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Delirium pediatric critical care

Kate Madden, Michele M Burns, Robert C Tasker
OBJECTIVES: To identify available assessment tools for sedative/hypnotic iatrogenic withdrawal syndrome and delirium in PICU patients, the evidence supporting their use, and describe areas of overlap between the components of these tools and the symptoms of anticholinergic burden in children. DATA SOURCES: Studies were identified using PubMed and EMBASE from the earliest available date until July 3, 2016, using a combination of MeSH terms "delirium," "substance withdrawal syndrome," and key words "opioids," "benzodiazepines," "critical illness," "ICU," and "intensive care...
April 20, 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
Benedicta Tabacco, Claudio Tacconi, Angela Amigoni
BACKGROUND: Admission in Pediatric Intensive Care Unit requires management and monitoring of analgesia and sedation, in order to reduce their adverse effects, and to prevent withdrawal syndrome and delirium. The aim of this study is to evaluate the management of analgesia and sedation in critically ill children admitted in the Italian Pediatric Intensive Care Units. METHODS: For this survey we have submitted a telematics questionnaire to 24 nursing co- ordinators of the Pediatric Intensive Care Units or Neonatal Intensive Care Units admitting critically ill children...
March 28, 2017: Minerva Anestesiologica
Chani Traube, Gabrielle Silver, Linda M Gerber, Savneet Kaur, Elizabeth A Mauer, Abigail Kerson, Christine Joyce, Bruce M Greenwald
OBJECTIVES: Delirium occurs frequently in adults and is an independent predictor of mortality. However, the epidemiology and outcomes of pediatric delirium are not well-characterized. The primary objectives of this study were to describe the frequency of delirium in critically ill children, its duration, associated risk factors, and effect on in-hospital outcomes, including mortality. Secondary objectives included determination of delirium subtype, and effect of delirium on duration of mechanical ventilation, and length of hospital stay...
May 2017: Critical Care Medicine
Chani Traube, Gabrielle Silver, Ron W Reeder, Hannah Doyle, Emily Hegel, Heather A Wolfe, Christopher Schneller, Melissa G Chung, Leslie A Dervan, Jane L DiGennaro, Sandra D W Buttram, Sapna R Kudchadkar, Kate Madden, Mary E Hartman, Mary L deAlmeida, Karen Walson, Erwin Ista, Manuel A Baarslag, Rosanne Salonia, John Beca, Debbie Long, Yu Kawai, Ira M Cheifetz, Javier Gelvez, Edward J Truemper, Rebecca L Smith, Megan E Peters, A M Iqbal O'Meara, Sarah Murphy, Abdulmohsen Bokhary, Bruce M Greenwald, Michael J Bell
OBJECTIVES: To determine prevalence of delirium in critically ill children and explore associated risk factors. DESIGN: Multi-institutional point prevalence study. SETTING: Twenty-five pediatric critical care units in the United States, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Australia, and Saudi Arabia. PATIENTS: All children admitted to the pediatric critical care units on designated study days (n = 994). INTERVENTION: Children were screened for delirium using the Cornell Assessment of Pediatric Delirium by the bedside nurse...
April 2017: Critical Care Medicine
Emiliana Motta, Michele Luglio, Artur Figueiredo Delgado, Werther Brunow de Carvalho
Introduction: Analgesia and sedation are essential elements in patient care in the intensive care unit (ICU), in order to promote the control of pain, anxiety and agitation, prevent the loss of devices, accidental extubation, and improve the synchrony of the patient with mechanical ventilation. However, excess of these medications leads to rise in morbidity and mortality. The ideal management will depend on the adoption of clinical and pharmacological measures, guided by scales and protocols...
September 2016: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
Chani Traube, Elizabeth A Mauer, Linda M Gerber, Savneet Kaur, Christine Joyce, Abigail Kerson, Charlene Carlo, Daniel Notterman, Stefan Worgall, Gabrielle Silver, Bruce M Greenwald
OBJECTIVE: To determine the costs associated with delirium in critically ill children. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: An urban, academic, tertiary-care PICU in New York city. PATIENTS: Four-hundred and sixty-four consecutive PICU admissions between September 2, 2014, and December 12, 2014. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: All children were assessed for delirium daily throughout their PICU stay...
December 2016: Critical Care Medicine
Gonzalo Garcia Guerra, Ari R Joffe, Dominic Cave, Jonathan Duff, Shannon Duncan, Cathy Sheppard, Gerda Tawfik, Lisa Hartling, Hsing Jou, Sunita Vohra
BACKGROUND: Despite the fact that almost all critically ill children experience some degree of pain or anxiety, there is a lack of high-quality evidence to inform preferred approaches to sedation, analgesia, and comfort measures in this environment. We conducted this survey to better understand current comfort and sedation practices among Canadian pediatric intensivists. METHODS: The survey was conducted after a literature review and initial focus groups. The survey was then pretested and validated...
September 2016: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
Alawi Luetz, Dennis Gensel, Judith Müller, Bjoern Weiss, Viktoria Martiny, Andreas Heinz, Klaus-Dieter Wernecke, Claudia Spies
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate test validity of the Pediatric Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU, the Pediatric Anesthesia Emergence Delirium scale, and the newly developed severity scale for the Pediatric Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU; to prospectively assess covariates and their influence on test validity of the scores. DESIGN: Prospective observational cohort study. SETTING: PICU of a tertiary care medical center. PATIENTS: Critically ill patients 5 years old or older ventilated or nonventilated with an ICU length of stay of at least 24 hours...
November 2016: Critical Care Medicine
Ramona O Hopkins, Karen Choong, Carleen A Zebuhr, Sapna R Kudchadkar
Children who survive a critical illness are at risk of developing significant, long-lasting morbidities that may include neuromuscular weakness, cognitive impairments, and new mental health disorders. These morbidities, collectively known as post-intensive care syndrome (PICS), may lead to functional impairments, difficulty in school and social settings, and reduced quality of life. Interventions aimed at rehabilitation such as early mobilization, sedation minimization and prevention of ICU-acquired weakness, delirium, and posttraumatic stress disorder may lead to improved clinical outcomes and functional recovery in critically ill children...
December 2015: Journal of Pediatric Intensive Care
Mary Saliski, Sapna R Kudchadkar
Achieving successful early mobilization for the intubated, critically ill child is dependent on optimizing sedation and analgesia. Finding the fine balance between oversedation and undersedation can be challenging. The ideal is for a child to be lucid and interactive during the daytime and demonstrate normal circadian rhythm for sleep with rest at night. Being alert during the day facilitates active participation in therapy including potential ambulation, while decreasing the risk of delirium during mechanical ventilation...
2015: Journal of Pediatric Intensive Care
Gennie Jing Wang, Emilie Belley-Coté, Lisa Burry, Mark Duffett, Timothy Karachi, Dan Perri, Waleed Alhazzani, Frederick D'Aragon, Hannah Wunsch, Bram Rochwerg
BACKGROUND: Management and choice of sedation is important during critical illness in order to reduce patient suffering and to facilitate the delivery of care. Unfortunately, medications traditionally used for sedation in the intensive care unit (ICU) such as benzodiazepines and propofol are associated with significant unwanted effects. Clonidine is an alpha-2 selective adrenergic agonist that may have a role in optimizing current sedation practices in the pediatric and adult critically ill populations by potentially minimizing exposure to other sedative agents...
November 6, 2015: Systematic Reviews
Christine Joyce, Robert Witcher, Elizabeth Herrup, Savneet Kaur, Elena Mendez-Rico, Gabrielle Silver, Bruce M Greenwald, Chani Traube
OBJECTIVE: Quetiapine is an atypical antipsychotic that has been used off-label for the treatment of intensive care unit (ICU) delirium in the adult population, with studies demonstrating both efficacy and a favorable safety profile. Although there is a potential role for quetiapine in the treatment of pediatric ICU delirium, there has been no systematic reporting to date of safety in this patient population. METHODS: Pharmacy records were used to identify 55 consecutive pediatric ICU patients who were diagnosed with delirium and received quetiapine...
November 2015: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
Melanie Cooper Flaigle, Judy Ascenzi, Sapna R Kudchadkar
Delirium in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) setting is often unrecognized and undertreated. The importance of screening and identification of ICU delirium has been identified in both adult and pediatric literature. Delirium increases ICU morbidity, length of mechanical ventilation and length of stay. The objective of this study was to determine the current knowledge level about delirium and its risk factors among pediatric critical care nurses through a short questionnaire. We hypothesized that before a targeted educational intervention, PICU care providers do not have an adequate knowledge base for accurate screening and diagnosis of delirium in critically ill children...
January 2016: Journal of Pediatric Nursing
Vidya Chidambaran, Andrew Costandi, Ajay D'Mello
Propofol is an intravenous agent used commonly for the induction and maintenance of anesthesia, procedural, and critical care sedation in children. The mechanisms of action on the central nervous system involve interactions at various neurotransmitter receptors, especially the gamma-aminobutyric acid A receptor. Approved for use in the USA by the Food and Drug Administration in 1989, its use for induction of anesthesia in children less than 3 years of age still remains off-label. Despite its wide use in pediatric anesthesia, there is conflicting literature about its safety and serious adverse effects in particular subsets of children...
July 2015: CNS Drugs
S G Van Tuijl, Y J Van Cauteren, T Pikhard, M Engel, J N Schieveld
Pediatric delirium (PD) is an acute state of brain dysfunction and is often seen in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). There is a growing awareness of its clinical interdisciplinary importance. The aim of this article was to describe the three clinical presentations, to evaluate the differential diagnosis and to give a concise and practical update for the pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment of PD at the PICU, based on recent literature and expert opinions. We discuss an interdisciplinary flow chart which helps the reader dealing with the diagnosis and management of any acute emotional and or behavioral disturbance, of which PD is a special case...
March 2015: Minerva Anestesiologica
Gabrielle Silver, Julia Kearney, Chani Traube, Thomas M Atkinson, Katarzyna E Wyka, John Walkup
OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to evaluate interrater reliability for the diagnosis of pediatric delirium by child psychiatrists. METHOD: Critically ill patients (N = 17), 0-21 years old, including 7 infants, 5 children with developmental delay, and 7 intubated children, were assessed for delirium using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-IV (DSM-IV) (comparable to DSM-V) criteria. Delirium assessments were completed by two psychiatrists, each blinded to the other's diagnosis, and interrater reliability was measured using Cohen's κ coefficient along with its 95% confidence interval...
June 2015: Palliative & Supportive Care
Sapna R Kudchadkar, Myron Yaster, Naresh M Punjabi
OBJECTIVES: To examine pediatric intensivist sedation management, sleep promotion, and delirium screening practices for intubated and mechanically ventilated children. DESIGN: An international, online survey of questions regarding sedative and analgesic medication choices and availability, sedation protocols, sleep optimization, and delirium recognition and treatment. SETTING: Member societies of the World Federation of Pediatric Intensive and Critical Care Societies were asked to send the survey to their mailing lists; responses were collected from July 2012 to January 2013...
July 2014: Critical Care Medicine
Matthew J Stamper, Sharon J Hawks, Brad M Taicher, Juliet Bonta, Debra H Brandon
Pediatric emergence delirium is a postoperative phenomenon characterized by aberrant cognitive and psychomotor behavior, which can place the patient and health care personnel at risk for injury. A common tool for identifying emergence delirium is the Level of Consciousness-Richmond Agitation and Sedation Scale (LOC-RASS), although it has not been validated for use in the pediatric population. The Pediatric Anesthesia Emergence Delirium Scale (PAED) is a newly validated tool to measure emergence delirium in children...
April 2014: AORN Journal
Chani Traube, Gabrielle Silver, Julia Kearney, Anita Patel, Thomas M Atkinson, Margaret J Yoon, Sari Halpert, Julie Augenstein, Laura E Sickles, Chunshan Li, Bruce Greenwald
OBJECTIVE: To determine validity and reliability of the Cornell Assessment of Pediatric Delirium, a rapid observational screening tool. DESIGN: Double-blinded assessments were performed with the Cornell Assessment of Pediatric Delirium completed by nursing staff in the PICU. These ratings were compared with an assessment by consultation liaison child psychiatrist using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual IV criteria as the "gold standard" for diagnosis of delirium...
March 2014: Critical Care Medicine
Heidi A B Smith, Tyler Berutti, Emily Brink, Bradly Strohler, D Catherine Fuchs, E Wesley Ely, Pratik P Pandharipande
Critically ill children suffer from pain and anxiety additionally in the face of severe organ dysfunction. The critical care environment challenges pediatric patients' emotional and developmental capabilities. Disease-focused therapy is a priority and usually requires separation of patient from family and completion of invasive procedures. With the lack of familiar surroundings, inability to self-soothe, and deficiency of sleep, critically ill children may benefit from a multidisciplinary approach to care with a specific goal of pain management...
April 2013: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
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