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Rapid learning system

Y Xiao, Z Z Huang
The theory of warm disease is basically founded in Su wen (Plain Questions) , with its basis laid down, and developed to mature in the Qing Dynasty. In addition to the developmental rules of medical science itself and the epidemics of warm disease at the turn of the Ming-Qing Dynasties, this theory rapidly developed and became an independent theory, the adoption of methodology of textual research also played an indispensable role. Specialists of warm disease sorted out, checked, and revised previous works, with discerning, annotating all terms and nomenclatures to raise questions, solvingdifficulties, strengthening the integrity, reliability, and precision of works on warm disease, thus deepened the knowledge of the nature of warm disease, promoted the formation of the specific system of diagnosis and treatment for the learning of warm disease...
July 28, 2016: Zhonghua Yi Shi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Medical History
R J Kastner, C M Stone, P Steinmann, M Tanner, F Tediosi
In the last few years, the concepts of disease elimination and eradication have again gained consideration from the global health community, with Guinea worm disease (dracunculiasis) on track to become the first parasitic disease to be eradicated. Given the many complex and interlinking issues involved in committing to a disease eradication initiative, such commitments must be based on a solid assessment of a broad range of factors. In this chapter, we discuss the value and implications of undertaking a systematic and fact-based analysis of the overall situation prior to embarking on an elimination or eradication programme...
2016: Advances in Parasitology
Frances C Cunningham, Sue Ferguson-Hill, Veronica Matthews, Ross Bailie
BACKGROUND: Assessment of the quality of primary health care health delivery systems is a vital part of continuous quality improvement (CQI) processes. The Systems Assessment Tool (SAT) was designed to support Indigenous PHC services in assessing and improving their health care systems. It was based on the Assessment of Chronic Illness Care scale, and on practical experience with applying systems assessments in quality improvement in Indigenous primary health care. We describe the development and application of the SAT, report on a survey to assess the utility of the SAT and review the use of the SAT in other CQI research programs...
October 18, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
Claudia Balducci, Angelisa Frasca, Margherita Zotti, Pietro La Vitola, Emanuela Mhillaj, Emanuele Grigoli, Martina Iacobellis, Federica Grandi, Massimo Messa, Laura Colombo, Monica Molteni, Luigia Trabace, Carlo Rossetti, Mario Salmona, Gianluigi Forloni
[Background] Amyloid-β oligomers (AβO) are species mainly involved in the synaptic and cognitive dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease. Although their action has been described mainly at neuronal level, it is now clear that glial cells govern synaptic activity in their resting state, contributing to new learning and memory establishment. In contrast, when activated, they may lead to synaptic and cognitive dysfunction. Using a reliable acute AβO-mediated mouse model of AD, we explored whether the memory alteration AβOs induce relies on the activation of glial cells, and if Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), pivotal in the initiation of an immune response, is involved...
October 14, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
M S Patton, D J Lodge, D A Morilak, M Girotti
Deficits in cognitive flexibility are prominent in stress-related psychiatric disorders, including depression. Ketamine has rapid antidepressant efficacy, but it is unknown if ketamine improves cognitive symptoms. In rats, 2 weeks chronic intermittent cold (CIC) stress impairs reversal learning, a form of cognitive flexibility mediated by the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) that we have used previously to model cognitive dysfunction in depression. We have shown that activating JAK2/STAT3 signaling in the OFC rescued the CIC stress-induced reversal learning deficit...
October 17, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Andrew A M Ibey, Derek Andrews, Barb Ferreira
The authors present a case in which a physical anomaly with an infusion pump resulted in an unforeseen fault that the nurse's attempts to resolve unknowingly exacerbated. This case study presents the first report in the literature to detail the difficulty in recreating a patient safety event using smart pump logs, support server continuous quality improvement (CQI) data, and the drug order entry system to elucidate the clinical scenario. A 75-year-old male patient presented to a major teaching hospital and was admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) with a massive gastrointestinal bleed and myocardial infarction, then stabilized...
December 2016: Drug Saf Case Rep
Rainer Engelken, Farzad Farkhooi, David Hansel, Carl van Vreeswijk, Fred Wolf
Neuronal activity in the central nervous system varies strongly in time and across neuronal populations. It is a longstanding proposal that such fluctuations generically arise from chaotic network dynamics. Various theoretical studies predict that the rich dynamics of rate models operating in the chaotic regime can subserve circuit computation and learning. Neurons in the brain, however, communicate via spikes and it is a theoretical challenge to obtain similar rate fluctuations in networks of spiking neuron models...
2016: F1000Research
John A Todd, Marina Evangelou, Antony J Cutler, Marcin L Pekalski, Neil M Walker, Helen E Stevens, Linsey Porter, Deborah J Smyth, Daniel B Rainbow, Ricardo C Ferreira, Laura Esposito, Kara M D Hunter, Kevin Loudon, Kathryn Irons, Jennie H Yang, Charles J M Bell, Helen Schuilenburg, James Heywood, Ben Challis, Sankalpa Neupane, Pamela Clarke, Gillian Coleman, Sarah Dawson, Donna Goymer, Katerina Anselmiova, Jane Kennet, Judy Brown, Sarah L Caddy, Jia Lu, Jane Greatorex, Ian Goodfellow, Chris Wallace, Tim I Tree, Mark Evans, Adrian P Mander, Simon Bond, Linda S Wicker, Frank Waldron-Lynch
BACKGROUND: Interleukin-2 (IL-2) has an essential role in the expansion and function of CD4+ regulatory T cells (Tregs). Tregs reduce tissue damage by limiting the immune response following infection and regulate autoreactive CD4+ effector T cells (Teffs) to prevent autoimmune diseases, such as type 1 diabetes (T1D). Genetic susceptibility to T1D causes alterations in the IL-2 pathway, a finding that supports Tregs as a cellular therapeutic target. Aldesleukin (Proleukin; recombinant human IL-2), which is administered at high doses to activate the immune system in cancer immunotherapy, is now being repositioned to treat inflammatory and autoimmune disorders at lower doses by targeting Tregs...
October 2016: PLoS Medicine
Jonathan W Hennek, Ashok A Kumar, Alex B Wiltschko, Matthew R Patton, Si Yi Ryan Lee, Carlo Brugnara, Ryan P Adams, George M Whitesides
Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is a nutritional disorder that impacts over one billion people worldwide; it may cause permanent cognitive impairment in children, fatigue in adults, and suboptimal outcomes in pregnancy. IDA can be diagnosed by detection of red blood cells (RBCs) that are characteristically small (microcytic) and deficient in hemoglobin (hypochromic), typically by examining the results of a complete blood count performed by a hematology analyzer. These instruments are expensive, not portable, and require trained personnel; they are, therefore, unavailable in many low-resource settings...
October 5, 2016: Lab on a Chip
Nicholas R Waytowich, Vernon J Lawhern, Addison W Bohannon, Kenneth R Ball, Brent J Lance
Recent advances in signal processing and machine learning techniques have enabled the application of Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) technologies to fields such as medicine, industry, and recreation; however, BCIs still suffer from the requirement of frequent calibration sessions due to the intra- and inter-individual variability of brain-signals, which makes calibration suppression through transfer learning an area of increasing interest for the development of practical BCI systems. In this paper, we present an unsupervised transfer method (spectral transfer using information geometry, STIG), which ranks and combines unlabeled predictions from an ensemble of information geometry classifiers built on data from individual training subjects...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Raman Kumar, Ana Nunes Barata, Mayara Floss
This opinion paper is a collaborative effort describing recent developments in primary care education in three different countries; representing diverse socioeconomic and political systems. The authors describe their respective perspectives from the point of student (Brazil), trainee (Portugal) and young doctor (India). The section on Brazil focuses on the response of the medical education system to the developments before and after political reforms, leading to creation of the Unified Health System. The Indian experience focuses on the challenges faced by recently qualified doctors and ongoing debates about the medical education system in a highly populated but rapidly growing economy...
September 2016: Education for Primary Care
Corrado Cancedda, Sheila M Davis, Kerry L Dierberg, Jonathan Lascher, J Daniel Kelly, Mohammed Bailor Barrie, Alimamy Philip Koroma, Peter George, Adikali Alpha Kamara, Ronald Marsh, Manso S Sumbuya, Cameron T Nutt, Kirstin W Scott, Edgar Thomas, Katherine Bollbach, Andrew Sesay, Ahmidu Barrie, Elizabeth Barrera, Kathryn Barron, John Welch, Nahid Bhadelia, Raphael G Frankfurter, Ophelia M Dahl, Sarthak Das, Rebecca E Rollins, Bryan Eustis, Amanda Schwartz, Piero Pertile, Ilias Pavlopoulos, Allan Mayfield, Regan H Marsh, Yusupha Dibba, Danielle Kloepper, Andrew Hall, Karin Huster, Michael Grady, Kimberly Spray, David A Walton, Fodei Daboh, Cora Nally, Sahr James, Gabriel S Warren, Joyce Chang, Michael Drasher, Gina Lamin, Sherry Bangura, Ann C Miller, Annie P Michaelis, Ryan McBain, M Jana Broadhurst, Megan Murray, Eugene T Richardson, Ted Philip, Gary L Gottlieb, Joia S Mukherjee, Paul E Farmer
An epidemic of Ebola virus disease (EVD) beginning in 2013 has claimed an estimated 11 310 lives in West Africa. As the EVD epidemic subsides, it is important for all who participated in the emergency Ebola response to reflect on strengths and weaknesses of the response. Such reflections should take into account perspectives not usually included in peer-reviewed publications and after-action reports, including those from the public sector, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), survivors of Ebola, and Ebola-affected households and communities...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Jeongeun Jo
After the defeat of the Opium War and the Sino-Japanese War, China's intellectuals realized necessity of modernization (Westernization) to survive in the imperial order of the survival of the fittest. In particular, it was urgent to accept Western medicine and train the doctors who learned Western medicine to change the sick and weary Chinese to be robust. Thus, new occupations of the Western Medicine Group (xiyi, doctors who learned Western medicine) emerged in China. As with the first profession, the new Western Medicine Group tried to define standards of Western medicine and medical profession; however, it was difficult in the absence of the strong central government...
August 2016: Ŭi Sahak
Ryan T Roemmich, Andrew W Long, Amy J Bastian
In human motor learning, it is thought that the more information we have about our errors, the faster we learn. Here, we show that additional error information can lead to improved motor performance without any concomitant improvement in learning. We studied split-belt treadmill walking that drives people to learn a new gait pattern using sensory prediction errors detected by proprioceptive feedback. When we also provided visual error feedback, participants acquired the new walking pattern far more rapidly and showed accelerated restoration of the normal walking pattern during washout...
September 15, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Yinan Zhang, Mingqiang An
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) screening system raises a financial problem. For further reducing DR screening cost, an active learning classifier is proposed in this paper. Our approach identifies retinal images based on features extracted by anatomical part recognition and lesion detection algorithms. Kernel extreme learning machine (KELM) is a rapid classifier for solving classification problems in high dimensional space. Both active learning and ensemble technique elevate performance of KELM when using small training dataset...
2016: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
Jillian M Doyle, Neil Merovitch, Russell C Wyeth, Matthew R Stoyek, Michael Schmidt, Florentin Wilfart, Alan Fine, Roger P Croll
We describe here an automated apparatus that permits rapid conditioning paradigms for zebrafish. Arduino microprocessors were used to control the delivery of auditory or visual stimuli to groups of adult or juvenile zebrafish in their home tanks in a conventional zebrafish facility. An automatic feeder dispensed precise amounts of food immediately after the conditioned stimuli, or at variable delays for controls. Responses were recorded using inexpensive cameras, with the video sequences analysed with ImageJ or Matlab...
September 19, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Shinji Soeda, Kosuke Aritake, Yoshihiro Urade, Hiroshi Sato, Yukihiro Shoyama
We first considered that saffron is really safety food because it has a long-use history. The neuroprotective activities of saffron and its major constituent, crocin, are separately discussed in vitro and in vivo. We reviewed the inhibitory activities of crocin against PC-12 cell apoptosis. The oxidative stress decreased the cellular levels of glutathione (GSH) which is an inhibitor of neutral sphingomyelinase (N-SMase). Therefore, the level of GSH was assayed by the addition of crocin resulted in the activation of glutathione reductase (GR)...
2016: Advances in Neurobiology
Jeffrey Cummings, Paul S Aisen, Bruno DuBois, Lutz Frölich, Clifford R Jack, Roy W Jones, John C Morris, Joel Raskin, Sherie A Dowsett, Philip Scheltens
The global impact of Alzheimer's disease (AD) continues to increase, and focused efforts are needed to address this immense public health challenge. National leaders have set a goal to prevent or effectively treat AD by 2025. In this paper, we discuss the path to 2025, and what is feasible in this time frame given the realities and challenges of AD drug development, with a focus on disease-modifying therapies (DMTs). Under the current conditions, only drugs currently in late Phase 1 or later will have a chance of being approved by 2025...
2016: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
Guoyu Ding, Baiqing Li, Yanqi Han, Aina Liu, Jingru Zhang, Jiamin Peng, Min Jiang, Yuanyuan Hou, Gang Bai
For quality control of herbal medicines or functional foods, integral activity evaluation has become more popular in recent studies. The majority of researchers focus on the relationship between chromatography/mass spectroscopy and bioactivity, but the connection with spectrum-activity is easily ignored. In this paper, the near infrared reflection spectra (NIRS) of Flos Chrysanthemi samples were collected as a representative spectrum technology, and corresponding anti-inflammation activities were utilized to illustrate the spectrum-activity study...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Stanislav V Rozov, Janneke C Zant, Kestutis Gurevicius, Tarja Porkka-Heiskanen, Pertti Panula
AIM: Under natural conditions diurnal rhythms of biological processes of the organism are synchronized with each other and to the environmental changes by means of the circadian system. Disturbances of the latter affect hormonal levels, sleep-wakefulness cycle and cognitive performance. To study mechanisms of such perturbations animal models subjected to artificial photoperiods are often used. The goal of current study was to understand the effects of circadian rhythm disruption, caused by a short light-dark cycle regime, on activity of the cerebral cortex in rodents...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
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