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Mads domain

Lauren Farquharson
Scotland's parochial asylums are unfamiliar institutional spaces. Representing the concrete manifestation of the collision between two spheres of legislation, the Poor Law and the Lunacy Law, six such asylums were constructed in the latter half of the nineteenth century. These sites expressed the enduring mandate of the Scottish Poor Law 1845 over the domain of 'madness'. They were institutions whose very existence was fashioned at the directive of the local arm of the Poor Law, the parochial board, and they constituted a continuing 'Scottish Poor Law of Lunacy'...
November 28, 2016: History of Psychiatry
Yuyan Sun, Yang Qiu, Mengmeng Duan, Jinglei Wang, Xiaohui Zhang, Haiping Wang, Jiangping Song, Xixiang Li
Anthocyanins are widely distributed water-soluble phytochemical pigments belonging to the flavonoid group. To date, limited knowledge is available about the regulatory roles of miRNAs in anthocyanin biosynthesis in plants. To identify the miRNAs associated with anthocyanin biosynthesis in radish, five small RNA (sRNA) libraries constructed from 'Xinlimei' radish roots at 11, 21, 44, 56 and 73 days (d) were examined using high-throughput sequencing technology. A total of 102.02 million (M) clean reads were generated, from which 483 known and 1415 novel miRNAs were identified...
November 5, 2016: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
Ada S Cheung, Casey de Rooy, Rudolf Hoermann, Daryl Lim Joon, Jeffrey D Zajac, Mathis Grossmann
OBJECTIVE: While androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) has been associated with decreased quality of life (QoL), controlled prospective studies are lacking. We aimed to assess QoL during ADT using two validated questionnaires and determine contributing factors. DESIGN: Prospective controlled study. PATIENTS: Sixty-three men with nonmetastatic prostate cancer newly commencing ADT (n = 34) and age- and radiotherapy-matched prostate cancer controls (n = 29)...
October 3, 2016: Clinical Endocrinology
John Arne Dahl, Inkyung Jung, Håvard Aanes, Gareth D Greggains, Adeel Manaf, Mads Lerdrup, Guoqiang Li, Samantha Kuan, Bin Li, Ah Young Lee, Sebastian Preissl, Ingunn Jermstad, Mads Haugland Haugen, Rajikala Suganthan, Magnar Bjørås, Klaus Hansen, Knut Tomas Dalen, Peter Fedorcsak, Bing Ren, Arne Klungland
Maternal-to-zygotic transition (MZT) is essential for the formation of a new individual, but is still poorly understood despite recent progress in analysis of gene expression and DNA methylation in early embryogenesis. Dynamic histone modifications may have important roles in MZT, but direct measurements of chromatin states have been hindered by technical difficulties in profiling histone modifications from small quantities of cells. Recent improvements allow for 500 cell-equivalents of chromatin per reaction, but require 10,000 cells for initial steps or require a highly specialized microfluidics device that is not readily available...
September 14, 2016: Nature
Günter Theißen, Rainer Melzer, Florian Rümpler
The floral quartet model of floral organ specification poses that different tetramers of MIKC-type MADS-domain transcription factors control gene expression and hence the identity of floral organs during development. Here, we provide a brief history of the floral quartet model and review several lines of recent evidence that support the model. We also describe how the model has been used in contemporary developmental and evolutionary biology to shed light on enigmatic topics such as the origin of land and flowering plants...
September 15, 2016: Development
Paul R Elliott, Derek Leske, Matous Hrdinka, Katrin Bagola, Berthe K Fiil, Stephen H McLaughlin, Jane Wagstaff, Norbert Volkmar, John C Christianson, Benedikt M Kessler, Stefan M V Freund, David Komander, Mads Gyrd-Hansen
The linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex (LUBAC) regulates immune signaling, and its function is regulated by the deubiquitinases OTULIN and CYLD, which associate with the catalytic subunit HOIP. However, the mechanism through which CYLD interacts with HOIP is unclear. We here show that CYLD interacts with HOIP via spermatogenesis-associated protein 2 (SPATA2). SPATA2 interacts with CYLD through its non-canonical PUB domain, which binds the catalytic CYLD USP domain in a CYLD B-box-dependent manner. Significantly, SPATA2 binding activates CYLD-mediated hydrolysis of ubiquitin chains...
September 15, 2016: Molecular Cell
Hugo Urrutia, Abigail Aleman, Edward Eivers
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are growth factors that provide essential signals for normal embryonic development and adult tissue homeostasis. A key step in initiating BMP signaling is ligand induced phosphorylation of receptor Smads (R-Smads) by type I receptor kinases, while linker phosphorylation of R-Smads has been shown to cause BMP signal termination. Here we present data demonstrating that the phosphatase Dullard is involved in dephosphorylating the Drosophila R-Smad, Mad, and is integral in controlling BMP signal duration...
2016: Scientific Reports
Anthony Mathelier, Beibei Xin, Tsu-Pei Chiu, Lin Yang, Remo Rohs, Wyeth W Wasserman
Interactions of transcription factors (TFs) with DNA comprise a complex interplay between base-specific amino acid contacts and readout of DNA structure. Recent studies have highlighted the complementarity of DNA sequence and shape in modeling TF binding in vitro. Here, we have provided a comprehensive evaluation of in vivo datasets to assess the predictive power obtained by augmenting various DNA sequence-based models of TF binding sites (TFBSs) with DNA shape features (helix twist, minor groove width, propeller twist, and roll)...
September 28, 2016: Cell Systems
Fred Y Peng, Zhiqiu Hu, Rong-Cai Yang
BACKGROUND: Many genes involved in responses to photoperiod and vernalization have been characterized or predicted in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), Brachypodium (Brachypodium distachyon), wheat (Triticum aestivum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare). However, little is known about the transcription regulation of these genes, especially in the large, complex genomes of wheat and barley. RESULTS: We identified 68, 60, 195 and 61 genes that are known or postulated to control pathways of photoperiod (PH), vernalization (VE) and pathway integration (PI) in Arabidopsis, Brachypodium, wheat and barley for predicting transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) in the promoters of these genes using the FIMO motif search tool of the MEME Suite...
2016: BMC Genomics
Ganesha P Pitchai, Ian D Hickson, Werner Streicher, Guillermo Montoya, Pablo Mesa
Chromosome integrity depends on DNA structure-specific processing complexes that resolve DNA entanglement between sister chromatids. If left unresolved, these entanglements can generate either chromatin bridging or ultrafine DNA bridging in the anaphase of mitosis. These bridge structures are defined by the presence of the PICH protein, which interacts with the BEND3 protein in mitosis. To obtain structural insights into PICH-BEND3 complex formation at the atomic level, their respective NTPR and BD1 domains were cloned, overexpressed and crystallized using 1...
August 2016: Acta Crystallographica. Section F, Structural Biology Communications
Dongming Li, Xing Fu, Lin Guo, Zhigang Huang, Yongpeng Li, Yang Liu, Zishan He, Xiuwei Cao, Xiaohan Ma, Meicheng Zhao, Guohui Zhu, Langtao Xiao, Haiyang Wang, Xuemei Chen, Renyi Liu, Xigang Liu
Plant meristems are responsible for the generation of all plant tissues and organs. Here we show that the transcription factor (TF) FAR-RED ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL3 (FHY3) plays an important role in both floral meristem (FM) determinacy and shoot apical meristem maintenance in Arabidopsis, in addition to its well-known multifaceted roles in plant growth and development during the vegetative stage. Through genetic analyses, we show that WUSCHEL (WUS) and CLAVATA3 (CLV3), two central players in the establishment and maintenance of meristems, are epistatic to FHY3 Using genome-wide ChIP-seq and RNA-seq data, we identify hundreds of FHY3 target genes in flowers and find that FHY3 mainly acts as a transcriptional repressor in flower development, in contrast to its transcriptional activator role in seedlings...
August 16, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Karim Harhouri, Claire Navarro, Camille Baquerre, Nathalie Da Silva, Catherine Bartoli, Frank Casey, Guedenon Koffi Mawuse, Yassamine Doubaj, Nicolas Lévy, Annachiara De Sandre-Giovannoli
Progeroid laminopathies, including Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome (HGPS, OMIM #176670), are premature and accelerated aging diseases caused by defects in nuclear A-type Lamins. Most HGPS patients carry a de novo point mutation within exon 11 of the LMNA gene encoding A-type Lamins. This mutation activates a cryptic splice site leading to the deletion of 50 amino acids at its carboxy-terminal domain, resulting in a truncated and permanently farnesylated Prelamin A called Prelamin A Δ50 or Progerin. Some patients carry other LMNA mutations affecting exon 11 splicing and are named "HGPS-like" patients...
2016: Cells
Rong Shi, Marek Honczarenko, Sean Zhang, Catherine Fleener, Johanna Mora, Sun Ku Lee, Reena Wang, Xiaoni Liu, Diane E Shevell, Zheng Yang, Haiqing Wang, Bindu Murthy
We report pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and safety of a novel anti-CD28 domain antibody antagonist (lulizumab pegol) in healthy subjects following single- or multiple-dose administration. A minimal anticipated biological effect level approach was used to select a 0.01 mg starting dose for a single-ascending-dose (SAD), double-blind, first-in-human study. Part 1 included 9 intravenous (IV; 0.01-100 mg) and 3 subcutaneous (SC; 9-50 mg) doses or placebo. In part 2, a keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) immunization was performed in 16 subjects/panel, who received 1 of 3 IV doses (9-100 mg) or placebo...
July 12, 2016: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Lisa Deignan, Marco T Pinheiro, Catherine Sutcliffe, Abbie Saunders, Scott G Wilcockson, Leo A H Zeef, Ian J Donaldson, Hilary L Ashe
The BMP signaling pathway has a conserved role in dorsal-ventral axis patterning during embryonic development. In Drosophila, graded BMP signaling is transduced by the Mad transcription factor and opposed by the Brinker repressor. In this study, using the Drosophila embryo as a model, we combine RNA-seq with Mad and Brinker ChIP-seq to decipher the BMP-responsive transcriptional network underpinning differentiation of the dorsal ectoderm during dorsal-ventral axis patterning. We identify multiple new BMP target genes, including positive and negative regulators of EGF signaling...
July 2016: PLoS Genetics
Mario A Pacheco-Escobedo, Victor B Ivanov, Iván Ransom-Rodríguez, Germán Arriaga-Mejía, Hibels Ávila, Ilya A Baklanov, Arturo Pimentel, Gabriel Corkidi, Peter Doerner, Joseph G Dubrovsky, Elena R Álvarez-Buylla, Adriana Garay-Arroyo
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The Arabidopsis thaliana root is a key experimental system in developmental biology. Despite its importance, we are still lacking an objective and broadly applicable approach for identification of number and position of developmental domains or zones along the longitudinal axis of the root apex or boundaries between them, which is essential for understanding the mechanisms underlying cell proliferation, elongation and differentiation dynamics during root development...
June 29, 2016: Annals of Botany
Taeko Shibaya, Kiyosumi Hori, Eri Ogiso-Tanaka, Utako Yamanouchi, Koka Shu, Noriyuki Kitazawa, Ayahiko Shomura, Tsuyu Ando, Kaworu Ebana, Jianzhong Wu, Toshimasa Yamazaki, Masahiro Yano
Flowering time is one of the most important agronomic traits in rice (Oryza sativa L.), because it defines harvest seasons and cultivation areas, and affects yields. We used a map-based strategy to clone Heading date 18 (Hd18). The difference in flowering time between the Japanese rice cultivars Koshihikari and Hayamasari was due to a single nucleotide polymorphism within the Hd18 gene, which encodes an amine oxidase domain-containing protein and is homologous to Arabidopsis FLOWERING LOCUS D (FLD). The Hayamasari Hd18 allele and knockdown of Hd18 gene expression delayed the flowering time of rice plants regardless of the day-length condition...
September 2016: Plant & Cell Physiology
Sharyn E Perry, Qiaolin Zheng, Yumei Zheng
Somatic embryogenesis (SE) is an important avenue for regeneration of many plants. Although documented over half a century ago, the process of SE remains poorly understood and many factors impact upon competence for SE. We recently reported that a Glycine max ortholog of a MADS-domain transcription factor that promotes SE in Arabidopsis also enhances SE in soybean. We recently assessed transcriptomes in 35Spro:GmAGL15 compared to control during an early time-course of SE and in response to 35Spro:AtAGL15. We expand here upon discussion of the types of genes regulated by overexpression of AGL15 and characterize the step of SE that may be affected by altered accumulation of AGL15...
July 2, 2016: Plant Signaling & Behavior
B Mondal, V Patil, S D Shwetha, K Sravani, A S Hegde, A Arivazhagan, V Santosh, M Kanduri, K Somasundaram
An integrative functional genomics study of multiple forms of data are vital for discovering molecular drivers of cancer development and progression. Here, we present an integrated genomic strategy utilizing DNA methylation and transcriptome profile data to discover epigenetically regulated genes implicated in cancer development and invasive progression. More specifically, this analysis identified fibromodulin (FMOD) as a glioblastoma (GBM) upregulated gene because of the loss of promoter methylation. Secreted FMOD promotes glioma cell migration through its ability to induce filamentous actin stress fiber formation...
May 23, 2016: Oncogene
William P Wysocki, Eduardo Ruiz-Sanchez, Yanbin Yin, Melvin R Duvall
BACKGROUND: Next-generation sequencing now allows for total RNA extracts to be sequenced in non-model organisms such as bamboos, an economically and ecologically important group of grasses. Bamboos are divided into three lineages, two of which are woody perennials with bisexual flowers, which undergo gregarious monocarpy. The third lineage, which are herbaceous perennials, possesses unisexual flowers that undergo annual flowering events. RESULTS: Transcriptomes were assembled using both reference-based and de novo methods...
2016: BMC Genomics
Ajay R Bharti, Steven Paul Woods, Ronald J Ellis, Mariana Cherner, Debra Rosario, Michael Potter, Robert K Heaton, Ian P Everall, Eliezer Masliah, Igor Grant, Scott L Letendre
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and methamphetamine use commonly affect neurocognitive (NC) functioning. We evaluated the relationships between NC functioning and two fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) in volunteers who differed in HIV serostatus and methamphetamine dependence (MAD). METHODS: A total of 100 volunteers were categorized into four groups based on HIV serostatus and MAD in the prior year. FGF-1 and FGF-2 were measured in cerebrospinal fluid by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays along with two reference biomarkers (monocyte chemotactic protein [MCP]-1 and neopterin)...
2016: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
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