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Pathological fractures in elderly

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920803/bone-pain-mechanism-in-osteoporosis-a-narrative-review
#1
REVIEW
Consalvo Mattia, Flaminia Coluzzi, Ludovica Celidonio, Renato Vellucci
Bone pain in elderly people dramatically affects their quality of life, with osteoporosis being the leading cause of skeletal related events. Peripheral and central mechanisms are involved in the pathogenesis of the nervous system sensitization. Osteoporosis in the elderly has been associated with increased density of bone sensory nerve fibers and their pathological modifications, together with an over-expression of nociceptors sensitized by the lowering pH due to the osteoclastic activity. The activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors and the microglia, as a response to a range of pathological conditions, represent the leading cause of central sensitization...
May 2016: Clinical Cases in Mineral and Bone Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908253/assessment-of-bone-quality-in-osteoporosis-treatment-with-bone-anabolic-agents-really-something-new
#2
Fabio Massimo Ulivieri, Renata Caudarella, Marzia Camisasca, Daniela Maria Cabrini, Ilaria Merli, Carmelo Messina, Luca Petruccio Piodi
Osteoporosis is a chronic pathologic condition, particularly of the elderly, in which a reduction of bone mineral density (BMD) weakens bone, leading to the so-called fragility fractures, most often of spine and femur. The gold standard exam for the quantitative measurement of BMD is the dual X-ray photon absorptiometry (DXA), a radiological method. However, a relevant number of fragility fractures occurs in the range of normal BMD values, meaning that also qualitative aspects of bone play a role, namely bone architecture and bone geometry...
December 1, 2016: Current Rheumatology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890439/a-japanese-nationwide-multicenter-survey-on-perioperative-complications-of-corrective-fusion-for-elderly-patients-with-adult-spinal-deformity
#3
Yu Yamato, Yukihiro Matsuyama, Kazuhiro Hasegawa, Yoichi Aota, Tsutomu Akazawa, Takahiro Iida, Kazumasa Ueyama, Koki Uno, Tokumi Kanemura, Noriaki Kawakami, Toshiaki Kotani, Masashi Takaso, Jun Takahashi, Masato Tanaka, Hiroshi Taneichi, Taichi Tsuji, Hideo Hosoe, Joji Mochida, Takachika Shimizu, Ikuho Yonezawa, Kota Watanabe, Morio Matsumoto
BACKGROUND: Recently, corrective fusion surgery for patients with adult spinal deformity (ASD) has become common in Japan. This study aimed to clarify the status of surgeries for ASD in Japan, focusing on perioperative complications. A nationwide multicenter survey gathering information on surgically treated ASD patients was conducted by the committee for Adult Spinal Deformity of the Japanese Scoliosis Society. METHODS: This study was a review of retrospectively collected data from 18 spine scoliosis centers belonging to the Japanese Scoliosis Society...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Science: Official Journal of the Japanese Orthopaedic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867823/the-burden-of-metastatic-disease-of-the-femur-on-the-medicare-system
#4
Kirollos Gendi, David Hennessy, John Heiner
BACKGROUND: In the United States, over 1,650,000 new cases of cancer are being diagnosed yearly with almost 50 % of them being the top five bone-seeking cancers. Since cancer risk increases with age, this suggests that orthopedic oncology services may be a strain on the Medicare system. The femur is the most common site of long bone metastases. Prophylactic fixation techniques prevent pathologic fractures, reduce morbidities, and enhance the quality of life of patients with femoral metastases...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818982/total-hip-arthroplasty-complications-in-patients-with-or-without-controlled-diabetes-mellitus-during-hospitalization
#5
Fernanda Rezende Campos Falcão, Bruno Anderson Gomes Dias, Liz Araujo Wolfovitch, David Sadigursky
INTRODUCTION: Total hip arthroplasty (THA) is a procedure that aims to restore the function of the hip joint. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the most prevalent comorbidities among patients undergoing THA. DM involves various immunological and metabolic aspects, which lead to limitations and surgical complications. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between THA complications and controlled DM during hospitalization period. METHODS: Cross-sectional research through the analysis of retrospective records of a private hospital in Salvador, Bahia...
September 2016: Revista Brasileira de Ortopedia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771603/atraumatic-diplaced-bilateral-femoral-neck-fracture-in-a-patient-with-hypophosphatemic-rickets-in-postpartum-period-a-missed-diagnosis
#6
Erdal Uzun, Ali Eray Günay, Turan Bilge Kızkapan, Mahmut Mutlu
INTRODUCTION: Simultaneous bilateral femoral neck fracture is an uncommon condition. There are very few cases reported in the literature and most of these cases have underlying bone pathologies such as renal osteodystrophy and osteomalacia. In some cases bilateral femoral neck fractures occur due to generalized seizures or high-energy trauma. PRESENTATION OF CASE: In this case report "atraumatic bilateral femoral neck fracture in a 26year old woman in postpartum period with hypophosphatemic rickets disease" is presented...
October 17, 2016: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27763962/the-role-of-radiographs-and-office-visits-in-the-follow-up-of-healed-intertrochanteric-hip-fractures-an-economic-analysis
#7
Harish Kempegowda, Raveesh Richard, Amrut Borade, Akhil Tawari, Abby M Howenstein, Erik N Kubiak, Michael Suk, Daniel S Horwitz
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role and the necessity of radiographs and office visits obtained during follow-up of intertrochanteric hip injuries. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: Two level I trauma centers. PATIENTS: Four hundred sixty-five elderly patients who were surgically treated for an intertrochanteric fracture of the femur at 2 level I trauma centers between January 2009 and August 2014 were retrospectively identified from orthopaedic trauma databases...
December 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27730756/risk-of-skeletal-related-events-among-elderly-prostate-cancer-patients-by-site-of-metastasis-at-diagnosis
#8
Arif Hussain, Abdalla Aly, C Daniel Mullins, Yi Qian, Jorge Arellano, Eberechukwu Onukwugha
The purpose of this study was to estimate the risk of developing skeletal-related events (SREs) based on site of metastasis at diagnosis and identify other predictors of developing SREs among metastatic prostate cancer patients. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using linked SEER (Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results) and Medicare data and identified men over the age of 65 with incident metastatic prostate cancer diagnosed during 2005-2009. SREs included radiation (RAD), pathological fractures (PF), bone surgery (BS), and spinal cord compression (SCC)...
November 2016: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27576301/hip-fractures-in-the-elderly-a-clinical-anatomy-review
#9
Peter G Collin, Anthony V D'Antoni, Marios Loukas, Rod J Oskouian, R Shane Tubbs
As elderly populations rise worldwide, the amount of hip fractures have continued to increase and result in substantial medical burdens in many countries. This increase goes hand-in-hand with an increase in surgical procedures to correct hip fractures. The medical burden imparted by hip fractures and their corrective surgeries necessitate a clinically relevant understanding of the hip joint including the vascular, neural and musculoskeletal structures directly associated with and neighboring the joint. It is critical to appreciate how the normal hip anatomy is disrupted by a fracture and how this disruption is heavily influenced by the fracture's location...
August 31, 2016: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27560007/five-common-clinical-presentations-in-the-elderly-an-anatomical-review
#10
Peter G Collin, Rod J Oskouian, Marios Loukas, Anthony V D'Antoni, R Shane Tubbs
Elderly patients face distinct health challenges and have an increased demand for specific medical procedures. As the aging population continues to increase, age-associated conditions such as congestive heart failure, hip fractures, spine degeneration, dementia and airway compromise will increase in prevalence and procedures to correct these conditions will be increasingly performed. A clear understanding of the clinical anatomy of these diseases and procedures is imperative for anatomists and clinicians alike in order to best treat patients and continue to advance aging research and better teach future medical practitioners about the specific anatomy often involved in this group...
August 25, 2016: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27437316/outcome-analysis-of-hemiarthroplasty-vs-total-hip-replacement-in-displaced-femoral-neck-fractures-in-the-elderly
#11
Vipin Sharma, Bhanu Awasthi, Krishna Kumar, Navneet Kohli, Punit Katoch
INTRODUCTION: Management of displaced fracture neck femur in the elderly population is frequently done by Hemiarthroplasty or Total Hip Replacement (THR). It avoids high rates of nonunion and avascular necrosis which usually occur after internal fixation of neck femur fractures in this age group. AIM: The present study aimed to evaluate patient function and complications following hemiarthroplasty and total hip replacement in elderly population with displaced femoral neck fractures...
May 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27366952/-surgical-treatment-of-acetabulum-fractures-with-a-new-acetabulum-butterfly-plate
#12
A Schäffler, T Freude, F Stuby, D Höntzsch, J Veltkamp, U Stöckle, B König
Introduction: There have been significant increases in the number of acetabular fractures in elderly patients with primarily ventral pathology and medial protrusion of the femoral head. We have developed the "acetabulum wing plate", which is designed to facilitate repositioning, with its anatomically precontoured structure, and which offers full support of the quadrilateral surface, thus counteracting the force of the femoral head pushing inwards. Conventional plate osteosynthesis only provides insufficient support to the medial surface...
October 2016: Zeitschrift Für Orthopädie und Unfallchirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27340538/sacral-insufficiency-fractures-mimicking-lumbar-spine-pathology
#13
G Sudhir, Kalra K L, Shankar Acharya, Rupinder Chahal
Sacral insufficiency fractures (SIFs) are a common cause of back pain in the elderly. SIFs mimic the symptoms of lumbar spine pathology and so are commonly missed or underdiagnosed. Here we present four cases of missed SIFs that were subsequently identified and treated. One patient was treated as mechanical lower back ache, another patient underwent root block and two patients underwent surgery for lumbar canal stenosis. None experienced relief of their symptoms after these procedures. Retrospective analysis of X-ray and magnetic resonance imaging data revealed SIFs that were confirmed by computed tomography scans...
June 2016: Asian Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27334350/pelvic-insufficiency-fractures-in-women-following-radiation-treatment-a-case-series
#14
Stephanie Chan, Leigha Rowbottom, Rachel McDonald, Elizabeth David, Hans Chung, Albert Yee, Angela Turner, Edward Chow
Insufficiency fractures are stress fractures that occur from normal weight-bearing on weakened bone. Radiation treatment to malignancies in the prostate, rectum, anus, or cervix may increase the risk of insufficiency fractures in the pelvic region by damaging osteoblasts that are essential to bone formation. In elderly women with cancer, this risk is greater due to their susceptibility to developing osteoporosis. These fractures may be confused with pathological fractures resulting from bone metastases on imaging and should be identified for proper management...
July 2016: Annals of Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27312863/physiological-and-pathophysiological-bone-turnover-role-of-the-immune-system
#15
REVIEW
M Neale Weitzmann, Ighovwerha Ofotokun
Osteoporosis develops when the rate of osteoclastic bone breakdown (resorption) exceeds that of osteoblastic bone formation, which leads to loss of BMD and deterioration of bone structure and strength. Osteoporosis increases the risk of fragility fractures, a cause of substantial morbidity and mortality, especially in elderly patients. This imbalance between bone formation and bone resorption is brought about by natural ageing processes, but is frequently exacerbated by a number of pathological conditions. Of importance to the aetiology of osteoporosis are findings over the past two decades attesting to a deep integration of the skeletal system with the immune system (the immuno-skeletal interface (ISI))...
September 2016: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27072511/epidemiology-and-patho-anatomical-pattern-of-2-011-humeral-fractures-data-from-the-swedish-fracture-register
#16
Carl Bergdahl, Carl Ekholm, David Wennergren, Filip Nilsson, Michael Möller
BACKGROUND: Humeral fractures are common, but the association between the patho-anatomical fracture pattern and patient characteristics has been inadequately studied and epidemiological knowledge is scarce. Following the introduction of the Swedish Fracture Register (SFR), risk factors for various fractures can be studied, as well as the outcome of different treatments. The objective of this study was to analyse adult humeral fractures in Gothenburg from a descriptive epidemiological perspective...
2016: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27049195/treating-the-aging-spine
#17
Theodore J Choma, Glenn Rechtine, Robert A McGuire, Darrel S Brodke
Demographic trends make it incumbent on orthopaedic spine surgeons to recognize the special challenges involved in caring for older patients with spine pathology. Unique pathologies, such as osteoporosis and degenerative deformities, must be recognized and treated. Recent treatment options and recommendations for the medical optimization of bone health include vitamin D and calcium supplementation, diphosphonates, and teriparatide. Optimizing spinal fixation in elderly patients who have osteoporosis is critical; cement augmentation of pedicle screws is promising...
2016: Instructional Course Lectures
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27049188/emerging-indications-for-reverse-shoulder-arthroplasty
#18
Ekaterina Urch, Joshua S Dines, David M Dines
Historically, reverse shoulder arthroplasty was reserved for older, low-demand patients in whom rotator cuff arthropathy was diagnosed. Other common indications included sequelae of previously treated proximal humerus fractures, failed anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty, tumor resection, and rheumatoid arthritis in the elderly population. Unpredictable implant durability and high complication rates have limited the use of reverse shoulder arthroplasty to a narrow group of patients. Over the past decade, however, research has led to an improved understanding of the biomechanics behind reverse shoulder prostheses, which has improved implant design and surgical techniques...
2016: Instructional Course Lectures
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26993257/imaging-of-occult-hip-fractures-ct-or-mri
#19
Haroon Rehman, Rhys G E Clement, Fergus Perks, Timothy O White
OBJECTIVES: Patients presenting with hip pain but normal plain radiographs may ultimately be shown on further investigation to have suffered an occult hip fracture (OHF). This diagnosis can be made with CT or MRI. Traditionally MRI has been considered a superior modality. We performed a retrospective review of all patients presenting to our service with a suspected OHF over a four-year period, investigated with either CT or MRI. DESIGN: Retrospective review. SETTING: Urban trauma centre...
June 2016: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26969773/serum-free-light-chain-assays-not-total-light-chain-assays-are-the-standard-of-care-to-assess-monoclonal-gammopathies
#20
Vania Tietsche de Moraes Hungria, Syreeta Allen, Petros Kampanis, Elyara Maria Soares
The diagnosis of Multiple Myeloma is a challenge to the physician due to the non-specific symptoms (anemia, bone pain and recurrent infections) that are commonplace in the elderly population. However, early diagnosis is associated with less severe disease, including fewer patients presenting with acute renal injury, pathological fractures and severe anemia. Since 2006, the serum free light chain test Freelite(®) has been included alongside standard laboratory tests (serum and urine protein electrophoresis, and serum and urine immunofixation) as an aid in the identification of monoclonal proteins, which are a cornerstone for the diagnosis of Multiple Myeloma...
January 2016: Revista Brasileira de Hematologia e Hemoterapia
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