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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110095/prophylaxis-for-stress-ulcers-with-proton-pump-inhibitors-is-not-associated-with-increased-risk-of-bloodstream-infections-in-the-intensive-care-unit
#1
Margot E Cohen, Joanne M Hathway, Hojjat Salmasian, Jianfang Liu, Melissa Terry, Julian A Abrams, Daniel E Freedberg
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) have been associated with increased risk of infection, likely due to changes in intestinal epithelial permeability and the gastrointestinal microbiome. PPIs are frequently given to patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) to prevent stress ulcers. These patients are at risk for bloodstream infections (BSIs), so we investigated the relationship between PPI use and BSIs among patients in the ICU. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of adults (≥18 years) admitted to 1 of 14 ICUs within a hospital network of 3 large hospitals from 2008 through 2014...
January 18, 2017: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110054/slicing-silicone-neonatal-vascular-catheter-tips-improves-colonization-detection-by-the-roll-plate-technique
#2
María Guembe, Pablo Martín-Rabadán, Raquel Cruces, María Jesús Pérez Granda, Emilio Bouza
OBJECTIVE: Silicone neonatal peripherally inserted central catheters (SN-PICCs) are a common cause of catheter-related bloodstream infection (C-RBSI) in neonates. Our objective was to compare the yield of traditional roll-plate technique (TRP), roll-plate after slicing (RPS), and sonication after slicing (SS) for the detection of colonization and C-RBSI in SN-PICCs. METHODS: We prospectively cultured tips from SN-PICCs withdrawn from pediatric patients admitted to our institution with suspicion of infection...
January 18, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109554/clinical-and-microbiological-characteristics-of-bloodstream-infections-among-patients-with-haematological-malignancies-with-and-without-neutropenia-at-a-medical-centre-in-northern-taiwan-2008-2013
#3
Chien-Yuan Chen, Feng-Ming Tien, Wang-Huei Sheng, Shang-Yi Huang, Ming Yao, Jih-Luh Tang, Woei Tsay, Hwei-Fang Tien, Po-Ren Hsueh
This study aimed to investigate the epidemiology and microbiology of bloodstream infections (BSIs) in patients with haematological malignancies. Clinical characteristics and microbiology of 2083 patients with haematological malignancy who were treated for BSI from 2008 to 2013 at a medical centre in Taiwan were retrospectively reviewed. Lymphoma (38.1%) was the most common, followed by acute myeloid leukaemia (30.9%). Of the 2090 non-duplicate BSI isolates, 1310 (62.7%) were recovered from patients with neutropenia...
January 3, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104099/coexisting-systemic-infections-in-patients-who-present-with-a-fall
#4
Alex Blair, Farrin A Manian
BACKGROUND: Although the causes of falls are legion, infectious disease-related factors are not commonly reported in the published literature. We investigated the characteristics of patients presenting to the hospital because of a fall and who were subsequently found to have a coexisting systemic infection (CSI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective study performed at Massachusetts General Hospital, using the electronic database of adult patients receiving care during the period January 1, 2000 through December 31, 2014...
January 2017: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102784/model-systems-for-the-study-of-enterococcal-colonization-and-infection
#5
H M Sharon Goh, M H Adeline Yong, Kelvin Kian Long Chong, Kimberly A Kline
Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium are common inhabitants of the human gastrointestinal tract, as well as frequent opportunistic pathogens. Enterococci cause a range of infections including, most frequently, infections of the urinary tract, catheterized urinary tract, bloodstream, wounds and surgical sites, and heart valves in endocarditis. Enterococcal infections are often biofilm-associated, polymicrobial in nature, and resistant to antibiotics of last resort. Understanding Enterococcal mechanisms of colonization and pathogenesis are important for identifying new ways to manage and intervene with these infections...
January 19, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102514/carbapenemase-producing-klebsiella-pneumoniae-bloodstream-infection-in-critically-ill-patients-risk-factors-and-predictors-of-mortality
#6
M Papadimitriou-Olivgeris, F Fligou, C Bartzavali, A Zotou, A Spyropoulou, K Koutsileou, S Vamvakopoulou, N Sioulas, V Karamouzos, E D Anastassiou, I Spiliopoulou, M Christofidou, M Marangos
A significant increase in carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (CP-Kp) bacteraemias has been observed worldwide. The objective of the present work was to study the risk factors and predictors of mortality of CP-Kp bacteraemias among critically ill patients. During a 4-year period (2012-3015), a matched 1:2 case-control study was conducted. Klebsiella pneumoniae was identified by Vitek 2 technology. Antibiotic susceptibility was performed by the agar disc diffusion method and Etest. The presence of the bla KPC, bla VIM and bla NDM genes was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
January 19, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102479/peripherally-inserted-central-catheter-related-bloodstream-infection-caused-by-kocuria-marina-in-an-elderly-man
#7
Nobuaki Mori, Yuichi Nishihara, Hideki Tayama, Akiko Higuchi, Yasuko Aoki
BACKGROUND: Kocuria species are Gram-positive, aerobic cocci, and members of the Micrcoccaceae family that are known to be opportunistic pathogens. Although there have been sporadic reports of infections caused by Kocuria species, little is known regarding their human pathogenicity and clinical characteristics. CASE REPORT: We herein report a case of a peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC)-related bloodstream infection caused by Kocuria marina in a 90-year-old Japanese with multiple cancer...
January 19, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099778/pseudozyma-and-other-non-candida-opportunistic-yeast-bloodstream-infections-in-a-large-stem-cell-transplant-center
#8
Anupam Pande, Lemuel R Non, Rizwan Romee, Carlos A Q Santos
INTRODUCTION: Non-Candida opportunistic yeasts are emerging causes of bloodstream infection (BSI) in immunocompromised hosts. However, their clinical presentation, management, and outcomes in stem cell transplant (SCT) recipients are not well described. CASE REPORT AND REVIEW: We report the first case to our knowledge of Pseudozyma BSI in a SCT recipient. He had evidence of cutaneous involvement, which has not been previously described in the literature. He became infected while neutropenic and receiving empiric micafungin, which is notable because Pseudozyma is reported to be resistant to echinocandins...
January 18, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098529/multidrug-resistant-candida-haemulonii-and-c-auris-tel-aviv-israel
#9
Ronen Ben-Ami, Judith Berman, Ana Novikov, Edna Bash, Yael Shachor-Meyouhas, Shiri Zakin, Yasmin Maor, Jalal Tarabia, Vered Schechner, Amos Adler, Talya Finn
Candida auris and C. haemulonii are closely related, multidrug-resistant emerging fungal pathogens that are not readily distinguishable with phenotypic assays. We studied C. auris and C. haemulonii clinical isolates from 2 hospitals in central Israel. C. auris was isolated in 5 patients with nosocomial bloodstream infection, and C. haemulonii was found as a colonizer of leg wounds at a peripheral vascular disease clinic. Liberal use of topical miconazole and close contact among patients were implicated in C...
February 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096455/multicenter-prospective-study-on-device-associated-infection-rates-and-bacterial-resistance-in-intensive-care-units-of-venezuela-international-nosocomial-infection-control-consortium-inicc-findings
#10
Gabriel D Empaire, Maria E Guzman Siritt, Victor D Rosenthal, Fernando Pérez, Yvis Ruiz, Claudia Díaz, Gabriela Di Silvestre, Evelyn Salinas, Nelva Orozco
BACKGROUND: Device-associated healthcare-acquired infections (DA-HAI) pose a threat to patient safety in the intensive care unit (ICU). METHODS: A DA-HAI surveillance study was conducted by the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC) in two adult medical/surgical ICUs at two hospitals in Caracas, Venezuela, in different periods from March 2008 to April 2015, using the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Healthcare Safety Network (CDC/NHSN) definitions and criteria, and INICC methods...
January 2017: International Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093484/mic-of-amoxicillin-clavulanate-according-to-clsi-and-eucast-discrepancies-and-clinical-impact-in-patients-with-bloodstream-infections-due-to-enterobacteriaceae
#11
Mercedes Delgado-Valverde, Adoración Valiente-Mendez, Eva Torres, Benito Almirante, Silvia Gómez-Zorrilla, Nuria Borrell, Ana Isabel Aller-García, Mercedes Gurgui, Manel Almela, Mercedes Sanz, Germán Bou, Luis Martínez-Martínez, Rafael Cantón, Jose Antonio Lepe, Manuel Causse, Belén Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez, Álvaro Pascual, Jesús Rodríguez-Baño
OBJECTIVES: To compare results of amoxicillin/clavulanate susceptibility testing using CLSI and EUCAST methodologies and to evaluate their impact on outcome in patients with bacteraemia caused by Enterobacteriaceae. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A prospective observational cohort study was conducted in 13 Spanish hospitals. Patients with bacteraemia due to Enterobacteriaceae who received empirical intravenous amoxicillin/clavulanate treatment for at least 48 h were included...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090322/vaccination-to-gain-humoral-immune-memory
#12
REVIEW
Jana Sarkander, Shintaro Hojyo, Koji Tokoyoda
The concept of immune memory forms the biological basis for vaccination programs. Despite advancements in the field of immune memory and vaccination, most current vaccines are evaluated by magnitude of antigen-specific antibody titers in serum or mucosa after vaccination. It has been shown, however, that antibody-mediated humoral immune memory is established regardless of the magnitude and duration of immune reactions, suggesting that assessment of vaccine efficacy should be performed for several years after vaccination...
December 2016: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090076/a-journey-into-the-brain-insight-into-how-bacterial-pathogens-cross-blood-brain-barriers
#13
Mathieu Coureuil, Hervé Lécuyer, Sandrine Bourdoulous, Xavier Nassif
The blood-brain barrier, which is one of the tightest barriers in the body, protects the brain from insults, such as infections. Indeed, only a few of the numerous blood-borne bacteria can cross the blood-brain barrier to cause meningitis. In this Review, we focus on invasive extracellular pathogens, such as Neisseria meningitidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, group B Streptococcus and Escherichia coli, to review the obstacles that bacteria have to overcome in order to invade the meninges from the bloodstream, and the specific skills they have developed to bypass the blood-brain barrier...
January 16, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089672/isopropyl-alcohol-is-as-efficient-as-chlorhexidine-to-prevent-contamination-of-blood-cultures
#14
Jovanna Martínez, Juan H Macías, Virginia Arreguín, Jose A Álvarez, Alejandro E Macías, Juan L Mosqueda-Gómez
BACKGROUND: False-positive blood cultures can lead to unnecessary risks and misuse of antibiotics; to reduce rates of false-positives, it would be useful to determine whether use of an antiseptic with a prolonged effect is required. METHODS: Clinical study of efficacy (blinded and randomized) to compare the rate of blood culture contamination when skin antisepsis was performed with 70% isopropyl alcohol or 2% chlorhexidine gluconate in 70% isopropyl alcohol in 2 hospitals...
January 12, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089599/impact-of-oral-chlorhexidine-on-bloodstream-infection-in-critically-ill-patients-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#15
REVIEW
Luciano Silvestri, William I Weir, Dario Gregori, Nia Taylor, Durk F Zandstra, Joris J M van Saene, Hendrick K F van Saene
OBJECTIVES: Oropharyngeal overgrowth of microorganisms in the critically ill is a risk factor for lower respiratory tract infection and subsequent invasion of the bloodstream. Oral chlorhexidine has been used to prevent pneumonia, but its effect on bloodstream infection never has been assessed in meta-analyses. The authors explored the effect of oral chlorhexidine on the incidence of bloodstream infection, the causative microorganism, and on all-cause mortality in critically ill patients...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089444/health-care-associated-infections-in-neonates-children-and-adolescents-an-analysis-of-paediatric-data-from-the-european-centre-for-disease-prevention-and-control-point-prevalence-survey
#16
Walter Zingg, Susan Hopkins, Angèle Gayet-Ageron, Alison Holmes, Mike Sharland, Carl Suetens
BACKGROUND: In 2011-12, the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) held the first Europe-wide point-prevalence survey of health-care-associated infections in acute care hospitals. We analysed paediatric data from this survey, aiming to calculate the prevalence and type of health-care-associated infections in children and adolescents in Europe and to determine risk factors for infection in this population. METHODS: Point-prevalence surveys took place from May, 2011, to November, 2012, in 1149 hospitals in EU Member States, Iceland, Norway, and Croatia...
January 12, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089143/long-term-mortality-following-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-bloodstream-infection
#17
K L McCarthy, D L Paterson
BACKGROUND: Pseudomonas aeruginosa bloodstream infections (BSI) are associated with substantial short-term mortality. There is little data on long-term mortality associated with this BSI. AIM: To describe mortality rates up to one year post infection and the significant factors associated with death. METHODS: Positive blood cultures for P. aeruginosa were identified retrospectively from January 2008 to January 2011 at seven tertiary care hospitals...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089138/bloodstream-infections-in-children-caused-by-carbapenem-resistant-versus-carbapenem-susceptible-gram-negative-microorganisms-risk-factors-and-outcome
#18
Yasemin Ozsurekci, Kubra Aykac, Ali Bulent Cengiz, Sevgen Tanır Basaranoglu, Banu Sancak, Sevilay Karahan, Ates Kara, Mehmet Ceyhan
Carbapenems are often considered the last resort agents reserved for treatment of infections due to highly antimicrobial resistant organisms such as A. baumannii and P. aeruginosa. However, carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative (CRGN) pathogens have become much more prevalent in the last decade. The objective of this study was to determine risk factors for and outcome of bacteremia caused by Gram-negative microorganisms in a pediatric tertiary-care hospital. Among 97 patients with hospital-acquired Gram-negative bacteremia, 66 patients with carbapenem-susceptible Gram-negative pathogens (CSGN) were compared with the remaining 31 with CRGN isolates...
January 3, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087318/etiologies-of-community-onset-urinary-tract%C3%A2-infections-requiring-hospitalization-and%C3%A2-antimicrobial-susceptibilities-of%C3%A2-causative-microorganisms
#19
Chih-Chien Chiu, Tzu-Chao Lin, Rui-Xin Wu, Ya-Sung Yang, Po-Jen Hsiao, Yi Lee, Jung-Chung Lin, Feng-Yee Chang
BACKGROUND: Community-onset urinary tract infections (CoUTIs) are the most common bacterial infections, and a decline in antibiotic susceptibility causes many clinical challenges. Adequate empiric antibiotic treatment can decrease unnecessary hospital stays and complications, while reducing the antimicrobial resistance progression. METHODS: From October 2014 to April 2015, we retrospectively enrolled patients who were at least 18 years old and required hospitalization for CoUTIs...
December 18, 2016: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086793/methicillin-resistance-and-virulence-genes-in-invasive-and-nasal-staphylococcus-epidermidis-isolates-from-neonates
#20
Vivian Carolina Salgueiro, Natalia Lopes Pontes Iorio, Marcelle Cristina Ferreira, Raiane Cardoso Chamon, Kátia Regina Netto Dos Santos
BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus epidermidis is an opportunistic pathogen involved in hospital-acquired infections, particularly in those related to medical devices. This study characterized 50 genetically unrelated S. epidermidis isolates from bloodstream infections (BSIs, n = 31) and nares (n = 19) of neonates in relation to staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec (SCCmec) type, biofilm production and associated genes, and the arginine catabolic mobile elements (ACME), in order to detect virulence factors that could discriminate a potential invasiveness isolate or predict an increasing pathogenicity...
January 13, 2017: BMC Microbiology
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