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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210819/evidence-for-instructions-based-updating-of-task-set-representations-the-informed-fadeout-effect
#1
Maayan Pereg, Nachshon Meiran
The cognitive system can be updated rapidly and efficiently to maximize performance in cognitive tasks. This paper used a task-switching task to explore updating at the level of the plausible task-sets held for future performance. Previous research suggested a "fadeout effect", performance improvement when moving from task-switching context to single-task context, yet this effect could reflect passive learning rather than intentional control. In a novel "informed fadeout paradigm", one of two tasks was canceled for a certain number of trials and participants were informed or uninformed regarding task cancelation...
February 16, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202728/satellite-based-assessment-of-yield-variation-and-its-determinants-in-smallholder-african-systems
#2
Marshall Burke, David B Lobell
The emergence of satellite sensors that can routinely observe millions of individual smallholder farms raises possibilities for monitoring and understanding agricultural productivity in many regions of the world. Here we demonstrate the potential to track smallholder maize yield variation in western Kenya, using a combination of 1-m Terra Bella imagery and intensive field sampling on thousands of fields over 2 y. We find that agreement between satellite-based and traditional field survey-based yield estimates depends significantly on the quality of the field-based measures, with agreement highest ([Formula: see text] up to 0...
February 15, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197918/sumoylation-implications-for-neurodegenerative-diseases
#3
Dina B Anderson, Camila A Zanella, Jeremy M Henley, Helena Cimarosti
The covalent posttranslational modifications of proteins are critical events in signaling cascades that enable cells to efficiently, rapidly and reversibly respond to extracellular stimuli. This is especially important in the CNS where the processes affecting synaptic communication between neurons are highly complex and very tightly regulated. Sumoylation regulates the function and fate of a diverse array of proteins and participates in the complex cell signaling pathways required for cell survival. One of the most complex signaling pathways is synaptic transmission...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193444/surgical-navigation-a-systematic-review-of-indications-treatments-and-outcomes-in-oral-and-maxillofacial-surgery
#4
REVIEW
Iman Azarmehr, Kasper Stokbro, R Bryan Bell, Torben Thygesen
PURPOSE: This systematic review investigates the most common indications, treatments, and outcomes of surgical navigation (SN) published from 2010 to 2015. The evolution of SN and its application in oral and maxillofacial surgery have rapidly developed over recent years, and therapeutic indications are discussed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic search in relevant electronic databases, journals, and bibliographies of the included articles was carried out. Clinical studies with 5 or more patients published between 2010 and 2015 were included...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192624/mr-based-synthetic-ct-generation-using-a-deep-convolutional-neural-network-method
#5
Xiao Han
PURPOSE: Interests have been rapidly growing in the field of radiotherapy to replace CT with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), due to superior soft tissue contrast offered by MRI and the desire to reduce unnecessary radiation dose. MR-only radiotherapy also simplifies clinical workflow and avoids uncertainties in aligning MR with CT. Methods, however, are needed to derive CT-equivalent representations, often known as synthetic CT (sCT), from patient MR images for the purpose of dose calculation and DRR-based patient positioning...
February 13, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186912/pattern-based-nn-control-of-a-class-of-uncertain-nonlinear-systems
#6
Feifei Yang, Cong Wang
This paper presents a pattern-based neural network (NN) control approach for a class of uncertain nonlinear systems. The approach consists of two phases of identification and another two phases of recognition and control. First, in the phase (i) of identification, adaptive NN controllers are designed to achieve closed-loop stability and tracking performance of nonlinear systems for different control situations, and the corresponding closed-loop control system dynamics are identified via deterministic learning...
February 7, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186050/a-survey-of-standard-information-models-for-clinical-decision-support-systems
#7
Seyed Ali Mussavi Rizi, Abdul Roudsari
HL7 CDA, vMR, and openEHR archetypes have been utilized as standard information models for clinical decision support systems. Compared to openEHR archetypes, vMR typically requires less time to develop and extend which makes it a good fit for rapid prototyping and pilot projects, while openEHR archetypes handle the data and semantic specification better. Using CDA for clinical decision support systems is discouraged due to its complexity, steep learning curve, and potential safety issues.
2017: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185097/change-in-the-relative-contributions-of-habit-and-working-memory-facilitates-serial-reversal-learning-expertise-in-rhesus-monkeys
#8
Thomas C Hassett, Robert R Hampton
Functionally distinct memory systems likely evolved in response to incompatible demands placed on learning by distinct environmental conditions. Working memory appears adapted, in part, for conditions that change frequently, making rapid acquisition and brief retention of information appropriate. In contrast, habits form gradually over many experiences, adapting organisms to contingencies of reinforcement that are stable over relatively long intervals. Serial reversal learning provides an opportunity to simultaneously examine the processes involved in adapting to rapidly changing and relatively stable contingencies...
February 9, 2017: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176860/massively-parallel-digital-high-resolution-melt-for-rapid-and-absolutely-quantitative-sequence-profiling
#9
Daniel Ortiz Velez, Hannah Mack, Julietta Jupe, Sinead Hawker, Ninad Kulkarni, Behnam Hedayatnia, Yang Zhang, Shelley Lawrence, Stephanie I Fraley
In clinical diagnostics and pathogen detection, profiling of complex samples for low-level genotypes represents a significant challenge. Advances in speed, sensitivity, and extent of multiplexing of molecular pathogen detection assays are needed to improve patient care. We report the development of an integrated platform enabling the identification of bacterial pathogen DNA sequences in complex samples in less than four hours. The system incorporates a microfluidic chip and instrumentation to accomplish universal PCR amplification, High Resolution Melting (HRM), and machine learning within 20,000 picoliter scale reactions, simultaneously...
February 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169431/conditioned-inhibitory-and-excitatory-gain-modulations-of-visual-cortex-in-fear-conditioning-effects-of-analysis-strategies-of-magnetocortical-responses
#10
Stephan Moratti, Tamara Giménez-Fernández, Constantino Méndez-Bértolo, Francisco de Vicente-Pérez
In unpredictable environments, stimuli that predict potential danger or its absence can change rapidly. Therefore, it is highly adaptive to prioritize incoming sensory information flexibly as a function of prior experience. Previously, these changes have only been conceptualized as excitatory gain increases in sensory cortices for acquired fear-relevant stimuli during associative learning. However, formal descriptions of associative processes by Rescorla and Wagner predict both conditioned excitatory and inhibitory processes in response systems for fear and safety cues, respectively...
February 7, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166263/automatic-icd-10-multi-class-classification-of-cause-of-death-from-plaintext-autopsy-reports-through-expert-driven-feature-selection
#11
Ghulam Mujtaba, Liyana Shuib, Ram Gopal Raj, Retnagowri Rajandram, Khairunisa Shaikh, Mohammed Ali Al-Garadi
OBJECTIVES: Widespread implementation of electronic databases has improved the accessibility of plaintext clinical information for supplementary use. Numerous machine learning techniques, such as supervised machine learning approaches or ontology-based approaches, have been employed to obtain useful information from plaintext clinical data. This study proposes an automatic multi-class classification system to predict accident-related causes of death from plaintext autopsy reports through expert-driven feature selection with supervised automatic text classification decision models...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163066/development-of-a-simple-rapid-and-robust-intrathecal-catheterization-method-in-the-rat
#12
Curt Mazur, Bethany Fitzsimmons, Fredrik Kamme, Brandon Nichols, Berit Powers, Ed Wancewicz
BACKGROUND: The blood brain barrier (BBB) is an impediment to the development of large and highly charged molecules as therapeutics for diseases and injuries of the central nervous system (CNS). Antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) are large (6000-8000 MW) and highly charged and therefore do not cross the BBB. A method of circumventing the blood brain barrier to test ASOs, and other non-BBB penetrant molecules, as CNS therapeutics is the direct administration of these molecules to the CNS tissue or cerebral spinal fluid...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152994/transductive-learning-as-an-alternative-to-translation-initiation-site-identification
#13
Cristiano Lacerda Nunes Pinto, Cristiane Neri Nobre, Luis Enrique Zárate
BACKGROUND: The correct protein coding region identification is an important and latent problem in the molecular biology field. This problem becomes a challenge due to the lack of deep knowledge about the biological systems and unfamiliarity of conservative characteristics in the messenger RNA (mRNA). Therefore, it is fundamental to research for computational methods aiming to help the patterns discovery for identification of the Translation Initiation Sites (TIS). In the field of Bioinformatics, machine learning methods have been widely applied based on the inductive inference, as Inductive Support Vector Machine (ISVM)...
February 2, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152838/a-schematic-case-episode-format-to-aid-in-choosing-wisely
#14
B Brooke Mann, Jad Hayes, Lalan S Wilfong, Marcus A Neubauer
: 181 Background: The recommendations of the Choosing Wisely campaign are evidence -based strategies to reduce cost without sacrificing outcomes. Yet tying the recommendations to indicators of use at the physician and case level has been challenging. As practices become responsible for total cost of care, an easy to use analytic method to determine appropriate use will be critical. We here describe a tool for rapid assessment of individual cases to achieve that objective. METHODS: The population was a payer defined cohort of lung cancer patients treated at Texas Oncology (TxO)...
March 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152757/lung-cancer-diagnosis-transformation-aligning-the-people-processes-and-technology-sides-of-the-learning-system
#15
Donna E Maziak, Jason R Pantarotto, Jennifer Smylie, Leanne Taylor, Thomas Timlin, Tiziana Cacciotti, Patrick James Villeneuve, Carole Dennie, Chantal Bornais, Jose Aquino, Paul Wheatley-Price, David J Stewart
: 50 Background: The Ottawa Hospital, serving a population of 1.2 million across a large geographic area, redesigned its regional lung cancer diagnosis and patient intake process using a systems approach. Although having a strong record of excellent coordinated care, recent challenges had created strains on delivery metrics. Prior to the implementation of the project (October 2014), it took patients a range of 15 - 225 days to get from a referral with a suspicion of lung cancer to initial treatment, with a 90(th) percentile of 117 days...
March 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152753/data-driven-quality-improvement-in-an-oncology-patient-centered-medical-home
#16
Maureen Lowry, Brian Flounders, Susan Higman Tofani
: 54 Background: In a 2012 abstract, Data driven transformation for an Oncology Patient-Centered Medical Home, Consultants in Medical Oncology (CMOH) demonstrated that standardized processes and enhanced IT capabilities (IRIS software app) provided a rapid learning system for the practice. Iris aggregated data became the basis for Quality Improvement Projects (QIPs) allowing CMOH to continue to improve in quality and cost measures. Deviation from performance trend is readily identifiable, providing operational direction...
March 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151816/mobile-technology-in-the-perioperative-arena-rapid-evolution-and-future-disruption
#17
Brian S Rothman, Rajnish K Gupta, Matthew D McEvoy
Throughout the history of medicine, physicians have relied upon disruptive innovations and technologies to improve the quality of care delivered, patient outcomes, and patient satisfaction. The implementation of mobile technology in health care is quickly becoming the next disruptive technology. We first review the history of mobile technology over the past 3 decades, discuss the impact of hardware and software, explore the rapid expansion of applications (apps), and evaluate the adoption of mobile technology in health care...
March 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140628/online-gait-learning-for-modular-robots-with-arbitrary-shapes-and-sizes
#18
Berend Weel, M D'Angelo, Evert Haasdijk, A E Eiben
Evolutionary robotics using real hardware is currently restricted to evolving robot controllers, but the technology for evolvable morphologies is advancing quickly. Rapid prototyping (3D printing) and automated assembly are the main enablers of robotic systems where robot offspring can be produced based on a blueprint that specifies the morphologies and the controllers of the parents. This article addresses the problem of gait learning in newborn robots whose morphology is unknown in advance. We investigate a reinforcement learning method and conduct simulation experiments using robot morphologies with different size and complexity...
January 31, 2017: Artificial Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128301/discovering-novel-phenotypes-with-automatically-inferred-dynamic-models-a-partial-melanocyte-conversion-in-xenopus
#19
Daniel Lobo, Maria Lobikin, Michael Levin
Progress in regenerative medicine requires reverse-engineering cellular control networks to infer perturbations with desired systems-level outcomes. Such dynamic models allow phenotypic predictions for novel perturbations to be rapidly assessed in silico. Here, we analyzed a Xenopus model of conversion of melanocytes to a metastatic-like phenotype only previously observed in an all-or-none manner. Prior in vivo genetic and pharmacological experiments showed that individual animals either fully convert or remain normal, at some characteristic frequency after a given perturbation...
January 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123080/cortactin-is-a-regulator-of-activity-dependent-synaptic-plasticity-controlled-by-wingless
#20
Daniel Alicea, Marizabeth Perez, Carolina Maldonado, Carihann Dominicci-Cotto, Bruno Marie
: Major signaling molecules initially characterized as key early developmental regulators are also essential for the plasticity of the nervous system. Recently the Wingless (Wg)/Wnt pathway has been shown to underlie the structural and electrophysiological changes during activity-dependent synaptic plasticity at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction. A challenge remains to understand how this signal mediates the cellular changes underlying this plasticity. Here, we focus on the actin regulator Cortactin, a major organizer of protrusion, membrane mobility and invasiveness, and define its new role in synaptic plasticity...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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