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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537812/perspectives-of-patients-with-cancer-on-the-ethics-of-rapid-learning-health-systems
#1
Reshma Jagsi, Kent A Griffith, Aaron Sabolch, Rochelle Jones, Rebecca Spence, Raymond De Vries, David Grande, Angela R Bradbury
Purpose To inform the evolving implementation of CancerLinQ and other rapid-learning systems for oncology care, we sought to evaluate perspectives of patients with cancer regarding ethical issues. Methods Using the GfK Group online research panel, representative of the US population, we surveyed 875 patients with cancer; 621 (71%) responded. We evaluated perceptions of appropriateness (scored from 1 to 10; 10, very appropriate) using scenarios and compared responses by age, race, and education. We constructed a scaled measure of comfort with secondary use of deidentified medical information and evaluated its correlates in a multivariable model...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520235/high-dimensional-neural-network-potentials-for-complex-systems
#2
Jörg Behler
Modern simulation techniques have reached a level of maturity, which allows addressing a wide range of problems in chemistry and materials science. Unfortunately, the application of first principles methods with predictive power is still limited to rather small systems, and in spite of the rapid evolution of computer hardware no fundamental change of this situation can be expected. Consequently, to reach an atomic level understanding of complex systems, the development of more efficient but equally reliable atomistic potentials has received considerable attention in recent years...
May 18, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508785/assessing-the-educational-needs-of-health-information-management-staff-of-the-mashhad-university-of-medical-sciences-iran
#3
Khalil Kimiafar, Abbas Sheikhtaheri, Masoumeh Sarbaz, Masoumeh Hoseini
Health information management (HIM) professionals have a combination of skills and, at the same time, the demand for their skills in the health system is increasing rapidly. This study aimed to assess the educational needs of the HIM staff in Iran. This descriptive analytical study was conducted in eight teaching hospitals. It was found that the maximum educational needs concerned the knowledge of medical terminology, occupational safety, legal aspects, the newest rules and regulations, and ministry guidelines, while the least of the felt needs related to insurance and other aspects of registry, data ownership, and data quality...
2017: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508734/the-role-of-cue-utilisation-in-reducing-the-workload-in-a-train-control-task
#4
Sue Brouwers, Mark W Wiggins, Barbara Griffin, William S Helton, David O'Hare
Skilled performance has been characterised, in part, by the capacity to accurately identify and respond to patterns as cues in the environment. The outcome is a reduction in cognitive load and a greater residual capacity to undertake concurrent tasks. The present study was designed to examine the relationship between cue utilisation and temporal pattern recognition in the context of a simulated, rail control task. Sixty-one university students undertook an assessment of cue utilisation and engaged in a rail control simulation...
May 16, 2017: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502530/the-operating-room-of-the-future-versus-the-future-of-the-operating-room
#5
REVIEW
Amin B Kassam, Richard A Rovin, Sarika Walia, Srikant Chakravarthi, Juanita Celix, Jonathan Jennings, Sammy Khalili, Lior Gonen, Alejandro Monroy-Sosa, Melanie B Fukui
Technological advancement in the operating room is evolving into a dynamic system mirroring that of the aeronautics industry. Through data visualization, information is continuously being captured, collected, and stored on a scalable informatics platform for rapid, intuitive, iterative learning. The authors believe this philosophy (paradigm) will feed into an intelligent informatics domain fully accessible to all and geared toward precision, cell-based therapy in which tissue can be targeted and interrogated in situ...
June 2017: Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499008/rippminer-a-bioinformatics-resource-for-deciphering-chemical-structures-of-ripps-based-on-prediction-of-cleavage-and-cross-links
#6
Priyesh Agrawal, Shradha Khater, Money Gupta, Neetu Sain, Debasisa Mohanty
Ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified peptides (RiPPs) constitute a rapidly growing class of natural products with diverse structures and bioactivities. We have developed RiPPMiner, a novel bioinformatics resource for deciphering chemical structures of RiPPs by genome mining. RiPPMiner derives its predictive power from machine learning based classifiers, trained using a well curated database of more than 500 experimentally characterized RiPPs. RiPPMiner uses Support Vector Machine to distinguish RiPP precursors from other small proteins and classify the precursors into 12 sub-classes of RiPPs...
May 12, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498193/the-roles-of-expert-mothers-engaged-in-prevention-of-mother-to-child-transmission-pmtct-programs-a-commentary-on-the-inspire-studies-in-malawi-nigeria-and-zimbabwe
#7
Fabian Cataldo, Nadia A Sam-Agudu, Sam Phiri, Bridget Shumba, Llewellyn J Cornelius, Geoff Foster
INTRODUCTION: Several initiatives aiming to improve retention and adherence in Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV (PMTCT) programs include "expert mothers" (EMs) as a central tenet of their interventions. This article compares the role of EMs in 3 implementation research studies examining approaches for improving retention in care among mothers living with HIV. METHODS: We compared and synthesized qualitative data and lessons learned from 3 studies (MoMent in Nigeria, PURE in Malawi, and EPAZ in Zimbabwe) with respect to the involvement of EMs in supporting PMTCT clients...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492457/the-role-of-amantadine-withdrawal-in-3-cases-of-treatment-refractory-altered-mental-status
#8
Leah D Fryml, Kristen R Williams, Christopher G Pelic, James Fox, Gregory Sahlem, Sophie Robert, Gonzalo J Revuelta, Edward Baron Short
Amantadine, which was originally developed as an antiviral medication, functions as a dopamine agonist in the central nervous system and consequently is utilized in the treatment of Parkinson disease, drug-induced extrapyramidal reactions, and neuroleptic malignant syndrome. For reasons that are not entirely understood, abrupt changes in amantadine dosage can produce a severe withdrawal syndrome. Existing medical literature describes case reports of amantadine withdrawal leading to delirium, which at times has progressed to neuroleptic malignant syndrome...
May 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489296/rapid-actions-of-estrogens-and-their-receptors-on-memory-acquisition-and-consolidation-in-females
#9
REVIEW
Paul A S Sheppard, Wendy A Koss, Karyn M Frick, Elena Choleris
Increased attention has been paid in recent years to the ways in which estrogens and estrogen receptors rapidly affect learning and memory. These rapid effects occur within a timeframe too narrow for the classical genomic mode of estrogen action, thus suggesting non-classical effects as underlying mechanisms. The present review examines recent developments in the study of the rapid effects of 17β-estradiol and estrogen receptor (ER) agonists on learning and memory tasks in female rodents, including social recognition, object recognition, object placement (spatial memory), and social learning...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487512/rapid-learning-curve-assessment-in-an-ex-vivo-training-system-for-microincisional-glaucoma-surgery
#10
Yalong Dang, Susannah Waxman, Chao Wang, Hardik A Parikh, Igor I Bussel, Ralitsa T Loewen, Xiaobo Xia, Kira L Lathrop, Richard A Bilonick, Nils A Loewen
Increasing prevalence and cost of glaucoma have increased the demand for surgeons well trained in newer, microincisional surgery. These procedures occur in a highly confined space, making them difficult to learn by observation or assistance alone as is currently done. We hypothesized that our ex vivo outflow model is sensitive enough to allow computing individual learning curves to quantify progress and refine techniques. Seven trainees performed nine trabectome-mediated ab interno trabeculectomies in pig eyes (n = 63)...
May 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485844/neuropeptides-and-neurotransmitters-that-modulate-thalamo-cortical-pathways-relevant-to-migraine-headache
#11
REVIEW
Rodrigo Noseda, David Borsook, Rami Burstein
Dynamic thalamic regulation of sensory signals allows the cortex to adjust better to rapidly changing behavioral, physiological, and environmental demands. To fulfill this role, thalamic neurons must themselves be subjected to constantly changing modulatory inputs that originate in multiple neurochemical pathways involved in autonomic, affective, and cognitive functions. This review defines a chemical framework for thinking about the complexity of factors that modulate the response properties of relay trigeminovascular thalamic neurons...
May 2017: Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482457/nutrient-losses-and-greenhouse-gas-emissions-from-dairy-production-in-china-lessons-learned-from-historical-changes-and-regional-differences
#12
Nannan Zhang, Zhaohai Bai, Jiafa Luo, Stewart Ledgard, Zhiguo Wu, Lin Ma
The dairy industry in China was rapidly expanded and intensified from 1980 to 2010, engendering potential long-term impacts on the environment and natural resources. However, impacts of dairy intensification on nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) losses and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions were unknown. This study was undertaken to examine these relations using the NUtrient flows in Food chains, Environment and Resources use (NUFER)-dairy model. Results showed that milk yield increased by 64% from 1980 to 2010 on average, and the use of concentrate feeds increased by 57% associated with a shift of production from traditional and grassland systems to collective and industrialized systems...
May 2, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482049/soft-sweeps-are-the-dominant-mode-of-adaptation-in-the-human-genome
#13
Daniel R Schrider, Andrew D Kern
The degree to which adaptation in recent human evolution shapes genetic variation remains controversial. This is in part due to the limited evidence in humans for classic "hard selective sweeps," wherein a novel beneficial mutation rapidly sweeps through a population to fixation. However, positive selection may often proceed via "soft sweeps" acting on mutations already present within a population. Here we examine recent positive selection across six human populations using a powerful machine learning approach that is sensitive to both hard and soft sweeps...
May 8, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480714/nanoparticle-protein-interactions-therapeutic-approaches-and-supramolecular-chemistry
#14
Mathis Kopp, Sebastian Kollenda, Matthias Epple
Research on nanoparticles has evolved into a major topic in chemistry. Concerning biomedical research, nanoparticles have decisively entered the field, creating the area of nanomedicine where nanoparticles are used for drug delivery, imaging, and tumor targeting. Besides these functions, scientists have addressed the specific ways in which nanoparticles interact with biomolecules, with proteins being the most prominent example. Depending on their size, shape, charge, and surface functionality, specifically designed nanoparticles can interact with proteins in a defined way...
May 8, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480469/toward-an-information-infrastructure-for-global-health-improvement
#15
C P Friedman, J C Rubin, K J Sullivan
Profound global challenges to individual and population health, alongside the opportunities to benefit from digital technology, have spawned the concept of the Learning Health System. Learning Health Systems (LHSs)--which can function at organizational, network, regional, and national levels of scale--have the capability of continuous data-driven self-study that promotes change and improvement. The LHS concept, which originated in the U.S. in 2007, is rapidly gaining attention around the world. LHSs require, but also transcend, the secondary use of health data...
May 8, 2017: Yearbook of Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451786/the-meteorology-of-cytokine-storms-and-the-clinical-usefulness-of-this-knowledge
#16
REVIEW
Ian A Clark, Bryce Vissel
The term cytokine storm has become a popular descriptor of the dramatic harmful consequences of the rapid release of polypeptide mediators, or cytokines, that generate inflammatory responses. This occurs throughout the body in both non-infectious and infectious disease states, including the central nervous system. In infectious disease it has become a useful concept through which to appreciate that most infectious disease is not caused directly by a pathogen, but by an overexuberant innate immune response by the host to its presence...
April 27, 2017: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446748/discovering-charge-density-functionals-and-structure-property-relationships-with-prophet-a-general-framework-for-coupling-machine-learning-and-first-principles-methods
#17
Brian Kolb, Levi C Lentz, Alexie M Kolpak
Modern ab initio methods have rapidly increased our understanding of solid state materials properties, chemical reactions, and the quantum interactions between atoms. However, poor scaling often renders direct ab initio calculations intractable for large or complex systems. There are two obvious avenues through which to remedy this problem: (i) develop new, less expensive methods to calculate system properties, or (ii) make existing methods faster. This paper describes an open source framework designed to pursue both of these avenues...
April 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424062/health-system-factors-influencing-management-of-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-four-european-union-countries-learning-from-country-experiences
#18
Gerard de Vries, Svetla Tsolova, Laura F Anderson, Agnes C Gebhard, Einar Heldal, Vahur Hollo, Laura Sánchez-Cambronero Cejudo, Daniela Schmid, Bert Schreuder, Tonka Varleva, Marieke J van der Werf
BACKGROUND: In the European Union and European Economic Area only 38% of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis patients notified in 2011 completed treatment successfully at 24 months' evaluation. Socio-economic factors and patient factors such as demographic characteristics, behaviour and attitudes are associated with treatment outcomes. Characteristics of healthcare systems also affect health outcomes. This study was conducted to identify and better understand the contribution of health system components to successful treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis...
April 19, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418457/the-field-of-view-available-to-the-ventral-occipito-temporal-reading-circuitry
#19
Rosemary Le, Nathan Witthoft, Michal Ben-Shachar, Brian Wandell
Skilled reading requires rapidly recognizing letters and word forms; people learn this skill best for words presented in the central visual field. Measurements over the last decade have shown that when children learn to read, responses within ventral occipito-temporal cortex (VOT) become increasingly selective to word forms. We call these regions the VOT reading circuitry (VOTRC). The portion of the visual field that evokes a response in the VOTRC is called the field of view (FOV). We measured the FOV of the VOTRC and found that it is a small subset of the entire field of view available to the human visual system...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418441/an-integrated-anti-arrhythmic-target-network-of-a-chinese-medicine-compound-wenxin-keli-revealed-by-combined-machine-learning-and-molecular-pathway-analysis
#20
Taiyi Wang, Ming Lu, Qunqun Du, Xi Yao, Peng Zhang, Xiaonan Chen, Weiwei Xie, Zheng Li, Yuling Ma, Yan Zhu
Wenxin Keli (WK), a Chinese patent medicine, is known to be effective against cardiac arrhythmias and heart failure. Although a number of electrophysiological findings regarding its therapeutic effect have been reported, the active components and system-level characterizations of the component-target interactions of WK have yet to be elucidated. In the current study, we present the first report of a new protective effect of WK on suppressing anti-arrhythmic-agent-induced arrhythmias. In a model of isolated guinea pig hearts, rapid perfusion of quinidine altered the heart rate and prolonged the Q-T interval...
May 2, 2017: Molecular BioSystems
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