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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804687/zika-virus-zikv-a-review-of-proposed-mechanisms-of-transmission-and-associated-congenital-abnormalities
#1
Sruti K Desai, Steven D Hartman, Shilpa Jayarajan, Stephanie Liu, G Ian Gallicano
Zika virus (ZIKV) has been of major international public health concern following large outbreaks in the Americas occurring in 2015-2016. Most notably, ZIKV has been seen to pose dangers in pregnancy due to its association with congenital abnormalities such as microcephaly. Numerous experimental approaches have been taken to address how the virus can cross the placenta, alter normal fetal development, and disrupt specific cellular functions. Many areas concerning the mechanisms of transmission, especially from mother to fetus, are largely unknown but demand further research...
2017: American Journal of Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803703/viral-hijacking-of-formins-in-neurodevelopmental-pathologies
#2
REVIEW
Karen Racicot, Sarah VanOeveren, Art Alberts
The 2015 Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak caused global concern when it was determined to cause microcephaly, hearing loss, and other neurodevelopmental manifestations upon fetal exposure. Significant progress has been made in our understanding of the interactions between ZIKV and the pregnant host, but there is still a critical need to understand how ZIKV and other neurotropic viruses affect fetal neurodevelopment. Diaphanous-related formins (Diaphs) have recently been identified as microcephaly-associated proteins in humans and mice...
August 10, 2017: Trends in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798738/zika-virus-an-emerging-worldwide-threat
#3
Irfan A Rather, Jameel B Lone, Vivek K Bajpai, Woon K Paek, Jeongheui Lim
ZIKA virus (ZIKV) poses a severe threat to the world. Recent outbreaks of ZIKV after 2007 along with its quick transmission have made this virus a matter of international concern. The virus shows symptoms that are similar to those caused in the wake of dengue virus (DENV) and other flaviviruses, which makes it difficult to discern the viral infection. Diagnosis is further complicated as the virus cross-reacts with antibodies of other viruses. Currently, molecular diagnosis of the virus is being performed by RT-PCR and IgM-captured enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (MAC-ELISA)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796762/notes-from-the-field-zika-virus-associated-neonatal-birth-defects-surveillance-texas-january-2016-july-2017
#4
Noemi Borsay Hall, Kelly Broussard, Nicole Evert, Mark Canfield
On November 28, 2016, the Texas Department of State Health Services (Texas DSHS) reported its first confirmed case of local mosquitoborne Zika virus transmission in the city of Brownsville, located in south Texas along the U.S.-Mexico border. Zika virus infection during pregnancy has been linked to adverse congenital outcomes including microcephaly, neural tube defects, early brain malformations, structural eye abnormalities, congenital deafness, and limb contractures (1). On January 1, 2016, Texas DSHS established enhanced surveillance to identify women with laboratory evidence of possible Zika virus infection during pregnancy and suspected cases of Zika virus-associated birth defects among completed pregnancies...
August 11, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795266/whole-genome-sequence-analysis-of-zika-virus-amplified-from-urine-of-traveler-from-the-philippines
#5
Se Hun Gu, Dong Hyun Song, Daesang Lee, Jeyoun Jang, Min Young Kim, Jaehun Jung, Koung In Woo, Mirang Kim, Woong Seog, Hong Sang Oh, Byung Seop Choi, Jong-Seong Ahn, Quehn Park, Seong Tae Jeong
Zika virus (ZIKV) (genus Flavivirus, family Flaviviridae) is an emerging pathogen associated with microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome. The rapid spread of ZIKV disease in over 60 countries and the large numbers of travel-associated cases have caused worldwide concern. Thus, intensified surveillance of cases among immigrants and tourists from ZIKV-endemic areas is important for disease control and prevention. In this study, using Next Generation Sequencing, we reported the first whole-genome sequence of ZIKV strain AFMC-U, amplified from the urine of a traveler returning to Korea from the Philippines...
August 9, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790458/zika-virus-replication-in-the-mosquito-culex-quinquefasciatus-in-brazil
#6
Duschinka Rd Guedes, Marcelo Hs Paiva, Mariana Ma Donato, Priscilla P Barbosa, Larissa Krokovsky, Sura W Dos S Rocha, Karina LA Saraiva, Mônica M Crespo, Tatiana Mt Rezende, Gabriel L Wallau, Rosângela Mr Barbosa, Cláudia Mf Oliveira, Maria Av Melo-Santos, Lindomar Pena, Marli T Cordeiro, Rafael F de O Franca, André Ls de Oliveira, Christina A Peixoto, Walter S Leal, Constância Fj Ayres
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a flavivirus that has recently been associated with an increased incidence of neonatal microcephaly and other neurological disorders. The virus is primarily transmitted by mosquito bite, although other routes of infection have been implicated in some cases. The Aedes aegypti mosquito is considered to be the main vector to humans worldwide; however, there is evidence that other mosquito species, including Culex quinquefasciatus, transmit the virus. To test the potential of Cx. quinquefasciatus to transmit ZIKV, we experimentally compared the vector competence of laboratory-reared Ae...
August 9, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783840/cranial-asymmetry-versus-microcephaly-implications-for-practice-during-the-zika-virus-epidemic
#7
Sophia Tsakiri, Nikolaos Zacharias, Jose Garcia, Lynnette Mazur
Congenital microcephaly can be the result of genetic, teratogenic, mechanical, infectious, and other factors affecting the fetal brain. Transient craniofacial asymmetries and cranial molding can mimic congenital microcephaly caused by brain abnormalities or neurotropic infectious pathogens, including Zika. We present two neonates who were born with head circumference at or below the 3rd percentile for gestational age, and had improving head measurements at discharge from the nursery and resolution of the microcephaly by the second month of life...
August 1, 2017: Texas Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783051/microcephaly-prevalence-in-infants-born-to-zika-virus-infected-women-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#8
REVIEW
Antonio Victor Campos Coelho, Sergio Crovella
Zika virus is an emergent flavivirus transmitted by Aedes genus mosquitoes that recently reached the Americas and was soon implicated in an increase of microcephaly incidence. The objective of the present study is to systematically review the published data and perform a meta-analysis to estimate the prevalence of microcephaly in babies born to Zika virus-infected women during pregnancy. We searched PubMed and Cochrane databases, included cohort studies, and excluded case reports and case series publications...
August 5, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780216/neuroimaging-findings-of-congenital-toxoplasmosis-cytomegalovirus-and-zika-virus-infections-a-comparison-of-three-cases
#9
Heron Werner, Pedro Daltro, Tatiana Fazecas, Mohammad Zare Mehrjardi, Edward Araujo Júnior
OBJECTIVE: Toxoplasmosis, cytomegalovirus (CMV), and Zika virus (ZIKV) are among the common infectious agents that may infect the fetuses vertically. Clinical presentations of these congenital infections overlap significantly, and it is usually impossible to determine the causative agent clinically. The objective was the comparison of neuroimaging findings in three fetuses who underwent intrauterine infection by toxoplasmosis, CMV, and ZIKV. METHODS: Three confirmed cases of congenital toxoplasmosis, CMV, and ZIKV infections were included in the study over 7 months prospectively...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776338/epidemiology-and-clinical-characteristics-of-zika-virus-infections-imported-into-korea-from-march-to-october-2016
#10
Doran Yoon, Seung Hwan Shin, Hee Chang Jang, Eu Suk Kim, Eun Hee Song, Song Mi Moon, So Youn Shin, Pyeong Gyun Choe, Jung Joon Sung, Eun Hwa Choi, Myoung Don Oh, Youngmee Jee, Nam Joong Kim
Zika is a re-emerging, mosquito-borne viral infection, which has been recently shown to cause microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome. Since 2015 the number of infected patients has increased significantly in South America. The purpose of this study was to identify the epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of patients with Zika virus (ZIKV) infections in Korea. Patients who had visited areas of risk and tested positive in the ZIKV reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in blood, urine, or saliva specimens were included...
September 2017: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776046/jak-inhibitors-modulate-production-of-replication-competent-zika-virus-in-human-hofbauer-trophoblasts-and-neuroblastoma-cells
#11
Christina Gavegnano, Leda C Bassit, Bryan D Cox, Hui-Mien Hsiao, Erica L Johnson, Mehul Suthar, Rana Chakraborty, Raymond F Schinazi
Zika Virus (ZIKV) is a flavivirus that has been implicated in causing brain deformations, birth defects, and microcephaly in fetuses, and associated with Guillain-Barre syndrome. Mechanisms responsible for transmission of ZIKV across the placenta to the fetus are incompletely understood. Herein, we define key events modulating infection in clinically relevant cells, including primary placental macrophages (human Hofbauer cells; HC), trophoblasts, and neuroblastoma cells. Consistent with previous findings, HC and trophoblasts are permissive to ZIKV infection...
2017: Pathogens & Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769893/imported-zika-virus-in-a-european-city-how-to-prevent-local-transmission
#12
Joan-Pau Millet, Tomàs Montalvo, Ruben Bueno-Marí, Arancha Romero-Tamarit, Albert Prats-Uribe, Lidia Fernández, Esteve Camprubí, Lucía Del Baño, Victor Peracho, Jordi Figuerola, Elena Sulleiro, Miguel J Martínez, Joan A Caylà
Background: On February 1st 2016 the WHO declared the Zika Virus (ZIKV) infection a worldwide public health emergency because of its rapid expansion and severe complications, such as Guillain-Barré Syndrome or microcephaly in newborn. The huge amount of people traveling to endemic areas and the presence of Aedes albopictus in Barcelona increase the risk of autochtonous transmission. The objective of this study was to describe the first ZIKV cases diagnosed in our city and to analyze the surveillance, prevention, and control measures implemented to avoid autochthonous transmission...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767975/culex-quinquefasciatus-from-areas-with-the-highest-incidence-of-microcephaly-associated-with-zika-virus-infections-in-the-northeast-region-of-brazil-are-refractory-to-the-virus
#13
Rosilainy Surubi Fernandes, Stéphanie Silva Campos, Paulino Siqueira Ribeiro, Lidiane Ms Raphael, Myrna C Bonaldo, Ricardo Lourenço-de-Oliveira
Zika virus (ZIKV) is widely distributed in Brazil and the Northeast Region (NE) is the most affected zone, showing the highest incidence of microcephaly associated with ZIKV congenital infections worldwide. We report attempts to infect three populations of Culex quinquefasciatus from severely affected sites in the NE and Southeast Region (SE) of Brazil with three strains of ZIKV isolated from these localities. An Aedes aegypti population from the SE was used as a positive control. All tested Cx. quinquefasciatus populations were refractory to the ZIKV isolates...
June 26, 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756233/organoid-culture-systems-to-study-host-pathogen-interactions
#14
REVIEW
Devanjali Dutta, Hans Clevers
Recent advances in host-microbe interaction studies in organoid cultures have shown great promise and have laid the foundation for much more refined future studies using these systems. Modeling of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in cerebral organoids have helped us understand its association with microcephaly. Similarly, the pathogenesis of bacterial (Helicobacter pylori, Clostridium difficile) and viral (Norovirus, Rotaviruses) infections have been precisely dissected in organoid cultures. Additionally, direct associations between microbial colonization of tissues and diseases like cancer have also been deciphered...
July 27, 2017: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755588/genomic-characterization-of-zika-virus-isolated-from-indonesia
#15
Frilasita A Yudhaputri, Hidayat Trimarsanto, Aditya Perkasa, Benediktus Yohan, Sotianingsih Haryanto, Ageng Wiyatno, Amin Soebandrio, Khin Saw Myint, Jeremy P Ledermann, Ronald Rosenberg, Ann M Powers, R Tedjo Sasmono
Zika virus (ZIKV) JMB-185 strain was isolated from a febrile patient in Jambi, Indonesia in 2014. To understand its genetic characteristics, we performed whole genome sequencing using the Ion Torrent PGM platform on the supernatant of the first passage. The phylogenetic analysis showed that the isolate was not closely related to the Brazilian ZIKV associated with microcephaly or isolates from the recent Singapore Zika outbreak. Molecular evolution analysis indicated that JMB-185 strain may have been circulating in the Southeast Asia region, including Indonesia since 2000...
July 26, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755567/microcephaly-and-zika-virus-neuroradiological-aspects-clinical-findings-and-a-proposed-framework-for-early-evaluation-of-child-development
#16
Nelci Adriana Cicuto Ferreira Rocha, Ana Carolina de Campos, Fellipe Cicuto Ferreira Rocha, Fernanda Pereira Dos Santos Silva
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: As the recent outbreak of microcephaly cases caused by Zika virus has been declared a global health emergency, providing assessment guidelines for multidisciplinary teams providing early developmental screening and stimulation to infants with microcephaly is much needed. Thus, the aim of this manuscript is to provide an overview on what is known about neuroradiological aspects and clinical findings in infants with microcephaly caused by Zika virus and to propose a framework for early evaluation of child development...
July 26, 2017: Infant Behavior & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740150/identification-of-putative-unique-immunogenic-zikv-and-denv1-4-peptides-for-diagnostic-cellular-based-tests
#17
Aaron L Oom, Davey Smith, Kevan Akrami
Since the re-emergence of Zika virus in 2014 and subsequent association with microcephaly, much work has focused on the development of a vaccine to halt its spread throughout the world. The mosquito vector that transmits this virus is widespread and responsible for the spread of other arboviridae including Dengue. Current diagnostic methods rely on serologic testing that are complicated by cross reactivity and therefore unable to distinguish Zika from Dengue infection in the absence of virus isolation. We performed an in silico analysis to identify potential epitopes that may stimulate a unique T-lymphocyte response to distinguish prior infection with Zika or Dengue...
July 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736678/rapid-assessment-zika-virus-knowledge-among-clinical-specialists-in-singapore-a-cross-sectional-survey
#18
Chee F Yung, Clarence C Tam, Victor S Rajadurai, Jerry Ky Chan, Mabel Sf Low, Yong H Ng, Koh C Thoon, Lay K Tan
INTRODUCTION: We report the results of a rapid assessment of Zika virus awareness among key clinical specialties in Singapore. METHODS: Between June 6 and June 19, 2016 we conducted an online survey of doctors working in obstetrics and gynaecology, neonatology and paediatrics in Singapore. The survey included 15 multiple choice questions to measure respondents' knowledge of Zika virus in four domains covering clinical and public health. RESULTS: A total of 110 survey responses (15% response rate) were obtained, 82% of respondents worked in the public sector...
May 3, 2017: PLoS Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734519/zika-virus-infection
#19
REVIEW
Debbie-Ann T Shirley, James P Nataro
In less than 2 years since entry into the Americas, we have witnessed the emergent spread of Zika virus into large subsets of immunologically naïve human populations and then encountered the devastating effects of microcephaly and brain anomalies that can arise from in utero infection with the virus. Diagnostic evaluation and management of affected infants continues to evolve as our understanding of Zika virus rapidly advances. The development of a safe and effective vaccine holds the potential to attenuate the spread of infection and limit the impact of congenital infection...
August 2017: Pediatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728607/zika-virus-transmission-to-mouse-ear-by-mosquito-bite-a-laboratory-model-that-replicates-the-natural-transmission-process
#20
Nagila Francinete Costa Secundino, Barbara Aparecida Chaves, Alessandra Silva Orfano, Karine Renata Dias Silveira, Nilton Barnabe Rodrigues, Thais Bonifácio Campolina, Rafael Nacif-Pimenta, Luiz Eduardo Martinez Villegas, Breno Melo Silva, Marcus Vinícius Guimarães Lacerda, Douglas Eric Norris, Paulo Filemon Paolucci Pimenta
BACKGROUND: Zika disease has transformed into a serious global health problem due to the rapid spread of the arbovirus and alarming severity including congenital complications, microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome. Zika virus (ZIKV) is primarily transmitted to humans through the bite of an infective mosquito, with Aedes aegypti being the main vector. METHODS: We successfully developed a ZIKV experimental transmission model by single infectious Ae. aegypti bite to a laboratory mouse using circulating Brazilian strains of both arbovirus and vector...
July 20, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
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