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Sophie Front, Anna Biela-Banaś, Patricie Burda, Diana Ballhausen, Katsumi Higaki, Anna Caciotti, Amelia Morrone, Julie Charollais-Thoenig, Estelle Gallienne, Stéphane Demotz, Olivier R Martin
This report is about the identification, synthesis and initial biological characterization of derivatives of 4-epi-isofagomine as pharmacological chaperones (PC) for human lysosomal β-galactosidase. The two epimers of 4-epi-isofagomine carrying a pentyl group at C-5a, namely (5aR)- and (5aS)-5a-C-pentyl-4-epi-isofagomine, were prepared by an innovative procedure involving in the key step the addition of nitrohexane to a keto-pentopyranoside. Both epimers were evaluated as inhibitors of the human β-galactosidase: the (5aR)-stereoisomer (compound 1) was found to be a very potent inhibitor of the enzyme (IC50 = 8 nM, 30× more potent than 4-epi-isofagomine at pH 7...
September 29, 2016: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Kishore R Kumar, G M Wali, Mahesh Kamate, Gautam Wali, André E Minoche, Clare Puttick, Mark Pinese, Velimir Gayevskiy, Marcel E Dinger, Tony Roscioli, Carolyn M Sue, Mark J Cowley
We performed whole genome sequencing (WGS) in nine families from India with early-onset hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP). We obtained a genetic diagnosis in 4/9 (44 %) families within known HSP genes (DDHD2 and CYP2U1), as well as perixosomal biogenesis disorders (PEX16) and GM1 gangliosidosis (GLB1). In the remaining patients, no candidate structural variants, copy number variants or predicted splice variants affecting an extended candidate gene list were identified. Our findings demonstrate the efficacy of using WGS for diagnosing early-onset HSP, particularly in consanguineous families (4/6 diagnosed), highlighting that two of the diagnoses would not have been made using a targeted approach...
October 2016: Neurogenetics
Cheryl A Lawson, Douglas R Martin
GM2 gangliosidosis, a subset of lysosomal storage disorders, is caused by a deficiency of the glycohydrolase, β-N-acetylhexosaminidase, and includes the closely related Tay-Sachs and Sandhoff diseases. The enzyme deficiency prevents the normal, stepwise degradation of ganglioside, which accumulates unchecked within the cellular lysosome, particularly in neurons. As a result, individuals with GM2 gangliosidosis experience progressive neurological diseases including motor deficits, progressive weakness and hypotonia, decreased responsiveness, vision deterioration, and seizures...
2016: Application of Clinical Genetics
Debra S Regier, Richard L Proia, Alessandra D'Azzo, Cynthia J Tifft
The gangliosidoses are lysosomal storage disorders caused by accumulation of GM1 or GM2 gangliosides. GM1 gangliosidosis has both central nervous system and systemic findings; while, GM2 gangliosidosis is restricted primarily to the central nervous system. Both disorders have autosomal recessive modes of inheritance and a continuum of clinical presentations from a severe infantile form to a milder, chronic adult form. Both are devastating diseases without cure or specific treatment however, with the use of supportive aggressive medical management, the lifespan and quality of life has been extended for both diseases...
June 2016: Pediatric Endocrinology Reviews: PER
Katarzyna A Ellsworth, Laura M Pollard, Sara Cathey, Tim Wood
Keratan sulfate (KS) is commonly elevated in urine samples from patients with mucopolysaccharidosis type IVA (MPS IVA) and is considered pathognomonic for the condition. Recently, a new method has been described by Martell et al. to detect and measure urinary KS utilizing LC-MS/MS. As a part of the validation of this method in our laboratory, we studied the sensitivity and specificity of elevated urine KS levels using 25 samples from 15 MPS IVA patients, and 138 samples from 102 patients with other lysosomal storage disorders, including MPS I (n = 9), MPS II (n = 13), MPS III (n = 23), MPS VI (n = 7), beta-galactosidase deficiency (n = 7), mucolipidosis (ML) type II, II/III and III (n = 51), alpha-mannosidosis (n = 11), fucosidosis (n = 4), sialidosis (n = 5), Pompe disease (n = 3), aspartylglucosaminuria (n = 4), and galactosialidosis (n = 1)...
July 28, 2016: JIMD Reports
Zoran Gucev, Velibor Tasic, Momir Polenakovic
The 4th meeting on rare diseases in South Eastern Europe (SEE) was held in Skopje, at the Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts (MASA) on the 14(th) of November 2015. The focuses were metabolic, rare brain diseases as well as the rare dysmorphic syndrome. The authors of the report are particularly keen on stating that one of the main goals of the meeting, namely to help the treatment of patients with rare disease has begun to bear fruits. The talk on an iminosugar-based pharmacological chaperone compound as a drug candidate for the treatment of GM1-gangliosidosis and mucopolysaccharidosis IVB (Morquio disease type B) was enlightening...
2015: Prilozi (Makedonska Akademija Na Naukite i Umetnostite. Oddelenie za Medicinski Nauki)
Jayesh Sheth, Chaitanya Datar, Mehul Mistri, Riddhi Bhavsar, Frenny Sheth, Krati Shah
BACKGROUND: GM2 gangliosidosis-AB variants a rare autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder occurring due to deficiency of GM2 activator protein resulting from the mutation in GM2A gene. Only seven mutations in nine cases have been reported from different population except India. CASE PRESENTATION: Present case is a one year old male born to 3rd degree consanguineous Indian parents from Maharashtra. He was presented with global developmental delay, hypotonia and sensitive to hyperacusis...
2016: BMC Pediatrics
Karlaina J L Osmon, Evan Woodley, Patrick Thompson, Katalina Ong, Subha Karumuthil-Melethil, John G Keimel, Brian L Mark, Don Mahuran, Steven J Gray, Jagdeep S Walia
GM2 gangliosidosis is a group of neurodegenerative diseases caused by β-hexosaminidase A (HexA) enzyme deficiency. There is currently no cure. HexA is composed of two similar, nonidentical subunits, α and β, which must interact with the GM2 activator protein (GM2AP), a substrate-specific cofactor, to hydrolyze GM2 ganglioside. Mutations in either subunit or the activator can result in the accumulation of GM2 ganglioside within neurons throughout the central nervous system. The resulting neuronal cell death induces the primary symptoms of the disease: motor impairment, seizures, and sensory impairments...
July 2016: Human Gene Therapy
Subha Karumuthil-Melethil, Sahana Nagabhushan Kalburgi, Patrick Thompson, Michael Tropak, Michael D Kaytor, John G Keimel, Brian L Mark, Don Mahuran, Jagdeep S Walia, Steven J Gray
GM2 gangliosidosis is a family of three genetic neurodegenerative disorders caused by the accumulation of GM2 ganglioside (GM2) in neuronal tissue. Two of these are due to the deficiency of the heterodimeric (α-β), "A" isoenzyme of lysosomal β-hexosaminidase (HexA). Mutations in the α-subunit (encoded by HEXA) lead to Tay-Sachs disease (TSD), whereas mutations in the β-subunit (encoded by HEXB) lead to Sandhoff disease (SD). The third form results from a deficiency of the GM2 activator protein (GM2AP), a substrate-specific cofactor for HexA...
July 2016: Human Gene Therapy
Xenia Kaidonis, Sharon Byers, Enzo Ranieri, Peter Sharp, Janice Fletcher, Ainslie Derrick-Roberts
UNLABELLED: Mucopolysaccharidosis IIIA is a heritable neurodegenerative disorder resulting from the dysfunction of the lysosomal hydrolase sulphamidase. This leads to the primary accumulation of the complex carbohydrate heparan sulphate in a wide range of tissues and the secondary neuronal storage of gangliosides GM2 and GM3 in the brain. GM2 storage is associated with CNS deterioration in the GM2 gangliosidosis group of lysosomal storage disorders and may also contribute to MPS CNS disease...
June 2016: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
Martin Thonhofer, Patrick Weber, Andres Gonzalez Santana, Christina Tysoe, Roland Fischer, Bettina M Pabst, Eduard Paschke, Michael Schalli, Arnold E Stütz, Marion Tschernutter, Werner Windischhofer, Stephen G Withers
From an easily available partially protected analog of 1-deoxy-L-gulo-nojirimycin, by chain-branching at C-4 and suitable modification, lipophilic analogs of the powerful β-D-galactosidase inhibitor 4-epi-isofagomine have been prepared. New compounds exhibit considerably improved inhibitory activities when compared with the unsubstituted parent compound and may serve as leads toward new pharmacological chaperones for GM1-gangliosidosis and Morquio B disease.
June 24, 2016: Carbohydrate Research
Elena M Sánchez-Fernández, José M García Fernández, Carmen Ortiz Mellet
Lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs) are often caused by mutations that destabilize native folding and impair the trafficking of enzymes, leading to premature endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation, deficiencies of specific hydrolytic functions and aberrant storage of metabolites in the lysosomes. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) and substrate reduction therapy (SRT) are available for a few of these conditions, but most remain orphan. A main difficulty is that virtually all LSDs involve neurological decline and neither proteins nor the current SRT drugs can cross the blood-brain barrier...
April 25, 2016: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Moeko Kohyama, Akira Yabuki, Kenji Ochiai, Yuya Nakamoto, Kazuyuki Uchida, Daisuke Hasegawa, Kimimasa Takahashi, Hiroaki Kawaguchi, Masaya Tsuboi, Osamu Yamato
BACKGROUND: GM1 and GM2 gangliosidoses are progressive neurodegenerative lysosomal storage diseases resulting from the excessive accumulation of GM1 and GM2 gangliosides in the lysosomes, respectively. The diagnosis of gangliosidosis is carried out based on comprehensive findings using various types of specimens for histological, ultrastructural, biochemical and genetic analyses. Therefore, the partial absence or lack of specimens might have resulted in many undiagnosed cases. The aim of the present study was to establish immunohistochemical and immunofluorescent techniques for the auxiliary diagnosis of canine and feline gangliosidoses, using paraffin-embedded brain specimens stored for a long period...
2016: BMC Veterinary Research
Keisuke Kitakaze, Yasumichi Mizutani, Eiji Sugiyama, Chikako Tasaki, Daisuke Tsuji, Nobuo Maita, Takatsugu Hirokawa, Daisuke Asanuma, Mako Kamiya, Kohei Sato, Mitsutoshi Setou, Yasuteru Urano, Tadayasu Togawa, Akira Otaka, Hitoshi Sakuraba, Kohji Itoh
GM2 gangliosidoses, including Tay-Sachs and Sandhoff diseases, are neurodegenerative lysosomal storage diseases that are caused by deficiency of β-hexosaminidase A, which comprises an αβ heterodimer. There are no effective treatments for these diseases; however, various strategies aimed at restoring β-hexosaminidase A have been explored. Here, we produced a modified human hexosaminidase subunit β (HexB), which we have termed mod2B, composed of homodimeric β subunits that contain amino acid sequences from the α subunit that confer GM2 ganglioside-degrading activity and protease resistance...
May 2, 2016: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Mehtap Beker-Acay, Muhsin Elmas, Resit Koken, Ebru Unlu, Aysegul Bukulmez
BACKGROUND: Sandhoff disease is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by β-hexosaminidase deficiency in which the ganglioside GM2 and other glycolipids accumulate intracellularly within lysosomes. This process results in progressive motor neuron manifestations, death from respiratory failure and infections in infantiles. CASE REPORT: This report presents a 22-month-old girl with infantile type Sandhoff disease that was hospitalized for generalized seizures and psychomotor retardation...
2016: Polish Journal of Radiology
Walter Acosta, Reid Martin, David N Radin, Carole L Cramer
GM1-gangliosidosis is an inherited autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the gene GLB1, which encodes acid β-galactosidase (β-gal). The lack of activity in this lysosomal enzyme leads to accumulation of GM1 gangliosides (GM1) in cells. We have developed a high-content-imaging method to assess GM1 levels in fibroblasts that can be used to evaluate substrate reduction in treated GLB1(-/-) cells [1]. This assay allows fluorescent quantification in a multi-well system which generates unbiased and statistically significant data...
March 2016: Data in Brief
Martin Thonhofer, Patrick Weber, Andres Gonzalez Santana, Roland Fischer, Bettina M Pabst, Eduard Paschke, Michael Schalli, Arnold E Stütz, Marion Tschernutter, Werner Windischhofer, Stephen G Withers
From an easily available partially protected formal derivative of 1-deoxymannojirimycin, by hydroxymethyl chain-branching and further elaboration, lipophilic analogs of the powerful β-d-galactosidase inhibitor 4-epi-isofagomine have become available. New compounds exhibit improved inhibitory activities comparable to benchmark compound NOEV (N-octyl-epi-valienamine) and may serve as leads towards improved and more selective pharmacological chaperones for GM1-gangliosidosis.
March 1, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Rasha Salama, Jiehao Zhou
Metabolic disorders sometimes cause accumulation of metabolic byproducts which are manifested as cytoplasmic vacuoles in lymphocytes. We report the case of an infant with final diagnosis of GM1 gangliosidosis who initially presented with developmental delay and peripheral blood vacuolated lymphocytes. Blood film review is recommended in children suspicious for metabolic disorders.
January 2016: Clinical Case Reports
Jose Condori, Walter Acosta, Jorge Ayala, Varun Katta, Ashley Flory, Reid Martin, Jonathan Radin, Carole L Cramer, David N Radin
New enzyme delivery technologies are required for treatment of lysosomal storage disorders with significant pathologies associated with the so-called "hard-to-treat" tissues and organs. Genetic deficiencies in the GLB1 gene encoding acid β-galactosidase lead to GM1-gangliosidosis or Morquio B, lysosomal diseases with predominant disease manifestation associated with the central nervous system or skeletal system, respectively. Current lysosomal ERTs are delivered into cells based on receptor-mediated endocytosis and do not effectively address several hard-to-treat organs including those critical for GM1-gangliosidosis patients...
February 2016: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
Martin Thonhofer, Andres Gonzalez Santana, Roland Fischer, Ana Torvisco Gomez, Robert Saf, Michael Schalli, Arnold E Stütz, Stephen G Withers
Electrophilic fluorination of an exocyclic methoxymethylene enol ether derived from N-tert-butyloxycarbonyl-1,5-dideoxy-1,5-imino-3,4-O-isopropylidene-D-erythro-pent-2-ulose (11) provided the 5-fluoro derivative of the powerful β-galactosidase inhibitor 4-epi-isofagomine (8). This structural alteration, in combination with N-alkylation, led to considerably improved α-galactosidase selectivity. New compounds may serve as leads en route to new pharmacological chaperones for Fabry's disease.
February 2016: Carbohydrate Research
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