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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329222/effect-of-daptomycin-dose-on-the-outcome-of-vancomycin-resistant-daptomycin-susceptible-enterococcus-faecium-bacteremia
#1
Yu-Chung Chuang, Hsin-Yi Lin, Pao-Yu Chen, Chi-Ying Lin, Jann-Tay Wang, Yee-Chun Chen, Shan-Chwen Chang
Background.: Treatment options for vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) bloodstream infection (BSI) are limited. Daptomycin, although not currently approved for this indication, is frequently used for the treatment of VRE-BSI. Its optimal dose still needs to be determined. Methods.: We conducted a prospective, observational, cohort study during 2010-2015. We included patients who received a daptomycin dose of ≥6 mg/kg for the treatment of VRE-BSI caused by daptomycin-susceptible VRE...
January 25, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327806/invasive-fungal-infection-in-patients-with-hematologic-disorders-in-a-brazilian-tertiary-care-hospital
#2
Milton Camplesi, Hildene Meneses Silva, Adriano Moraes Arantes, Carolina Rodrigues Costa, Fábio Silvestre Ataides, Thaisa Cristina Silva, Maysa de Paula Costa Dos Reis, Maria do Rosário Rodrigues Silva
INTRODUCTION: Invasive fungal infections (IFIs) are an important complication in immunocompromised individuals, particularly neutropenic patients with hematological malignancies. In this study, we aimed to verify the epidemiology and diagnosis of IFIs in patients with hematologic problems at a tertiary hospital in Goiânia-GO, Brazil. METHODS: Data from 117 patients, involving 19 cases of IFIs, were collected. The collected data included diagnosis methods, demographics, clinical characteristics, and in vitro susceptibility to different antifungal agents...
January 2017: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325945/surveillance-of-dialysis-events-one-year-experience-at-33-outpatient-hemodialysis-centers-in-china
#3
Hui Zhang, Liuyi Li, Huixue Jia, Yunxi Liu, Jianguo Wen, Anhua Wu, Qun Lu, Tieying Hou, Yun Yang, Huai Yang, Weiguang Li, Zhiyong Zong
A multicenter prospective surveillance on dialysis events was carried in 33 dialysis centers in China. Maintenance hemodialysis (HD) outpatients who were dialyzed on the first two days of each month during 2014 were monitored for dialysis events and other infections. During the one-year period, 52,680 patient-months were monitored. Fistula and tunneled or non-tunneled central line were used for 73.70%, 15.70% and 8.85% of vascular access, respectively. There were 773 dialysis events occurred in 671 patients including 589 IV antimicrobial starts, 74 positive blood cultures and 110 local access site infections (LASI)...
March 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325858/incidence-of-bloodstream-infections-a-nationwide-surveillance-of-acute-care-hospitals-in-switzerland-2008-2014
#4
Niccolò Buetti, Andrew Atkinson, Jonas Marschall, Andreas Kronenberg
BACKGROUND: Bloodstream infections are often associated with significant mortality and morbidity. We aimed to investigate changes in the epidemiology of bloodstream infections in Switzerland between 2008 and 2014. METHODS: Data on bloodstream infections were obtained from the Swiss antibiotic resistance surveillance system (ANRESIS). RESULTS: The incidence of bloodstream infections increased throughout the study period, especially among elderly patients and those receiving care in emergency departments and university hospitals...
March 21, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325579/burden-of-healthcare-associated-infections-in-china-results-of-the-2015-point-prevalence-survey-in-dong-guan-city
#5
J Wang, J Hu, S Harbarth, D Pittet, M Zhou, W Zingg
BACKGROUND: Healthcare-associated infections (HCAIs) are a major health threat. There are few data about HCAI and antibiotic use in the People's Republic of China in the English literature. AIM: To describe and discuss the prevalence of HCAI and antibiotic use from the 2015 point prevalence survey (PPS) in Dong Guan City. METHODS: In 2015, the Dong Guan (City) Nosocomial Infection Control and Quality Improvement Centre organized its yearly PPS in the secondary and tertiary care hospitals of Dong Guan City...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320724/piperacillin-tazobactam-versus-other-antibacterial-agents-for-treatment-of-bloodstream-infections-due-to-ampc-beta-lactamase-producing-enterobacteriaceae
#6
Lucy Cheng, Brian C Nelson, Monica Mehta, Nikhil Seval, Sarah Park, Marla J Giddins, Qiuhu Shi, Susan Whittier, Angela Gomez-Simmonds, Anne-Catrin Uhlemann
In vivo induction of AmpC beta-lactamases produces high-level resistance to many beta-lactam antibiotics in Enterobacteriaceae, often resulting in the use of carbapenems or cefepime (FEP). The clinical effectiveness of piperacillin-tazobactam (TZP), a weak inducer of AmpC beta-lactamases, is poorly understood. Here we conducted a case-control study of adult inpatients with bloodstream infections (BSIs) due to Enterobacter, Serratia, or Citrobacter spp. from 2009 to 2015 to assess outcomes following treatment with TZP compared to FEP or meropenem (MEM)...
March 20, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324282/recurrent-bowel-blood-translocations-of-escherichia-coli-with-the-unique-virulence-characteristics-over-three-year-period-in-the-patient-with-acute-myeloid-leukaemia-case-report
#7
Beata Krawczyk, Anna Śledzińska, Agnieszka Piekarska, Andrzej Hellmann, Józef Kur
In patients with haematological malignancies, the bowel remains the main source of Escherichia coli bloodstream infections. We present the clinical example of recurrent bowel-blood translocations of E. coli with the unique virulence characteristics in a 55-year-old male with the diagnosis of acute myeloid leukaemia. The virulent factors profile of examined strains confirmed that the co-existence of genes papC, sfa, usp and cnf1, encoding virulence factors, predisposes E. coli to translocation from the gastrointestinal tract to the vascular bed...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Applied Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323880/randomized-controlled-trials-in-central-vascular-access-devices-a-scoping-review
#8
Mari Takashima, Gillian Ray-Barruel, Amanda Ullman, Samantha Keogh, Claire M Rickard
BACKGROUND: Randomized controlled trials evaluate the effectiveness of interventions for central venous access devices, however, high complication rates remain. Scoping reviews map the available evidence and demonstrate evidence deficiencies to focus ongoing research priorities. METHOD: A scoping review (January 2006-December 2015) of randomized controlled trials evaluating the effectiveness of interventions to improve central venous access device outcomes; including peripherally inserted central catheters, non-tunneled, tunneled and totally implanted venous access catheters...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323667/central-venous-access-in-children-indications-devices-and-risks
#9
Guillermo Ares, Catherine J Hunter
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Central venous catheters (CVCs) have a prominent role in the diagnostic and therapy of neonates and children. Herein, we describe the multiple indications for CVC use and the different devices available for central venous access. Given the prevalent use of CVCs, healthcare systems are focused on reducing complications from their use, particularly central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs). The most up-to-date information available sheds light on best practices and future areas of investigation...
March 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319520/infections-in-patients-with-a-total-artificial-heart-are-common-but-rarely-fatal
#10
Luis F Hidalgo, Keyur B Shah, Richard H Cooke, Daniel G Tang, Vigneshwar Kasirajan, Howard A Cooper, Wilbert S Aronow
Patients who received a total artificial heart (TAH) at Virginia Commonwealth University (VCU) between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2011 were identified from the VCU Mechanical Circulatory Support Clinical Database. Retrospective data extraction from the medical records was performed from the time of TAH implantation until heart transplantation or death. Infections were classified as confirmed or suspected. Twenty-seven men and 5 women, mean age 49.5 years (range 24 to 68 years) received a TAH. The mean duration of TAH support was 225 days (range 1 to 1334 days)...
March 17, 2017: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318648/rates-of-central-line-associated-bloodstream-infection-in-tertiary-care-hospitals-in-3-arabian-gulf-countries-6-year-surveillance-study
#11
Hanan H Balkhy, Aiman El-Saed, Seif S Al-Abri, Jameela Alsalman, Huda Alansari, Zaina Al Maskari, Ayman El Gammal, Wafa Al Nasser, Amina AlJardani, Abdulhakeem Althaqafi
The objective of this study was to compare central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) rates in Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) states with those of the U.S. National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) and International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC) using pooled data from 6 hospitals in 3 GCC countries. The overall CLABSI rate was 3.1 per 1,000 central line days. After adjusting for differences in intensive care unit types, the risk of CLABSI in GCC hospitals was 146% higher than NHSN hospitals but 33% lower than INICC hospitals...
March 16, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316976/mutagenic-and-cytotoxicity-lqb-123-profile-safety-and-tripanocidal-effect-of-a-phenyl-t-butylnitrone-derivative
#12
Mauricio Peixoto Cupello, Francis Monique Saraiva, Pedro Ippolito, Andréia da Silva Fernandes, Rubem Figueiredo Sadoko Menna-Barreto, Debora de Sousa Dos Santos Costa, Jessica Isis Oliveira Paula, Paulo Roberto Ribeiro Costa, Natália Pereira Nogueira, Israel Felzenswalb, Ayres Guimarães Dias, Marcia Cristina Paes
The therapeutic options for Chagas disease are limited and its treatment presents a number of drawbacks including toxicity, drug resistance, and insufficient effectiveness against the chronic stage of the disease. Therefore, new therapeutical options are mandatory. In the present work, we evaluated the effect of a phenyl-tert-butylnitrone (PBN) derivate, LQB 123, against Trypanosoma cruzi forms. LQB 123 presented a trypanocidal effect against bloodstream trypomastigotes (IC50 = 259.4 ± 6.1 μM) and intracellular amastigotes infecting peritoneal macrophages (IC50 = 188...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303129/there-is-a-method-to-the-madness-strategies-to-study-host-complement-evasion-by-lyme-disease-and-relapsing-fever-spirochetes
#13
REVIEW
Ashley L Marcinkiewicz, Peter Kraiczy, Yi-Pin Lin
Lyme disease and relapsing fever are caused by various Borrelia species. Lyme disease borreliae, the most common vector-borne pathogens in both the U.S. and Europe, are transmitted by Ixodes ticks and disseminate from the site of tick bites to tissues leading to erythema migrans skin rash, arthritis, carditis, and neuroborreliosis. Relapsing fever borreliae, carried by ticks and lice, trigger reoccurring fever episodes. Following transmission, spirochetes survive in the blood to induce bacteremia at the early stages of infection, which is thought to promote evasion of the host complement system...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301471/genomic-confirmation-of-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-transmission-from-deceased-donor-to-liver-transplant-recipient
#14
Ali Bashir, Oliver Attie, Mitchell Sullivan, Robert Sebra, Kavindra V Singh, Deena Altman, Theodore Pak, Jayeeta Dutta, Kieran Chacko, Elizabeth Webster, Martha Lewis, Camille Hamula, Kristin W Delli Carpini, Barbara E Murray, Andrew Kasarskis, Harm van Bakel, Shirish Huprikar
In a liver transplant recipient with vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) surgical site and bloodstream infection, a combination of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, multilocus sequence typing, and whole genome sequencing identified that donor and recipient VRE isolates were highly similar when compared to time-matched hospital isolates. Comparison of de novo assembled isolate genomes was highly suggestive of transplant transmission rather than hospital-acquired transmission and also identified subtle internal rearrangements between donor and recipient missed by other genomic approaches...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293420/candidemia-in-a-major-regional-tertiary-referral-hospital-epidemiology-practice-patterns-and-outcomes
#15
Jocelyn Qi-Min Teo, Samuel Rocky Candra, Shannon Jing-Yi Lee, Shannon Yu-Hng Chia, Hui Leck, Ai-Ling Tan, Hui-Peng Neo, Kenneth Wei-Liang Leow, Yiying Cai, Rachel Pui-Lai Ee, Tze-Peng Lim, Winnie Lee, Andrea Lay-Hoon Kwa
BACKGROUND: Candidemia is a common cause of nosocomial bloodstream infections, resulting in high morbidity and mortality. This study was conducted to describe the epidemiology, species distribution, antifungal susceptibility patterns and outcomes of candidemia in a large regional tertiary referral hospital. METHODS: A retrospective surveillance study of patients with candidemia was conducted at Singapore General Hospital between July 2012 and December 2015. In addition, incidence densities and species distribution of candidemia episodes were analysed from 2008 to 2015...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290130/the-choosing-wisely-initiative-in-infectious-diseases
#16
REVIEW
Clara Lehmann, Reinhard Berner, Johannes R Bogner, Oliver A Cornely, Katja de With, Susanne Herold, Winfried V Kern, Sebastian Lemmen, Mathias W Pletz, Bernhard Ruf, Bernd Salzberger, Hans Jürgen Stellbrink, Norbert Suttorp, Andrew J Ullmann, Gerd Fätkenheuer, Norma Jung
OBJECTIVE: "Choosing Wisely" is a growing international campaign aiming at practice changes to improve patient health and safety by both, conduct of essential and avoidance of unnecessary diagnostic, preventive and therapeutic procedures. The goal is to create an easily recognizable and distributable list ("Choosing Wisely items") that addresses common over- and underuse in the management of infectious diseases. METHODS: The German Society of Infectious Diseases (DGI) participates in the campaign "Klug Entscheiden" by the German Society of Internal Medicine...
March 13, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289815/a-randomized-clinical-trial-of-ultrasound-guided-infra-clavicular-cannulation-of-the-subclavian-vein-in-cardiac-surgical-patients-short-axis-versus-long-axis-approach
#17
Antonella Vezzani, Tullio Manca, Claudia Brusasco, Gregorio Santori, Luca Cantadori, Andrea Ramelli, Gianluca Gonzi, Francesco Nicolini, Tiziano Gherli, Francesco Corradi
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to compare the success rate and safety of short-axis versus long-axis approaches to ultrasound-guided subclavian vein cannulation. METHODS: A total of 190 patients requiring central venous cannulation following cardiac surgery were randomized to either short-axis or long-axis ultrasound-guided cannulation of the subclavian vein. Each cannulation was performed by anesthesiologists with at least 3 years' experience of ultrasound-guided central vein cannulation (>150 procedures/year, 50% short-axis and 50% long-axis)...
March 13, 2017: Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289522/device-associated-infection-rates-mortality-length-of-stay-and-bacterial-resistance-in-intensive-care-units-in-ecuador-international-nosocomial-infection-control-consortium-s-findings
#18
Estuardo Salgado Yepez, Maria M Bovera, Victor D Rosenthal, Hugo A González Flores, Leonardo Pazmiño, Francisco Valencia, Nelly Alquinga, Vanessa Ramirez, Edgar Jara, Miguel Lascano, Veronica Delgado, Cristian Cevallos, Gasdali Santacruz, Cristian Pelaéz, Celso Zaruma, Diego Barahona Pinto
AIM: To report the results of the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC) study conducted in Quito, Ecuador. METHODS: A device-associated healthcare-acquired infection (DA-HAI) prospective surveillance study conducted from October 2013 to January 2015 in 2 adult intensive care units (ICUs) from 2 hospitals using the United States Centers for Disease Control/National Healthcare Safety Network (CDC/NHSN) definitions and INICC methods. RESULTS: We followed 776 ICU patients for 4818 bed-days...
February 26, 2017: World Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288781/role-of-%C3%AE-naphthylalanine-end-tags-in-the-enhancement-of-antiendotoxin-activities-solution-structure-of-the-antimicrobial-peptide-s1-nal-nal-in-complex-with-lipopolysaccharide
#19
Hui-Yuan Yu, Yi-An Chen, Bak-Sau Yip, Siou-Ying Wang, Hsiu-Ju Wei, Ya-Han Chih, Kuan-Hao Chen, Jya-Wei Cheng
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS, endotoxin) is the major component of Gram-negative bacterial outer surface membrane. LPS released from bacteria into bloodstream during infection may cause serious unwanted stimulation of host's immune system and lead to septic shock of the patient. Recently, we have developed a strategy to increase salt resistance and LPS neutralization of short antimicrobial peptides by adding β-naphthylalanine end-tags to their termini. Herein, correlations between membrane immersion depth, orientation, and antiendotoxin activities of the antimicrobial peptides S1 and S1-Nal-Nal have been investigated via solution structure, paramagnetic resonance enhancement, and saturation transfer difference NMR studies...
March 10, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288072/dissecting-leapfrog-how-well-do-leapfrog-safe-practices-scores-correlate-with-hospital-compare-ratings-and-penalties-and-how-much-do-they-matter
#20
Shawna N Smith, Heidi A Reichert, Jessica M Ameling, Jennifer Meddings
BACKGROUND: Voluntary Leapfrog Safe Practices Score (SPS) measures were among the first public reports of hospital performance. Recently, Medicare's Hospital Compare website has reported compulsory measures. Leapfrog's Hospital Safety Score (HSS) grades incorporate SPS and Medicare measures. We evaluate associations between Leapfrog SPS and Medicare measures, and the impact of SPS on HSS grades. METHODS: Using 2013 hospital data, we linked Leapfrog HSS data with central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) and catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) standardized infection ratios (SIRs), and Hospital Readmission and Hospital-Acquired Condition (HAC) Reduction Program penalties incorporating 2013 performance...
March 10, 2017: Medical Care
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