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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471197/extracting-cardiac-dynamics-within-ecg-signal-for-human-identification-and-cardiovascular-diseases-classification
#1
Muqing Deng, Cong Wang, Min Tang, Tongjia Zheng
Cardiac characteristics underlying the time/frequency domain features are limited and not comprehensive enough to reflect the temporal/dynamical nature of ECG patterns. This paper proposes a dynamical ECG recognition framework for human identification and cardiovascular diseases classification via a dynamical neural learning mechanism. The proposed method consists of two phases: a training phase and a test phase. In the training phase, cardiac dynamics within ECG signals is extracted (approximated) accurately by using radial basis function (RBF) neural networks through deterministic learning mechanism...
January 31, 2018: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467633/closed-loop-targeted-memory-reactivation-during-sleep-improves-spatial-navigation
#2
Renee E Shimizu, Patrick M Connolly, Nicola Cellini, Diana M Armstrong, Lexus T Hernandez, Rolando Estrada, Mario Aguilar, Michael P Weisend, Sara C Mednick, Stephen B Simons
Sounds associated with newly learned information that are replayed during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep can improve recall in simple tasks. The mechanism for this improvement is presumed to be reactivation of the newly learned memory during sleep when consolidation takes place. We have developed an EEG-based closed-loop system to precisely deliver sensory stimulation at the time of down-state to up-state transitions during NREM sleep. Here, we demonstrate that applying this technology to participants performing a realistic navigation task in virtual reality results in a significant improvement in navigation efficiency after sleep that is accompanied by increases in the spectral power especially in the fast (12-15 Hz) sleep spindle band...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464411/optimal-human-passive-vestibulo-ocular-reflex-adaptation-does-not-rely-on-passive-training
#3
M Muntaseer Mahfuz, Michael C Schubert, William V C Figtree, Christopher J Todd, Serajul I Khan, Americo A Migliaccio
The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) is the main vision-stabilising system during rapid head movements in humans. A visual-vestibular mismatch stimulus can be used to train or adapt the VOR response because it induces a retinal image slip error signal that drives VOR motor learning. The training context has been shown to affect VOR adaptation. We sought to determine whether active (self-generated) versus passive (externally imposed) head rotation vestibular training would differentially affect adaptation and short-term retention of the active and passive VOR responses...
February 20, 2018: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458297/-r-fluoxetine-enhances-cognitive-flexibility-and-hippocampal-cell-proliferation-in-mice
#4
Subhi Marwari, Gavin S Dawe
Fluoxetine is a clinically successful antidepressant. It is a racemic mixture of (R) and (S) stereoisomers. In preclinical studies, chronic treatment with fluoxetine (10 mg/kg) had antidepressant effects correlated with increased hippocampal cell proliferation in adult rodents. However, the contribution of the enantiomers of fluoxetine is largely unknown. We investigated the effects of treatment with (R)- and (S)-fluoxetine on cognitive behavioral paradigms and examined cell proliferation in the hippocampus of C57BL/6J female mice...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455570/unmet-digital-health-service-needs-in-dermatology-patients
#5
Christian Greis, Christine Meier Zürcher, Vahid Djamei, Andreas Moser, Stephan Lautenschlager, Alexander A Navarini
BACKGROUND: Digital health services are rapidly gaining acceptance in healthcare systems. Dermatology as an image-centric specialty is particularly well suited for telemedical services. However, dermatology patients' demands of electronic services remain largely unexplored. METHODS: This study investigated patients' views in primary, secondary and tertiary referral centers. In August 2017, 841 questionnaires were filled in by dermatology patients. RESULTS: 76...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Dermatological Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454006/predicting-cognitive-decline-with-deep-learning-of-brain-metabolism-and-amyloid-imaging
#6
Hongyoon Choi, Kyong Hwan Jin
For effective treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD), it is important to identify subjects who are most likely to exhibit rapid cognitive decline. We aimed to develop an automatic image interpretation system based on a deep convolutional neural network (CNN) which can accurately predict future cognitive decline in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients using flurodeoxyglucose and florbetapir positron emission tomography (PET). PET images of 139 patients with AD, 171 patients with MCI and 182 normal subjects obtained from Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative database were used...
February 14, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453119/an-analysis-of-environmental-incidents-for-a-national-antarctic-program
#7
Shaun T Brooks, Julia Jabour, Andy J Sharman, Dana M Bergstrom
Research stations in Antarctica are concentrated on scarce ice-free habitats. Operating these stations in the harsh Antarctic climate provides many challenges, including the need to handle bulk fuel and cargo increasing the risk of environmental incidents. We examined 195 reports of environmental incidents from the Australian Antarctic Program, spanning six years, to investigate the impacts and pathways of contemporary environmental incidents. Fuel and chemical spills were most common, followed by biosecurity incursions...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441579/brain-anatomy-of-the-4-day-old-european-rabbit
#8
Nanette Y Schneider, Frédérique Datiche, Gérard Coureaud
The European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) is a widely used model in fundamental, medical and veterinary neurosciences. Besides investigations in adults, rabbit pups are relevant to study perinatal neurodevelopment and early behaviour. To date, the rabbit is also the only species in which a pheromone - the mammary pheromone (MP) - emitted by lactating females and active on neonatal adaptation has been described. The MP is crucial since it contributes directly to nipple localisation and oral seizing in neonates, i...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438500/diffusion-radiomics-as-a-diagnostic-model-for-atypical-manifestation-of-primary-central-nervous-system-lymphoma-development-and-multicenter-external-validation
#9
Daesung Kang, Ji Eun Park, Young-Hoon Kim, Jeong Hoon Kim, Joo Young Oh, Jungyoun Kim, Yikyung Kim, Sung Tae Kim, Ho Sung Kim
Background: Radiomics is a rapidly growing field in neuro-oncology, but studies have been limited to conventional MRI and external validation is critically lacking. We evaluated technical feasibility, diagnostic performance, and generalizability of a diffusion radiomics model for identifying atypical primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) mimicking glioblastoma. Methods: Total 1618 radiomics features were extracted from diffusion and conventional MRI from 112 patients (training set, 70 glioblastomas and 42 PCNSLs)...
February 9, 2018: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438494/artificial-intelligence-in-drug-combination-therapy
#10
Igor F Tsigelny
Currently, the development of medicines for complex diseases requires the development of combination drug therapies. It is necessary because in many cases, one drug cannot target all necessary points of intervention. For example, in cancer therapy, a physician often meets a patient having a genomic profile including more than five molecular aberrations. Drug combination therapy has been an area of interest for a while, for example the classical work of Loewe devoted to the synergism of drugs was published in 1928-and it is still used in calculations for optimal drug combinations...
February 9, 2018: Briefings in Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433958/an-ontology-driven-clinical-decision-support-system-iddap-for-infectious-disease-diagnosis-and-antibiotic-prescription
#11
Ying Shen, Kaiqi Yuan, Daoyuan Chen, Joël Colloc, Min Yang, Yaliang Li, Kai Lei
BACKGROUND: The available antibiotic decision-making systems were developed from a physician's perspective. However, because infectious diseases are common, many patients desire access to knowledge via a search engine. Although the use of antibiotics should, in principle, be subject to a doctor's advice, many patients take them without authorization, and some people cannot easily or rapidly consult a doctor. In such cases, a reliable antibiotic prescription support system is needed. METHODS AND RESULTS: This study describes the construction and optimization of the sensitivity and specificity of a decision support system named IDDAP, which is based on ontologies for infectious disease diagnosis and antibiotic therapy...
February 9, 2018: Artificial Intelligence in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431584/horizon-scanning-how-will-metabolomics-applications-transform-food-science-bioengineering-and-medical-innovation-in-the-current-era-of-foodomics
#12
Mustafa Bayram, Çağlar Gökırmaklı
Food and engineering sciences have tended to neglect the importance of human nutrition sciences and clinical study of new molecules discovered by food engineering community, and vice versa. Yet, the value of systems thinking and use of omics technologies in food engineering are rapidly emerging. Foodomics is a new concept and practice to bring about "precision nutrition" and integrative bioengineering studies of food composition, quality, and safety, and applications to improve health of humans, animals, and other living organisms on the planet...
February 12, 2018: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428061/classification-of-cancer-cells-using-computational-analysis-of-dynamic-morphology
#13
Mohammad R Hasan, Naeemul Hassan, Rayan Khan, Young-Tae Kim, Samir M Iqbal
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Detection of metastatic tumor cells is important for early diagnosis and staging of cancer. However, such cells are exceedingly difficult to detect from blood or biopsy samples at the disease onset. It is reported that cancer cells, and especially metastatic tumor cells, show very distinctive morphological behavior compared to their healthy counterparts on aptamer functionalized substrates. The ability to quickly analyze the data and quantify the cell morphology for an instant real-time feedback can certainly contribute to early cancer diagnosis...
March 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29419944/incident-learning-in-radiation-oncology-a-review
#14
REVIEW
Eric C Ford, Suzanne Evans
Incident learning is a key component for maintaining safety and quality in healthcare. Its use is well-established and supported by professional society recommendations, regulations and accreditation, and objective evidence. There is an active interest in incident learning systems (ILS) in radiation oncology, with over forty publications since 2010. This article is intended as a comprehensive topic review of ILS in radiation oncology, including: history and summary of existing literature, nomenclature and categorization schemas, operational aspects of ILS at the institutional level including event handling and root-cause analysis, and national and international ILS for shared learning...
February 8, 2018: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412776/50-years-of-microneurography-learning-the-language-of-the-peripheral-sympathetic-nervous-system-in-humans
#15
J Kevin Shoemaker, Mark B Badrov, Stephen A Klassen, Paul J Fadel
As a primary component of homeostasis, the sympathetic nervous system enables rapid adjustments to stress through its ability to communicate messages among organs and cause targeted and graded end organ responses. Key in this communication model is the pattern of neural signals emanating from the central to peripheral components of the sympathetic nervous system. But what is the communication strategy employed in peripheral sympathetic nerve activity (SNA)? Can we develop and interpret the system of coding in SNA that improves our understanding of the neural control of the circulation? In 1968, Hagbarth and Vallbo reported the first use of microneurographic methods to record sympathetic discharges in peripheral nerves of conscious humans, allowing quantification of SNA at rest and sympathetic responsiveness to physiological stressors in health and disease...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411148/from-a-patient-advocate-s-perspective-does-cancer-immunotherapy-represent-a-paradigm-shift
#16
REVIEW
Debra L Madden
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In 2016, the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) announced immunotherapy as the year's top cancer advance in its "Clinical Cancer Advances 2016: ASCO's Annual Report on Progress Against Cancer." Further, ASCO again named "Immunotherapy 2.0" as the 2017 advance of the year, emphasizing the recent, rapid pace of research into new agents that harness and enhance the innate abilities of the immune system to recognize and fight cancers-and stressing that such agents have extended the lives of many patients with late-stage cancers for which there have been few treatment options...
February 7, 2018: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409513/efficient-differentially-private-learning-improves-drug-sensitivity-prediction
#17
Antti Honkela, Mrinal Das, Arttu Nieminen, Onur Dikmen, Samuel Kaski
BACKGROUND: Users of a personalised recommendation system face a dilemma: recommendations can be improved by learning from data, but only if other users are willing to share their private information. Good personalised predictions are vitally important in precision medicine, but genomic information on which the predictions are based is also particularly sensitive, as it directly identifies the patients and hence cannot easily be anonymised. Differential privacy has emerged as a potentially promising solution: privacy is considered sufficient if presence of individual patients cannot be distinguished...
February 6, 2018: Biology Direct
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406135/transforming-nursing-education-in-a-140-character-world-the-efficacy-of-becoming-social
#18
Karen Patterson Stevens, Mary A Nies
A generational gap exists across educational settings today. The potential and actual mismatch of learning styles and curriculum delivery suggests that the current educational models are in need of change. The advent of social media has transformed students from passive recipients of information to co-creators and engaged members of a global and information rich community. Responding proactively with social media integration through a responsive curriculum delivery system would serve to enhance student engagement and improve collaborative learning opportunities...
January 2018: Journal of Professional Nursing: Official Journal of the American Association of Colleges of Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29389938/skill-or-lack-thereof-of-data-model-fusion-techniques-to-provide-an-early-warning-signal-for-an-approaching-tipping-point
#19
Riddhi Singh, Julianne D Quinn, Patrick M Reed, Klaus Keller
Many coupled human-natural systems have the potential to exhibit a highly nonlinear threshold response to external forcings resulting in fast transitions to undesirable states (such as eutrophication in a lake). Often, there are considerable uncertainties that make identifying the threshold challenging. Thus, rapid learning is critical for guiding management actions to avoid abrupt transitions. Here, we adopt the shallow lake problem as a test case to compare the performance of four common data assimilation schemes to predict an approaching transition...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382825/ultramicronized-palmitoylethanolamide-rescues-learning-and-memory-impairments-in-a-triple-transgenic-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease-by-exerting-anti-inflammatory-and-neuroprotective-effects
#20
Caterina Scuderi, Maria Rosanna Bronzuoli, Roberta Facchinetti, Lorenzo Pace, Luca Ferraro, Kevin Donald Broad, Gaetano Serviddio, Francesco Bellanti, Gianmauro Palombelli, Giulia Carpinelli, Rossella Canese, Silvana Gaetani, Luca Steardo, Luca Steardo, Tommaso Cassano
In an aging society, Alzheimer's disease (AD) exerts an increasingly serious health and economic burden. Current treatments provide inadequate symptomatic relief as several distinct pathological processes are thought to underlie the decline of cognitive and neural function seen in AD. This suggests that the efficacy of treatment requires a multitargeted approach. In this context, palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) provides a novel potential adjunct therapy that can be incorporated into a multitargeted treatment strategy...
January 31, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
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