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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228523/vpx-overcomes-a-samhd1-independent-block-to-hiv-reverse-transcription-that-is-specific-to-resting-cd4-t-cells
#1
Hanna-Mari Baldauf, Lena Stegmann, Sarah-Marie Schwarz, Ina Ambiel, Maud Trotard, Margarethe Martin, Manja Burggraf, Gina M Lenzi, Helena Lejk, Xiaoyu Pan, Oliver I Fregoso, Efrem S Lim, Libin Abraham, Laura A Nguyen, Frank Rutsch, Renate König, Baek Kim, Michael Emerman, Oliver T Fackler, Oliver T Keppler
Early after entry into monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, and resting CD4 T cells, HIV encounters a block, limiting reverse transcription (RT) of the incoming viral RNA genome. In this context, dNTP triphosphohydrolase SAM domain and HD domain-containing protein 1 (SAMHD1) has been identified as a restriction factor, lowering the concentration of dNTP substrates to limit RT. The accessory lentiviral protein X (Vpx) proteins from the major simian immunodeficiency virus of rhesus macaque, sooty mangabey, and HIV-2 (SIVsmm/SIVmac/HIV-2) lineage packaged into virions target SAMHD1 for proteasomal degradation, increase intracellular dNTP pools, and facilitate HIV cDNA synthesis...
February 22, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226395/healthcare-professionals-accounts-of-challenges-in-managing-motor-neurone-disease-in-primary-healthcare-a-qualitative-study
#2
Sverre Vigeland Lerum, Kari Nyheim Solbraekke, Jan C Frich
Motor neurone disease (MND) is a progressive neurological disease causing muscle wasting, gradual paralysis and respiratory failure, with a life expectancy of 2-4 years. In order to better understand how MND is managed in the community, we conducted a qualitative study to explore the challenges healthcare professionals encounter when managing MND in primary healthcare. Based on data from 15 semi-structured interviews with primary healthcare professionals in Norway, we found that MND is viewed as a condition that requires exceptional effort and detailed planning...
February 22, 2017: Health & Social Care in the Community
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224137/hmgb1-anti-hmgb1-antibodies-define-a-molecular-signature-of-early-stages-of-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-isorders-hand
#3
Marie-Lise Gougeon, Béatrice Poirier-Beaudouin, Jacques Durant, Christine Lebrun-Frenay, Héla Saïdi, Valérie Seffer, Michel Ticchioni, Stephane Chanalet, Helene Carsenti, Alexandra Harvey-Langton, Muriel Laffon, Jacqueline Cottalorda, Christian Pradier, Pierre Dellamonica, Matteo Vassallo
BACKGROUND: HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) persist in the post-HAART era, characterized by asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment (ANI) and mild neurocognitive disorders (MND). High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a non-histone chromosomal protein widely expressed in the nucleus of all eukaryotic cells, including brain cells, which acts as a potent proinflammatory cytokine when actively secreted from immune cells. Recent reports suggested that HMGB1 acts on microglial cells to promote neuroinflammation...
February 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215079/effect-of-furan-fatty-acids-and-3-methyl-2-4-nonanedione-on-light-induced-off-odor-in-soybean-oil
#4
Takashi Sano, Ryo Okabe, Maiko Iwahashi, Jun Imagi, Toshiro Sato, Toshiyuki Yamashita, Eiichiro Fukusaki, Takeshi Bamba
Soybean oil is one of the most widely consumed vegetable oils. However, under photooxidative conditions, this oil develops a beany and green off-odor through a mechanism that has not yet been elucidated. Upon photooxidation, 3-methyl-2,4-nonanedione (3-MND) produces a strong aroma. In this study, the effect of furan fatty acids and 3-methyl-2,4-nonanedione (3-MND) on odor reversion in soybean oil was investigated. Our findings suggest that the observed light-induced off-odor was likely attributable to the furan fatty acids present in the oil through the generation of 3-MND...
February 18, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28156190/the-visual-association-test-extended-a-cross-sectional-study-of-the-performance-validity-measures
#5
Sascha R A Meyer, Jos F M de Jonghe, Ben Schmand, Rudolf W H M Ponds
OBJECTIVE: Given the hazards of knowledge about performance validity tests (PVTs) being proliferated among the general public, there is a continuous need to develop new PVTs. The purpose of these studies was to validate the newly developed Visual Association Test-Extended (VAT-E). METHOD: The VAT-E consists of 24 pairs of line drawings; it is partly based on Green's Word Memory Test (WMT) paradigm. In study 1, we compared VAT-E total scores of healthy controls (n = 226), patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) (n = 76), patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) (n = 26), and persons instructed to feign memory deficit (n = 29)...
February 3, 2017: Clinical Neuropsychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108876/concordance-between-self-report-and-performance-based-measures-of-everyday-functioning-in-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorders
#6
Talia N Shirazi, Angela C Summers, Bryan R Smith, Sally R Steinbach, Suad Kapetanovic, Avindra Nath, Joseph Snow
Self-report is typically used to differentiate between asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment (ANI) and mild neurocognitive disorder (MND) in the assessment of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Yet, it is unclear whether the lack of self-reported functional impairments in individuals with ANI is indicative of a genuine absence of functional impairment, or of inaccurate self-reports. In the present study, we examined the relationship between previously validated self-report (patient's assessment of own functioning inventory; instrumental activities of daily living inventory) and performance-based (the Texas Functional Living Scale) measures of functional abilities in 112 virologically-controlled HIV-infected, and 40 well-matched, HIV-uninfected participants...
January 20, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100513/loss-of-ranbp2-in-motor-neurons-causes-the-disruption-of-nucleocytoplasmic-and-chemokine-signaling-and-proteostasis-of-hnrnph3-and-mmp28-and-the-development-of-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-als-like-syndromes
#7
Kyoung-In Cho, Dosuk Yoon, Sunny Qiu, Zachary Danziger, Warren M Grill, William C Wetsel, Paulo A Ferreira
The pathogenic drivers of sporadic and familial motor neuron disease (MND), such ALS, are unknown. MND impair the Ran GTPase cycle, which controls nucleocytoplasmic transport, ribostasis and proteostasis; however, cause-effect mechanisms of Ran GTPase modulators in motoneuron pathobiology are heretofore elusive. The cytosolic and peripheral nucleoporin, Ranbp2, is a critical regulator of the Ran GTPase cycle and proteostasis of neurological disease-prone substrates, but the roles of Ranbp2 in motoneuron biology and disease remain unknown...
January 18, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089419/risk-factors-for-respiratory-failure-of-motor-neuron-disease-in-a-multiracial-asian-population
#8
Xiao Deng, Ying Hao, Bin Xiao, Eng-King Tan, Yew-Long Lo
BACKGROUND: Motor neuron disease (MND) is a devastating degenerative disorder. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is the most common and severe form of MND. Respiratory failure arising from ventilator musculature atrophy is the most common cause of death for ALS patients. Exploring the factors correlated with respiratory failure can contribute to disease management. PURPOSE: To characterize the clinical features of MND and determine the factors that may affect respiratory failure of MND patients...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089114/genetic-epidemiology-of-motor-neuron-disease-associated-variants-in-the-scottish-population
#9
Holly A Black, Danielle J Leighton, Elaine M Cleary, Elaine Rose, Laura Stephenson, Shuna Colville, David Ross, Jon Warner, Mary Porteous, George H Gorrie, Robert Swingler, David Goldstein, Matthew B Harms, Peter Connick, Suvankar Pal, Timothy J Aitman, Siddharthan Chandran
Genetic understanding of motor neuron disease (MND) has evolved greatly in the past 10 years, including the recent identification of association between MND and variants in TBK1 and NEK1. Our aim was to determine the frequency of pathogenic variants in known MND genes and to assess whether variants in TBK1 and NEK1 contribute to the burden of MND in the Scottish population. SOD1, TARDBP, OPTN, TBK1, and NEK1 were sequenced in 441 cases and 400 controls. In addition to 44 cases known to carry a C9orf72 hexanucleotide repeat expansion, we identified 31 cases and 2 controls that carried a loss-of-function or pathogenic variant...
March 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072907/symptomatic-treatments-for-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-motor-neuron-disease
#10
REVIEW
Louisa Ng, Fary Khan, Carolyn A Young, Mary Galea
BACKGROUND: Motor neuron disease (MND), which is also known as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), causes a wide range of symptoms but the evidence base for the effectiveness of the symptomatic treatment therapies is limited. OBJECTIVES: To summarise the evidence from Cochrane Systematic Reviews of all symptomatic treatments for MND. METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR) on 15 November 2016 for systematic reviews of symptomatic treatments for MND...
January 10, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067943/gamma-aminobutyric-acid-gaba-modulators-for-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-motor-neuron-disease
#11
REVIEW
Andrea Diana, Rita Pillai, Paolo Bongioanni, Aidan G O'Keeffe, Robert G Miller, Dan H Moore
BACKGROUND: Imbalance of gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) and related modulators has been implicated as an important factor in the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), which is also known as motor neuron disease (MND). In this context, the role and mechanism of action of gabapentin and baclofen have been extensively investigated, although with conflicting results. This is the first systematic review to assess clinical trials of GABA modulators for the treatment of ALS. OBJECTIVES: To examine the efficacy of gabapentin, baclofen, or other GABA modulators in delaying the progression of ALS, and to evaluate adverse effects of these interventions...
January 9, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054828/comparison-of-the-king-s-and-mitos-staging-systems-for-als
#12
Ton Fang, Ahmad Al Khleifat, Daniel R Stahl, Claudia Lazo La Torre, Caroline Murphy, Carolyn Young, Pamela J Shaw, P Nigel Leigh, Ammar Al-Chalabi
OBJECTIVE: To investigate and compare two ALS staging systems, King's clinical staging and Milano-Torino (MiToS) functional staging, using data from the LiCALS phase III clinical trial (EudraCT 2008-006891-31). METHODS: Disease stage was derived retrospectively for each system from the ALS Functional Rating Scale-Revised subscores using standard methods. The two staging methods were then compared for timing of stages using box plots, correspondence using chi-square tests, agreement using a linearly weighted kappa coefficient and concordance using Spearman's rank correlation...
January 5, 2017: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Degeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28019106/geographic-distributions-of-motor-neuron-disease-mortality-and-well-water-use-in-u-s-counties
#13
Gary G Schwartz, Bradley C Rundquist, Isaac J Simon, Sami E Swartz
OBJECTIVE: We recently reported that U.S. mortality rates for motor neuron disease (MND) at the level of the state are associated with well water use. However, data at the state level may not accurately reflect data at the individual level. We therefore examined the association between MND mortality and well water use utilizing data from smaller geographic units that may better reflect exposure and disease at the individual level. METHODS: We used data on age-adjusted MND mortality rates at the level of the county, obtained from the CDC, and corresponding data on the prevalence of well water use, obtained from the U...
December 25, 2016: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Degeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017247/clinical-characteristics-of-parkinsonism-in-frontotemporal-dementia-according-to-subtypes
#14
Hee Kyung Park, Kee Hyung Park, Bora Yoon, Jae-Hong Lee, Seong Hye Choi, Jee H Joung, Soo Jin Yoon, Byeong C Kim, Seung Hyun Kim, Eun-Joo Kim, Duk L Na, Kyung Won Park
BACKGROUND: We investigated the prevalence of parkinsonism in frontotemporal dementia (FTD) subtypes and the cognitive and behavioral differences between FTD with and without parkinsonism in a well-structured, prospective cohort. METHODS: One hundred and ninety-one FTD patients were enrolled and all patients underwent comprehensive neurological evaluations, neuropsychological tests, and the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale. RESULTS: The prevalence of parkinsonism was 38...
January 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017202/family-carers-experiences-of-receiving-the-news-of-a-diagnosis-of-motor-neurone-disease-a-national-survey
#15
Samar M Aoun, Lauren J Breen, David Oliver, Robert D Henderson, Robert Edis, Margaret O'Connor, Denise Howting, Rodney Harris, Carol Birks
Family carers have a central role in the care and support of people with MND and face the challenges of the disease from diagnosis to progression and the multiple losses of MND, but their support needs are often neglected. This study aimed to investigate the experiences of family carers at the time of diagnosis and their satisfaction with receiving the news. An anonymous postal survey was facilitated by all MND Associations in Australia (2014) and 190 family carers completed the questionnaire. The questions centred on the SPIKES protocol for communicating bad news...
January 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008946/htra2-suppresses-autoimmune-arthritis-and-regulates-activation-of-stat3
#16
Seung Hoon Lee, Young-Mee Moon, Hyeon-Beom Seo, Se-Young Kim, Eun-Kyung Kim, Junyeong Yi, Min-Kyung Nam, Jun-Ki Min, Sung-Hwan Park, Hyangshuk Rhim, Mi-La Cho
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease that is related to the induction of T helper (Th)17 cells, which secrete interleukin-17, and activation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3. The expression of high-temperature requirement protein A (HtrA) 2, a serine protease involved in apoptosis, was decreased in RA patients nonresponsive to drug treatment of RA. The aim of this study was to determine whether overexpression of HtrA2 has a therapeutic effect on RA. Th17 differentiation, osteoclastogenesis, and lymphocyte activation are increased in motor neuron degeneration (mnd)2 mice, which lack HtrA2 activity because of a missense mutation (Ser276Cys) in the protease domain of HtrA2...
December 23, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005686/transcriptome-analyses-identify-key-cellular-factors-associated-with-hiv-1-associated-neuropathogenesis-in-infected-men
#17
Narasimhan J Venkatachari, Siddhartha Jain, Leah Walker, Shalmali Bivalkar-Mehla, Ansuman Chattopadhyay, Ziv Bar-Joseph, Charles Rinaldo, Ann Ragin, Eric Seaberg, Andrew Levine, James Becker, Eileen Martin, Ned Sacktor, Velpandi Ayyavoo
OBJECTIVE: HIV-1 viral proteins and host inflammatory factors have a direct role in neuronal toxicity in vitro; however, the contribution of these factors in vivo in HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) is not fully understood. We applied novel Systems Biology approaches to identify specific cellular and viral factors and their related pathways that are associated with different stages of HAND. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study of individuals enrolled in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study including HIV-1-seronegative (N = 36) and HIV-1-seropositive individuals without neurocognitive symptoms (N = 16) or with mild neurocognitive disorder (MND) (N = 8) or HIV-associated dementia (HAD) (N = 16)...
March 13, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995822/factors-to-consider-for-motor-neurone-disease-carer-intervention-research-a-narrative-literature-review
#18
Cathy Gluyas, Susan Mathers, Nicole Hennessy Anderson, Anna Ugalde
OBJECTIVE: The experience of caregiving in the context of motor neurone disease (MND) is extremely challenging. Over the past 15 years, quantitative and qualitative studies have delineated the psychosocial aspects of this experience, exploring its impact on caregivers' quality of life, rates of depression, distress, anxiety, and burden. Our paper aimed to provide an overview of the lived experience of MND caregivers, identifying the variables that can influence MND caregiver functioning that are relevant to the development of an intervention...
December 20, 2016: Palliative & Supportive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992849/motor-neuron-disease-mortality-and-lifetime-petrol-lead-exposure-evidence-from-national-age-specific-and-state-level-age-standardized-death-rates-in-australia
#19
Sammy Zahran, Mark A S Laidlaw, Dominic B Rowe, Andrew S Ball, Howard W Mielke
BACKGROUND: The age standardized death rate from motor neuron disease (MND) for persons 40-84 years of age in the Australian States of New South Wales, Victoria, and Queensland increased dramatically from 1958 to 2013. Nationally, age-specific MND death rates also increased over this time period, but the rate of the rise varied considerably by age-group. The historic use of lead (Pb) additives in Australian petrol is a candidate explanation for these trends in MND mortality (International Classification of Disease (ICD)-10 G12...
December 18, 2016: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992497/validation-of-the-international-hiv-dementia-scale-as-a-screening-tool-for-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorders-in-a-german-speaking-hiv-outpatient-clinic
#20
Victor Marin-Webb, Heiko Jessen, Ute Kopp, Arne B Jessen, Katrin Hahn
BACKGROUND: HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) are widely present among people living with HIV. Especially its milder forms, asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment (ANI) and mild neurocognitive disorder (MND), remain highly prevalent worldwide. Diagnosing these conditions is subject to a time and resource consuming neuropsychological assessment. Selecting patients at a higher risk of cognitive impairment by using a simple but effective screening tool helps to organise access to further neuropsychological diagnosis...
2016: PloS One
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