe HFMD at the time of admission; (2) compare the effectiveness of the new system with the existing risk scoring system. Data on 2,532 HFMD children admitted between March 2012 and July 2015, were collected retrospectively from a medical center in China...
November 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163285/effects-of-phonological-training-on-the-reading-and-reading-related-abilities-of-hong-kong-children-with-dyslexia
#14
Li-Chih Wang
This study aimed to investigate phonological awareness training by examining outcomes among Chinese children who learn Chinese without phonetic system training. Fifty-six Hong Kong children from the 3rd to 6th grades were recruited. Two-thirds of the children had been officially identified as dyslexic by the local government, and the remainder were considered high risk for dyslexia. The children were divided equally into a control group and an experimental group, with the groups matched as closely as possible by age and gender...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161758/young-athletes-health-knowledge-system-qualitative-analysis-of-health-learning-processes-in-adolescent-sportspersons
#15
Laura I Rodríguez-Serrano, Toomas Timpka, Joakim Ekberg, Örjan Dahlström, Jenny Jacobsson
Recognized side effects on health associated with sports participation in youth include overtraining, doping, and exposure to harassment and violence. Many of these effects originate in contexts where young athletes are beginning to make decisions about their sports practices on their own. This study set out to explore knowledge and reasoning about health among adolescent athletes and to describe how health knowledge management structures are associated with different social systems. Qualitative data were collected from focus groups involving 65 young Swedish athletes aged 16 to 17 years...
November 21, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155131/human-lung-epithelial-cell-cultures-for-analysis-of-inhaled-toxicants-lessons-learned-and-future-directions
#16
REVIEW
Pieter S Hiemstra, Gwendolynn Grootaers, Anne M van der Does, Cyrille A M Krul, Ingeborg M Kooter
The epithelium that covers the conducting airways and alveoli is a primary target for inhaled toxic substances, and therefore a focus in inhalation toxicology. The increasing concern about the use of animal models has stimulated the development of in vitro cell culture models for analysis of the biological effects of inhaled toxicants. However, the validity of the current in vitro models and their acceptance by regulatory authorities as an alternative to animal models is a reason for concern, and requires a critical review...
November 15, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152588/the-delivery-science-rapid-analysis-program-a-research-and-operational-partnership-at-kaiser-permanente-northern-california
#17
Julie A Schmittdiel, Rick Dlott, Joseph D Young, Michael B Rothmann, Wendy Dyer, Alyce S Adams
Introduction: Health care researchers and delivery system leaders share a common mission to improve health care quality and outcomes. However, differing timelines, incentives, and priorities are often a barrier to research and operational partnerships. In addition, few funding mechanisms exist to generate and solicit analytic questions that are of interest to both research and to operations within health care settings, and provide rapid results that can be used to improve practice and outcomes...
October 2017: Learning Health Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152475/use-of-robotics-in-liver-donor-right-hepatectomy
#18
REVIEW
Po-Da Chen, Chao-Yin Wu, Yao-Ming Wu
Liver transplantation is the best solution for end stage liver disease, and has been widely accepted and rapidly developed in the past decades. Along with the improved outcomes of liver transplantation, living-related donor transplantation has been conducted to overcome the shortage of the deceased donor. The most important aspects of the living-related liver transplantation are donor safety and fast recovery after graft procurement. Meanwhile, the rapid progress of minimally invasive surgery (MIS) in general surgery has generated heated debate regarding the appropriateness of MIS in living-related donor graft hepatectomy...
October 2017: Hepatobiliary Surgery and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135763/health-system-creation-and-integration-at-a-health-sciences-university-a-five-year-follow-up
#19
Catherine P Slade, Ricardo Azziz, Steven Levin, Gretchen B Caughman, David S Hefner, Kimberly V Halbur, Martha S Tingen, Susan James
Shifting healthcare market forces and regulation have exerted near-constant pressure on U.S. academic health centers (AHCs) attempting to successfully execute their traditional tripartite mission. A governance structure and organizational alignment that works well under one set of conditions is rarely optimal when conditions change. Thus, the degree and type of alignment of an AHC's clinical, educational, and faculty practice organizations have changed regularly within the sector, typically landing near one end or the other on a continuum from fully aligned with centralized governance to largely independent with separate governance...
November 2017: Journal of Healthcare Management / American College of Healthcare Executives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132370/expanding-malaria-diagnosis-and-treatment-in-lao-pdr-lessons-learned-from-a-public-private-mix-initiative
#20
Nouannipha Simmalavong, Sengkham Phommixay, Phoudaliphone Kongmanivong, Odai Sichanthongthip, Bouasy Hongvangthong, Deyer Gopinath, David M Sintasath
BACKGROUND: As in other countries of the Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS), the private health sector constitutes a significant avenue where malaria services are provided and presents a unique opportunity for public-private collaboration. In September 2008, a public-private mix (PPM) strategy was launched initially in four northern and southern provinces in Lao PDR to increase access to rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) and artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT), improve quality of care, and collect routine malaria data from the private sector...
November 13, 2017: Malaria Journal
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