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Pathological fractures in elderly

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163183/pharmacological-therapy-of-osteoporosis-a-systematic-current-review-of-literature
#1
REVIEW
Vito Pavone, Gianluca Testa, Serena M C Giardina, Andrea Vescio, Domenico A Restivo, Giuseppe Sessa
Osteoporosis is the most common bone disease affecting millions of people worldwide, particularly in elderly or in post-menopausal women. The pathogenesis is useful to understand the possible mechanism of action of anti-osteoporotic drugs. Early diagnosis, possible with several laboratory and instrumental tests, allows a major accuracy in the choice of anti-osteoporosis drugs. Treatment of osteoporosis is strictly related to severity of pathology and consists on prevention of fragility fractures with a correct lifestyle and adequate nutritional supplements, and use of pharmacological therapy, started in patients with osteopenia and history of fragility fracture of the hip or spine...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125120/canal-to-diaphysis-ratio-as-a-risk-factor-for-hip-fractures-and-hip-fracture-pattern
#2
Prasad Ellanti, Kunal Mohan, Andrew Moriarity, Niall Hogan, Tom McCarthy
INTRODUCTION: Osteoporosis and related fractures constitute a significant burden on modern healthcare. The standard method of diagnosing osteoporosis with a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan is limited by accessibility and expense. The thickness of the cortex of the proximal femur on plain radiographs has been suggested to be a method for indicating osteoporosis and as a risk factor of hip fractures in the elderly. METHODS: A retrospective study was undertaken to assess the usefulness of the canal-diaphysis ratio (CDR) as a risk factor for developing a hip fracture, excluding patients presenting under 50 years old, following high-energy trauma or pathological fractures...
2017: SICOT-J
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105945/role-of-bmi-and-age-in-predicting-pathologic-vertebral-fractures-in-newly-diagnosed-multiple-myeloma-patients-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#3
Yi-Lun Chen, Yao-Chung Liu, Chia-Hung Wu, Chiu-Mei Yeh, Hsun-I Chiu, Gin-Yi Lee, Yu-Ting Lee, Pei Hsu, Ting-Wei Lin, Jyh-Pyng Gau, Liang-Tsai Hsiao, Tzeon-Jye Chiou, Jin-Hwang Liu, Chia-Jen Liu
Vertebral fractures affect approximately 30% of myeloma patients and lead to a poor impact on survival and life quality. In general, age and body mass index (BMI) are reported to have an important role in vertebral fractures. However, the triangle relationship among age, BMI, and vertebral fractures is still unclear in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (NDMM) patients. This study recruited consecutive 394 patients with NDMM at Taipei Veterans General Hospital between January 1, 2005 and December 31, 2015. Risk factors for vertebral fractures in NDMM patients were collected and analyzed...
November 6, 2017: Hematological Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974906/alzheimer-s-disease-and-osteoporosis
#4
REVIEW
Yu-Hung Chen, Raymond Y Lo
Alzheimer's disease (AD) and osteoporosis are both common degenerative diseases in the elderly population. The incidence of both diseases increases with age and will be posing enormous societal burden worldwide. It may appear that AD and osteoporosis are two distinct diseases although many risk factors are shared. Previous observational studies have shown that patients with osteoporosis have higher risks of developing AD than those who do not have osteoporosis. Although osteoporosis, falls, and fractures are more often seen in patients with AD than other older adults, the association between these two diseases may be due to a pathophysiological link rather than one condition causing the other...
July 2017: Ci Ji Yi Xue za Zhi, Tzu-chi Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950817/specific-patient-features-affect-antiepileptic-drug-therapy-decisions-focus-on-gender-age-and-psychiatric-comorbidities
#5
Pisani Laura Rosa, Nikanorova Marina, Johannessen Landmark Cecilie, Johannessen Svein Ivar, Pisani Francesco
BACKGROUND: Patient features, apart from the type of seizues/epilepsy, affect markedly antiepileptic drug (AED) choice and dosage. The present review focuses on gender, age and psychiatric comorbidities which play a leading role in influencing antiepileptic treatment. METHODS: Reviews with large population of patients, controlled clinical trials, observational investigations, experimental studies and experimental reviews of experimental data, where appropriated, were analysed and illustrated to produce the most homogeneous indications possible...
September 25, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852954/pressure-ulcers-are-associated-with-6-month-mortality-in-elderly-patients-with-hip-fracture-managed-in-orthogeriatric-care-pathway
#6
Emmanuelle Magny, Helene Vallet, Judith Cohen-Bittan, Mathieu Raux, Antony Meziere, Marc Verny, Bruno Riou, Frédéric Khiami, Jacques Boddaert
Despite orthogeriatric management, 12% of the elderly experienced PUs after hip fracture surgery. PUs were significantly associated with a low albumin level, history of atrial fibrillation coronary artery disease, and diabetes. The risk ratio of death at 6 months associated with pressure ulcer was 2.38 (95% CI 1.31-4.32%, p = 0.044). INTRODUCTION: Pressure ulcers in hip fracture patients are frequent and associated with a poor outcome. An orthogeriatric management, recommended by international guidelines in hip fracture patients and including pressure ulcer prevention and treatment, could influence causes and consequences of pressure ulcer...
August 29, 2017: Archives of Osteoporosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737666/the-role-of-aopp-in-age-related-bone-loss-and-the-potential-benefits-of-berry-anthocyanins
#7
REVIEW
Melissa M Melough, Xin Sun, Ock K Chun
Age-related bone loss is a major factor in osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures among the elderly. Because bone homeostasis involves a balance between bone formation and resorption, multiple mechanisms may induce age-dependent changes in bone. Oxidative stress is one such factor that contributes to the pathology of aging-associated osteoporosis (AAO). Advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) are a biomarker of oxidant-mediated protein damage, and can also act to increase the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), thereby perpetuating oxidative damage...
July 22, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733846/implementation-of-a-standardized-protocol-to-manage-elderly-patients-with-low-energy-pelvic-fractures-can-service-improvement-be-expected
#8
Nikolaos K Kanakaris, Tess Greven, Robert M West, Arie B Van Vugt, Peter V Giannoudis
PURPOSE: The incidence of low energy pelvic fractures (FPFs) in the elderly is increasing. Comorbidities, decreased bone-quality, problematic fracture fixation and poor compliance represent some of their specific difficulties. In the absence of uniform management, a standard operating procedure (SOP) was introduced to our unit, aiming to improve the quality of services provided to these patients. METHODS: A cohort study was contacted to test the impact of (1) using a specific clinical algorithm and (2) using different antiosteoporotic drugs...
September 2017: International Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567345/dementia-and-osteoporosis-in-a-geriatric-population-is-there-a-common-link
#9
Candice L Downey, Adam Young, Emily F Burton, Simon M Graham, Robert J Macfarlane, Eva-Maria Tsapakis, Eleftherios Tsiridis
AIM: To determine the existence of a common pathological link between dementia and osteoporosis through reviewing the current evidence base. METHODS: This paper reviews the current literature on osteoporosis and dementia in order to ascertain evidence of a common predisposing aetiology. A literature search of Ovid MED-LINE (1950 to June 2016) was conducted. The keywords "osteoporosis", "osteoporotic fracture", "dementia" and "Alzheimer's disease" (AD) were used to determine the theoretical links with the most significant evidence base behind them...
May 18, 2017: World Journal of Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539168/effectiveness-of-nutritional-supplementation-on-sarcopenia-and-recovery-in-hip-fracture-patients-a-multi-centre-randomized-trial
#10
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Vincenzo Malafarina, Francisco Uriz-Otano, Concetta Malafarina, J Alfredo Martinez, M Angeles Zulet
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Functional deterioration and reduced mobility in elderly patients with a hip fracture are associated with a loss of both muscle mass and function (sarcopenia). The aim of this study was to assess whether oral nutritional supplementation (ONS) improves muscle mass and nutritional markers (BMI, proteins) in elderly patients with hip fracture. METHODS: Patients aged 65 years and over with hip fractures admitted to either of two rehabilitation facilities were included...
July 2017: Maturitas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331300/dementia-and-delirium-the-outcomes-in-elderly-hip-fracture-patients
#11
Christina A Mosk, Marnix Mus, Jos Pam Vroemen, Tjeerd van der Ploeg, Dagmar I Vos, Leon Hgj Elmans, Lijckle van der Laan
BACKGROUND: Delirium in hip fractured patients is a frequent complication. Dementia is an important risk factor for delirium and is common in frail elderly. This study aimed to extend the previous knowledge on risk factors for delirium and the consequences. Special attention was given to patients with dementia and delirium. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study performed in the Amphia Hospital, Breda, the Netherlands. A full electronic patient file system (Hyperspace Version IU4: Epic, Inc...
2017: Clinical Interventions in Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214261/chemotherapy-in-primary-osteogenic-sarcoma-in-patients-over-the-age-of-forty
#12
Bulent Ozkurt, Kerem Basarir, Bulent Yalcin, Abdullah Merter, Yusuf Yildiz, Yener Saglik
OBJECTIVE: In this study, we sought to review the clinical and histopathological features and the chemotherapy regimens in osteogenic sarcoma in patients over 40 years of age, and we aimed at identifying the possible prognostic factors in this particular group of patients. METHODS: We reviewed 287 patients with osteosarcoma treated between the year 1986 and 2010. Patients from this group who met the following criteria were considered eligible for our study; presence of primary OS, had typical histological and radiographic features of OS, no prior history of cancer or any treatment elsewhere and no prior history of preexisting bone abnormalities...
February 14, 2017: Acta Orthopaedica et Traumatologica Turcica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102163/does-mobility-of-the-elderly-with-hip-fractures-improve-at-one-year-following-surgery-a-5-year-prospective-survey
#13
Babak Pourabbas, Mohammad Jafar Emami, Amir Reza Vosoughi, Hamid Namazi
BACKGROUND: Hip fracture and its consequences are one of the major causes of morbidity and disability in the elderly. The purpose of this study was to collect epidemiologic data and assess the daily activities and walking ability of patients 3 months and 1 year following surgery because of a hip fracture. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We prospectively obtained data of all consecutive patients more than 50 years of age with any type of hip fracture from 2008 to 2013. After excluding pathologic fractures, hip fracture dislocations, non-surgically treated cases, and dead patients, functional status of the subjects at 3 months and 1 year after surgery was evaluated using a 10-degree scale of pain, modified Barthel index of daily activity, and independent walking ability...
August 30, 2016: Ortopedia, Traumatologia, Rehabilitacja
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026728/-influence-of-the-weather-on-the-incidence-of-fractures-in-the-elderly
#14
F Burget, O Foltán, J Kraus, K Kudrna, M Novák, J Ulrych
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The incidence of geriatric fractures (proximal femur, distal radius, proximal humerus and thoracolumbar spine injuries) in the population increases with ageing. However, the role of weather conditions, such as icy and slippery winter, should not be overlooked. A deeper insight into this relationship may bring about a better understanding of the fracture aetiology and thus allow for improvement in the prevention of fractures in elderly people. MATERIAL AND METHODS This prospective study included 676 patients (469 women and 207 men) aged 65 and over...
2016: Acta Chirurgiae Orthopaedicae et Traumatologiae Cechoslovaca
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920803/bone-pain-mechanism-in-osteoporosis-a-narrative-review
#15
REVIEW
Consalvo Mattia, Flaminia Coluzzi, Ludovica Celidonio, Renato Vellucci
Bone pain in elderly people dramatically affects their quality of life, with osteoporosis being the leading cause of skeletal related events. Peripheral and central mechanisms are involved in the pathogenesis of the nervous system sensitization. Osteoporosis in the elderly has been associated with increased density of bone sensory nerve fibers and their pathological modifications, together with an over-expression of nociceptors sensitized by the lowering pH due to the osteoclastic activity. The activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors and the microglia, as a response to a range of pathological conditions, represent the leading cause of central sensitization...
May 2016: Clinical Cases in Mineral and Bone Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908253/assessment-of-bone-quality-in-osteoporosis-treatment-with-bone-anabolic-agents-really-something-new
#16
Fabio Massimo Ulivieri, Renata Caudarella, Marzia Camisasca, Daniela Maria Cabrini, Ilaria Merli, Carmelo Messina, Luca Petruccio Piodi
Osteoporosis is a chronic pathologic condition, particularly of the elderly, in which a reduction of bone mineral density (BMD) weakens bone, leading to the so-called fragility fractures, most often of spine and femur. The gold standard exam for the quantitative measurement of BMD is the dual X-ray photon absorptiometry (DXA), a radiological method. However, a relevant number of fragility fractures occurs in the range of normal BMD values, meaning that also qualitative aspects of bone play a role, namely bone architecture and bone geometry...
December 1, 2016: Current Rheumatology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890439/a-japanese-nationwide-multicenter-survey-on-perioperative-complications-of-corrective-fusion-for-elderly-patients-with-adult-spinal-deformity
#17
Yu Yamato, Yukihiro Matsuyama, Kazuhiro Hasegawa, Yoichi Aota, Tsutomu Akazawa, Takahiro Iida, Kazumasa Ueyama, Koki Uno, Tokumi Kanemura, Noriaki Kawakami, Toshiaki Kotani, Masashi Takaso, Jun Takahashi, Masato Tanaka, Hiroshi Taneichi, Taichi Tsuji, Hideo Hosoe, Joji Mochida, Takachika Shimizu, Ikuho Yonezawa, Kota Watanabe, Morio Matsumoto
BACKGROUND: Recently, corrective fusion surgery for patients with adult spinal deformity (ASD) has become common in Japan. This study aimed to clarify the status of surgeries for ASD in Japan, focusing on perioperative complications. A nationwide multicenter survey gathering information on surgically treated ASD patients was conducted by the committee for Adult Spinal Deformity of the Japanese Scoliosis Society. METHODS: This study was a review of retrospectively collected data from 18 spine scoliosis centers belonging to the Japanese Scoliosis Society...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Science: Official Journal of the Japanese Orthopaedic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867823/the-burden-of-metastatic-disease-of-the-femur-on-the-medicare-system
#18
Kirollos Gendi, David Hennessy, John Heiner
BACKGROUND: In the United States, over 1,650,000 new cases of cancer are being diagnosed yearly with almost 50 % of them being the top five bone-seeking cancers. Since cancer risk increases with age, this suggests that orthopedic oncology services may be a strain on the Medicare system. The femur is the most common site of long bone metastases. Prophylactic fixation techniques prevent pathologic fractures, reduce morbidities, and enhance the quality of life of patients with femoral metastases...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818982/total-hip-arthroplasty-complications-in-patients-with-or-without-controlled-diabetes-mellitus-during-hospitalization
#19
Fernanda Rezende Campos Falcão, Bruno Anderson Gomes Dias, Liz Araujo Wolfovitch, David Sadigursky
INTRODUCTION: Total hip arthroplasty (THA) is a procedure that aims to restore the function of the hip joint. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the most prevalent comorbidities among patients undergoing THA. DM involves various immunological and metabolic aspects, which lead to limitations and surgical complications. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between THA complications and controlled DM during hospitalization period. METHODS: Cross-sectional research through the analysis of retrospective records of a private hospital in Salvador, Bahia...
September 2016: Revista Brasileira de Ortopedia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771603/atraumatic-diplaced-bilateral-femoral-neck-fracture-in-a-patient-with-hypophosphatemic-rickets-in-postpartum-period-a-missed-diagnosis
#20
Erdal Uzun, Ali Eray Günay, Turan Bilge Kızkapan, Mahmut Mutlu
INTRODUCTION: Simultaneous bilateral femoral neck fracture is an uncommon condition. There are very few cases reported in the literature and most of these cases have underlying bone pathologies such as renal osteodystrophy and osteomalacia. In some cases bilateral femoral neck fractures occur due to generalized seizures or high-energy trauma. PRESENTATION OF CASE: In this case report "atraumatic bilateral femoral neck fracture in a 26year old woman in postpartum period with hypophosphatemic rickets disease" is presented...
2016: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
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