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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821546/a-supervised-statistical-learning-approach-for-accurate-legionella-pneumophila-source-attribution-during-outbreaks
#1
Andrew H Buultjens, Kyra Y L Chua, Sarah L Baines, Jason Kwong, Wei Gao, Zoe Cutcher, Stuart Adcock, Susan Ballard, Mark B Schultz, Takehiro Tomita, Nela Subasinghe, Glen P Carter, Sacha J Pidot, Lucinda Franklin, Torsten Seemann, Anders Gonçalves Da Silva, Benjamin P Howden, Timothy P Stinear
Public health agencies are increasingly relying on genomics during Legionnaires' disease investigations. However, the causative bacterium (Legionella pneumophila) has an unusual population structure with extreme temporal and spatial genome sequence conservation. Furthermore, Legionnaires' disease outbreaks can be caused by multiple L. pneumophila genotypes in a single source. These factors can confound cluster identification using standard phylogenomic methods. Here, we show that a statistical learning approach based onL...
August 18, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809846/the-use-of-trace-eyeblink-classical-conditioning-to-assess-hippocampal-dysfunction-in-a-rat-model-of-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorders
#2
Tuan D Tran, Aenia Amin, Keith G Jones, Ellen M Sheffer, Lidia Ortega, Keith Dolman
Neonatal rats were administered a relatively high concentration of ethyl alcohol (11.9% v/v) during postnatal days 4-9, a time when the fetal brain undergoes rapid organizational change and is similar to accelerated brain changes that occur during the third trimester in humans. This model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) produces severe brain damage, mimicking the amount and pattern of binge-drinking that occurs in some pregnant alcoholic mothers. We describe the use of trace eyeblink classical conditioning (ECC), a higher-order variant of associative learning, to assess long-term hippocampal dysfunction that is typically seen in alcohol-exposed adult offspring...
August 5, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806989/maximising-value-from-a-united-kingdom-biomedical-research-centre-study-protocol
#3
Trisha Greenhalgh, Pavel V Ovseiko, Nick Fahy, Sara Shaw, Polly Kerr, Alexander D Rushforth, Keith M Channon, Vasiliki Kiparoglou
BACKGROUND: Biomedical Research Centres (BRCs) are partnerships between healthcare organisations and universities in England. Their mission is to generate novel treatments, technologies, diagnostics and other interventions that increase the country's international competitiveness, to rapidly translate these innovations into benefits for patients, and to improve efficiency and reduce waste in healthcare. As NIHR Oxford BRC (Oxford BRC) enters its third 5-year funding period, we seek to (1) apply the evidence base on how best to support the various partnerships in this large, multi-stakeholder research system and (2) research how these partnerships play out in a new, ambitious programme of translational research...
August 14, 2017: Health Research Policy and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806109/reflections-on-leadership-and-governance-from-the-incident-manager-of-liberia-s-ebola-response
#4
Tolbert Nyenswah
The 2014-2016 epidemic of Ebola virus disease occurred in a region with a recent history of civil war, unstable health systems, and widespread poverty. Despite these contextual challenges, the national Ebola response in Liberia controlled transmission under strong leadership that was able to rapidly coordinate activities, to manage local and international players, and to adapt upon recognizing missteps. Such leadership has persisted to improve public health capacity in post-Ebola Liberia. This article highlights the progress made toward developing a resilient health security system with capacity to prevent, detect, and respond to disease threats before they reach epidemic level...
August 14, 2017: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803390/cancer-clonal-theory-immune-escape-and-their-evolving-roles-in-cancer-multi-agent-therapeutics
#5
REVIEW
Jonathan L Messerschmidt, Prianka Bhattacharya, Gerald L Messerschmidt
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The knowledge base of malignant cell growth and resulting targets is rapidly increasing every day. Clonal theory is essential to understand the changes required for a cell to become malignant. These changes are then clues to therapeutic intervention strategies. Immune system optimization is a critical piece to find, recognize, and eliminate all cancer cells from the host. Only by administering (1) multiple therapies that counteract the cancer cell's mutational and externally induced survival traits and (2) by augmenting the immune system to combat immune suppression processes and by enhancing specific tumor trait recognition can cancer begin to be treated with a truly targeted focus...
August 12, 2017: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800632/radar-a-novel-fast-screening-method-for-reading-difficulties-with-special-focus-on-dyslexia
#6
Ioannis Smyrnakis, Vassilios Andreadakis, Vassilios Selimis, Michail Kalaitzakis, Theodora Bachourou, Georgios Kaloutsakis, George D Kymionis, Stelios Smirnakis, Ioannis M Aslanides
Dyslexia is a developmental learning disorder of single word reading accuracy and/or fluency, with compelling research directed towards understanding the contributions of the visual system. While dyslexia is not an oculomotor disease, readers with dyslexia have shown different eye movements than typically developing students during text reading. Readers with dyslexia exhibit longer and more frequent fixations, shorter saccade lengths, more backward refixations than typical readers. Furthermore, readers with dyslexia are known to have difficulty in reading long words, lower skipping rate of short words, and high gaze duration on many words...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798957/holographic-deep-learning-for-rapid-optical-screening-of-anthrax-spores
#7
YoungJu Jo, Sangjin Park, JaeHwang Jung, Jonghee Yoon, Hosung Joo, Min-Hyeok Kim, Suk-Jo Kang, Myung Chul Choi, Sang Yup Lee, YongKeun Park
Establishing early warning systems for anthrax attacks is crucial in biodefense. Despite numerous studies for decades, the limited sensitivity of conventional biochemical methods essentially requires preprocessing steps and thus has limitations to be used in realistic settings of biological warfare. We present an optical method for rapid and label-free screening of Bacillus anthracis spores through the synergistic application of holographic microscopy and deep learning. A deep convolutional neural network is designed to classify holographic images of unlabeled living cells...
August 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796238/a-proposed-approach-to-accelerate-evidence-generation-for-genomic-based-technologies-in-the-context-of-a-learning-health-system
#8
REVIEW
Christine Y Lu, Marc S Williams, Geoffrey S Ginsburg, Sengwee Toh, Jeff S Brown, Muin J Khoury
Genomic technologies should demonstrate analytical and clinical validity and clinical utility prior to wider adoption in clinical practice. However, the question of clinical utility remains unanswered for many genomic technologies. In this paper, we propose three building blocks for rapid generation of evidence on clinical utility of promising genomic technologies that underpin clinical and policy decisions. We define promising genomic tests as those that have proven analytical and clinical validity. First, risk-sharing agreements could be implemented between payers and manufacturers to enable temporary coverage that would help incorporate promising technologies into routine clinical care...
August 10, 2017: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789602/innovation-and-entrepreneurship-programs-in-us-medical-education-a-landscape-review-and-thematic-analysis
#9
Blake A Niccum, Arnab Sarker, Stephen J Wolf, Matthew J Trowbridge
BACKGROUND: Training in innovation and entrepreneurship (I&E) in medical education has become increasingly prevalent among medical schools to train students in complex problem solving and solution design. OBJECTIVE: We aim to characterize I&E education in US allopathic medical schools to provide insight into the features and objectives of this growing field. DESIGN: I&E programs were identified in 2016 via structured searches of 158 US allopathic medical school websites...
2017: Medical Education Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777180/sleep-wake-disorders-of-childhood
#10
Suresh Kotagal
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Sleep-wake disorders occur in 10% to 28% of children and differ somewhat in pathophysiology and management from sleep-wake disorders in adults. This article discusses the diagnosis and management of key childhood sleep disorders. RECENT FINDINGS: The role of sleep in memory consolidation and in the facilitation of learning has been increasingly recognized, even at the toddler stage. Cataplexy, a key feature of narcolepsy type 1, may be subtle in childhood and characterized by transient muscle weakness isolated to the face...
August 2017: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774735/an-autonomous-automated-and-mobile-device-to-concurrently-assess-several-cognitive-functions-in-group-living-non-human-primates
#11
Fizet Jonas, Rimele Adam, Pebayle Thierry, Cassel Jean-Christophe, Kelche Christian, Meunier Hélène
Research methods in cognitive neuroscience using non-human primates have undergone notable changes over the last decades. Recently, several research groups have described freely accessible devices equipped with a touchscreen interface. Two characteristics of such systems are of particular interest: some apparatuses include automated identification of subjects, while others are mobile. Here, we designed, tested and validated an experimental system that, for the first time, combine automatization and mobility...
July 31, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770367/carbon-catabolite-regulation-in-streptomyces-new-insights-and-lessons-learned
#12
REVIEW
Alba Romero-Rodríguez, Diana Rocha, Beatriz Ruiz-Villafán, Silvia Guzmán-Trampe, Nidia Maldonado-Carmona, Melissa Vázquez-Hernández, Augusto Zelarayán, Romina Rodríguez-Sanoja, Sergio Sánchez
One of the most significant control mechanisms of the physiological processes in the genus Streptomyces is carbon catabolite repression (CCR). This mechanism controls the expression of genes involved in the uptake and utilization of alternative carbon sources in Streptomyces and is mostly independent of the phosphoenolpyruvate phosphotransferase system (PTS). CCR also affects morphological differentiation and the synthesis of secondary metabolites, although not all secondary metabolite genes are equally sensitive to the control by the carbon source...
September 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768155/the-role-of-the-intrinsic-cholinergic-system-of-the-striatum-what-have-we-learned-from-tan-recordings-in-behaving-animals
#13
REVIEW
Paul Apicella
Cholinergic interneurons provide rich local innervation of the striatum and play an important role in controlling behavior, as evidenced by the variety of movement and psychiatric disorders linked to disrupted striatal cholinergic transmission. Much progress has been made in recent years regarding our understanding of how these interneurons contribute to the processing of information in the striatum. In particular, investigation of the activity of presumed striatal cholinergic interneurons, identified as tonically active neurons or TANs in behaving animals, has pointed to their role in the signaling and learning of the motivational relevance of environmental stimuli...
July 30, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765331/visual-perceptual-echo-reflects-learning-of-regularities-in-rapid-luminance-sequences
#14
Acer Y-C Chang, David J Schwartzman, Rufin VanRullen, Ryota Kanai, Anil K Seth
A novel neural signature of active visual processing has recently been described in the form of the 'perceptual echo', in which the cross-correlation between a sequence of randomly fluctuating luminance values and occipital electrophysiological (EEG) signals exhibits a long-lasting periodic (∼100ms cycle) reverberation of the input stimulus (VanRullen & Macdonald, 2012). As yet, however, the mechanisms underlying the perceptual echo and its function remain unknown. Reasoning that natural visual signals often contain temporally predictable, though non-periodic features, we hypothesized that the perceptual echo may reflect a periodic process associated with regularity learning...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760729/using-digital-technologies-in-clinical-hiv-research-real-world-applications-and-considerations-for-future-work
#15
Jessica Andriesen, Sheana Bull, Janan Dietrich, Jessica E Haberer, Barbara Van Der Pol, Yegor Voronin, Kristin M Wall, Christopher Whalen, Frances Priddy
BACKGROUND: Digital technologies, especially if used in novel ways, provide a number of potential advantages to clinical research in trials related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and may greatly facilitate operations as well as data collection and analysis. These technologies may even allow answering questions that are not answerable with older technologies. However, they come with a variety of potential concerns for both the participants and the trial sponsors...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756160/a-cascaded-approach-for-chinese-clinical-text-de-identification-with-less-annotation-effort
#16
Zhe Jian, Xusheng Guo, Shijian Liu, Handong Ma, Shaodian Zhang, Rui Zhang, Jianbo Lei
With rapid adoption of Electronic Health Records (EHR) in China, an increasing amount of clinical data has been available to support clinical research. Clinical data secondary use usually requires de-identification of personal information to protect patient privacy. Since manually de-identification of free clinical text requires significant amount of human work, developing an automated de-identification system is necessary. While there are many de-identification systems available for English clinical text, designing a de-identification system for Chinese clinical text faces many challenges such as unavailability of necessary lexical resources and sparsity of patient health information (PHI) in Chinese clinical text...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742048/broad-learning-system-an-effective-and-efficient-incremental-learning-system-without-the-need-for-deep-architecture
#17
C L Philip Chen, Zhulin Liu
Broad Learning System (BLS) that aims to offer an alternative way of learning in deep structure is proposed in this paper. Deep structure and learning suffer from a time-consuming training process because of a large number of connecting parameters in filters and layers. Moreover, it encounters a complete retraining process if the structure is not sufficient to model the system. The BLS is established in the form of a flat network, where the original inputs are transferred and placed as "mapped features" in feature nodes and the structure is expanded in wide sense in the "enhancement nodes...
July 21, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737009/non-additive-stabilization-by-halogenated-amino-acids-reveals-protein-plasticity-on-a-sub-angstrom-scale
#18
Azade S Hosseini, Christopher J Pace, Adam A Esposito, Jianmin Gao
It has been a long-standing goal to understand the structure-stability relationship of proteins, as optimal stability is essential for protein function and highly desirable for protein therapeutics. Halogenation has emerged as a minimally invasive strategy to probe the physical characteristics of proteins in solution, as well as enhance the structural stabilities of proteins for therapeutic applications. Although advances in synthetic chemistry and genetic code expansion have allowed for the rapid synthesis of proteins with diverse chemical sequences, much remains to be learned regarding the impact of these mutations on their structural integrity...
July 24, 2017: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731432/multivariate-approach-for-alzheimer-s-disease-detection-using-stationary-wavelet-entropy-and-predator-prey-particle-swarm-optimization
#19
Yudong Zhang, Shuihua Wang, Yuxiu Sui, Ming Yang, Bin Liu, Hong Cheng, Junding Sun, Wenjuan Jia, Preetha Phillips, Juan Manuel Gorriz
BACKGROUND: The number of patients with Alzheimer's disease is increasing rapidly every year. Scholars often use computer vision and machine learning methods to develop an automatic diagnosis system. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we developed a novel machine learning system that can make diagnoses automatically from brain magnetic resonance images. METHODS: First, the brain imaging was processed, including skull stripping and spatial normalization...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728718/cardiothoracic-critical-care
#20
REVIEW
Kevin W Lobdell, Douglas W Haden, Kshitij P Mistry
High-value CCC is rapidly evolving to meet the demands of increased patient acuity and to incorporate advances in technology. The high-performing CCC system and culture should aim to learn quickly and continuously improve. CCC demands a proactive, interactive, precise, an expert team, and continuity.
August 2017: Surgical Clinics of North America
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