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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100708/the-origin-of-floral-organ-identity-quartets
#1
Philip Ruelens, Zhicheng Zhang, Hilda van Mourik, Steven Maere, Kerstin Kaufmann, Koen Geuten
The origin of flowers has puzzled plant biologists ever since Darwin referred to their sudden appearance in the fossil record as an abominable mystery. Flowers are considered to be an assembly of protective, attractive and reproductive male and female leaf-like organs. Their origin cannot be understood by a morphological comparison to gymnosperms, their closest relatives, which develop separate male or female cones. Despite these morphological differences, gymnosperms and angiosperms possess a similar genetic toolbox consisting of phylogenetically related MADS-domain proteins...
January 18, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018905/the-mutational-landscape-of-the-oncogenic-mzf1-scan-domain-in-cancer
#2
Mads Nygaard, Thilde Terkelsen, André Vidas Olsen, Valentina Sora, Juan Salamanca Viloria, Fabio Rizza, Sanne Bergstrand-Poulsen, Miriam Di Marco, Mette Vistesen, Matteo Tiberti, Matteo Lambrughi, Marja Jäättelä, Tuula Kallunki, Elena Papaleo
SCAN domains in zinc-finger transcription factors are crucial mediators of protein-protein interactions. Up to 240 SCAN-domain encoding genes have been identified throughout the human genome. These include cancer-related genes, such as the myeloid zinc finger 1 (MZF1), an oncogenic transcription factor involved in the progression of many solid cancers. The mechanisms by which SCAN homo- and heterodimers assemble and how they alter the transcriptional activity of zinc-finger transcription factors in cancer and other diseases remain to be investigated...
2016: Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007633/the-go-actiwe-randomized-controlled-trial-an-interdisciplinary-study-designed-to-investigate-the-health-effects-of-active-commuting-and-leisure-time-physical-activity
#3
Mads Rosenkilde, Martin Bæk Petersen, Anne Sofie Gram, Jonas Salling Quist, Jonas Winther, Simon Due Kamronn, Desirée Hornbæk Milling, Jakob Eg Larsen, Astrid Pernille Jespersen, Bente Stallknecht
Regular physical activity is efficacious for improving metabolic health in overweight and obese individuals, yet, many adults lead sedentary lives. Most exercise interventions have targeted leisure time, but physical activity also takes place in other domains of everyday life. Active commuting represents a promising alternative to increase physical activity, but it has yet to be established whether active commuting conveys health benefits on par with leisure time physical activity (LTPA). A 6-month randomized controlled trial was designed to investigate the effects of increased physical activity in transport (bicycling) or leisure time domains (moderate or vigorous intensity endurance exercise)...
December 19, 2016: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27968991/wsa206-a-paralog-of-duplicated-mpf2-like-mads-box-family-is-recruited-in-fertility-function-in-withania
#4
Muhammad Ramzan Khan, Humera Ihsan, Ghulam Muhammad Ali
Best known for their implication in calyx inflation, MPF2-like genes pertinent to the STMADS11 clade of the MADS-box family exert their functions in leaf development, flowering time, inflorescence architecture and floral reversion to just name but a few. However, our knowledge about their involvement in fertility function remained obscure. Therefore the major thrust of this study was to probe the recruitment of WSA206 (MPF2-like) protein in fertility function. The WSA206 functions were revealed by knocking down and overexpressing this protein in Withania somnifera...
December 2016: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965680/molecular-cloning-characterization-and-expression-of-misoc1-a-homolog-of-the-flowering-gene-suppressor-of-overexpression-of-constans1-from-mango-mangifera-indica-l
#5
Junya Wei, Debing Liu, Guoyin Liu, Jie Tang, Yeyuan Chen
MADS-box transcription factor plays a crucial role in plant development, especially controlling the formation and development of floral organs. Mango (Mangifera indica L) is an economically important fruit crop, but its molecular control of flowering is largely unknown. To better understand the molecular basis of flowering regulation in mango, we isolated and characterized the MiSOC1, a putative mango orthologs for the Arabidopsis SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS1/AGAMOUS-LIKE 20 (SOC1/AGL20) with homology-based cloning and RACE...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957330/evidence-of-perturbed-germinal-center-dynamics-but-preserved-antibody-diversity-in-end-stage-renal-disease
#6
Kristian Assing, Christian Nielsen, Marianne Jakobsen, Alexandra Scholze, Mads Nybo, Grete Soerensen, Sussie Mortensen, Knud Vejen, Torben Barington, Claus Bistrup
INTRODUCTION: End-stage renal disease (ESRD) is associated with increased infectious susceptibility and with reduced vaccine responses consistent with compromised humoral immunity. Whether the compromised humoral immunity is due to reduced antibody diversity (reduced somatic hypermutation [SHM]) or altered germinal center (GC) dynamics is not known. The GC-derived chemokine CXCL13 as well as peripheral T follicular helper cells (pTFH) reflect GC dynamics, but have, similar to SHM, never been characterized in relation to ESRD...
June 2016: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927985/the-arrhythmogenic-calmodulin-p-phe142leu-mutation-impairs-c-domain-ca2-binding-but-not-calmodulin-dependent-inhibition-of-the-cardiac-ryanodine-receptor
#7
Mads Toft Søndergaard, Yingjie Liu, Kamilla Taunsig Larsen, Alma Nani, Xixi Tian, Christian Holt, Ruiwu Wang, Reinhard Wimmer, Filip Van Petegem, Michael Fill, S R Wayne Chen, Michael Toft Overgaard
A number of point mutations in the intracellular Ca(2+)-sensing protein calmodulin (CaM) are arrhythmogenic, yet their underlying mechanisms are not clear. These mutations generally decrease Ca(2+) binding to CaM and impair inhibition of CaM-regulated Ca(2+) channels like the cardiac Ca(2+) release channel (ryanodine receptor, RyR2), and it appears that attenuated CaM Ca(2+) binding correlates with impaired CaM-dependent RyR2 inhibition. Here, we investigated the RyR2 inhibitory action of the CaM p.Phe142Leu mutation (F142L; numbered including the start-Met), which markedly reduces CaM Ca(2+) binding...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895195/a-scottish-poor-law-of-lunacy-poor-law-lunacy-law-and-scotland-s-parochial-asylums
#8
Lauren Farquharson
Scotland's parochial asylums are unfamiliar institutional spaces. Representing the concrete manifestation of the collision between two spheres of legislation, the Poor Law and the Lunacy Law, six such asylums were constructed in the latter half of the nineteenth century. These sites expressed the enduring mandate of the Scottish Poor Law 1845 over the domain of 'madness'. They were institutions whose very existence was fashioned at the directive of the local arm of the Poor Law, the parochial board, and they constituted a continuing 'Scottish Poor Law of Lunacy'...
November 28, 2016: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817120/identification-of-anthocyanin-biosynthesis-related-micrornas-in-a-distinctive-chinese-radish-raphanus-sativus-l-by-high-throughput-sequencing
#9
Yuyan Sun, Yang Qiu, Mengmeng Duan, Jinglei Wang, Xiaohui Zhang, Haiping Wang, Jiangping Song, Xixiang Li
Anthocyanins are widely distributed water-soluble phytochemical pigments belonging to the flavonoid group. To date, limited knowledge is available about the regulatory roles of miRNAs in anthocyanin biosynthesis in plants. To identify the miRNAs associated with anthocyanin biosynthesis in radish, five small RNA (sRNA) libraries constructed from 'Xinlimei' radish roots at 11, 21, 44, 56 and 73 days (d) were examined using high-throughput sequencing technology. A total of 102.02 million (M) clean reads were generated, from which 483 known and 1415 novel miRNAs were identified...
February 2017: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696495/quality-of-life-decrements-in-men-with-prostate-cancer-undergoing-androgen-deprivation-therapy
#10
Ada S Cheung, Casey de Rooy, Rudolf Hoermann, Daryl Lim Joon, Jeffrey D Zajac, Mathis Grossmann
OBJECTIVE: While androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) has been associated with decreased quality of life (QoL), controlled prospective studies are lacking. We aimed to assess QoL during ADT using two validated questionnaires and determine contributing factors. DESIGN: Prospective controlled study. PATIENTS: Sixty-three men with nonmetastatic prostate cancer newly commencing ADT (n = 34) and age- and radiotherapy-matched prostate cancer controls (n = 29)...
October 3, 2016: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27626377/broad-histone-h3k4me3-domains-in-mouse-oocytes-modulate-maternal-to-zygotic-transition
#11
John Arne Dahl, Inkyung Jung, Håvard Aanes, Gareth D Greggains, Adeel Manaf, Mads Lerdrup, Guoqiang Li, Samantha Kuan, Bin Li, Ah Young Lee, Sebastian Preissl, Ingunn Jermstad, Mads Haugland Haugen, Rajikala Suganthan, Magnar Bjørås, Klaus Hansen, Knut Tomas Dalen, Peter Fedorcsak, Bing Ren, Arne Klungland
Maternal-to-zygotic transition (MZT) is essential for the formation of a new individual, but is still poorly understood despite recent progress in analysis of gene expression and DNA methylation in early embryogenesis. Dynamic histone modifications may have important roles in MZT, but direct measurements of chromatin states have been hindered by technical difficulties in profiling histone modifications from small quantities of cells. Recent improvements allow for 500 cell-equivalents of chromatin per reaction, but require 10,000 cells for initial steps or require a highly specialized microfluidics device that is not readily available...
September 22, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27624831/mads-domain-transcription-factors-and-the-floral-quartet-model-of-flower-development-linking-plant-development-and-evolution
#12
REVIEW
Günter Theißen, Rainer Melzer, Florian Rümpler
The floral quartet model of floral organ specification poses that different tetramers of MIKC-type MADS-domain transcription factors control gene expression and hence the identity of floral organs during development. Here, we provide a brief history of the floral quartet model and review several lines of recent evidence that support the model. We also describe how the model has been used in contemporary developmental and evolutionary biology to shed light on enigmatic topics such as the origin of land and flowering plants...
September 15, 2016: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27591049/spata2-links-cyld-to-lubac-activates-cyld-and-controls-lubac-signaling
#13
Paul R Elliott, Derek Leske, Matous Hrdinka, Katrin Bagola, Berthe K Fiil, Stephen H McLaughlin, Jane Wagstaff, Norbert Volkmar, John C Christianson, Benedikt M Kessler, Stefan M V Freund, David Komander, Mads Gyrd-Hansen
The linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex (LUBAC) regulates immune signaling, and its function is regulated by the deubiquitinases OTULIN and CYLD, which associate with the catalytic subunit HOIP. However, the mechanism through which CYLD interacts with HOIP is unclear. We here show that CYLD interacts with HOIP via spermatogenesis-associated protein 2 (SPATA2). SPATA2 interacts with CYLD through its non-canonical PUB domain, which binds the catalytic CYLD USP domain in a CYLD B-box-dependent manner. Significantly, SPATA2 binding activates CYLD-mediated hydrolysis of ubiquitin chains...
September 15, 2016: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27578171/drosophila-dullard-functions-as-a-mad-phosphatase-to-terminate-bmp-signaling
#14
Hugo Urrutia, Abigail Aleman, Edward Eivers
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are growth factors that provide essential signals for normal embryonic development and adult tissue homeostasis. A key step in initiating BMP signaling is ligand induced phosphorylation of receptor Smads (R-Smads) by type I receptor kinases, while linker phosphorylation of R-Smads has been shown to cause BMP signal termination. Here we present data demonstrating that the phosphatase Dullard is involved in dephosphorylating the Drosophila R-Smad, Mad, and is integral in controlling BMP signal duration...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27546793/dna-shape-features-improve-transcription-factor-binding-site-predictions-in%C3%A2-vivo
#15
Anthony Mathelier, Beibei Xin, Tsu-Pei Chiu, Lin Yang, Remo Rohs, Wyeth W Wasserman
Interactions of transcription factors (TFs) with DNA comprise a complex interplay between base-specific amino acid contacts and readout of DNA structure. Recent studies have highlighted the complementarity of DNA sequence and shape in modeling TF binding in vitro. Here, we have provided a comprehensive evaluation of in vivo datasets to assess the predictive power obtained by augmenting various DNA sequence-based models of TF binding sites (TFBSs) with DNA shape features (helix twist, minor groove width, propeller twist, and roll)...
September 28, 2016: Cell Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27503086/bioinformatic-prediction-of-transcription-factor-binding-sites-at-promoter-regions-of-genes-for-photoperiod-and-vernalization-responses-in-model-and-temperate-cereal-plants
#16
Fred Y Peng, Zhiqiu Hu, Rong-Cai Yang
BACKGROUND: Many genes involved in responses to photoperiod and vernalization have been characterized or predicted in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), Brachypodium (Brachypodium distachyon), wheat (Triticum aestivum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare). However, little is known about the transcription regulation of these genes, especially in the large, complex genomes of wheat and barley. RESULTS: We identified 68, 60, 195 and 61 genes that are known or postulated to control pathways of photoperiod (PH), vernalization (VE) and pathway integration (PI) in Arabidopsis, Brachypodium, wheat and barley for predicting transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) in the promoters of these genes using the FIMO motif search tool of the MEME Suite...
2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27487930/characterization-of-the-ntpr-and-bd1-interacting-domains-of-the-human-pich-bend3-complex
#17
Ganesha P Pitchai, Ian D Hickson, Werner Streicher, Guillermo Montoya, Pablo Mesa
Chromosome integrity depends on DNA structure-specific processing complexes that resolve DNA entanglement between sister chromatids. If left unresolved, these entanglements can generate either chromatin bridging or ultrafine DNA bridging in the anaphase of mitosis. These bridge structures are defined by the presence of the PICH protein, which interacts with the BEND3 protein in mitosis. To obtain structural insights into PICH-BEND3 complex formation at the atomic level, their respective NTPR and BD1 domains were cloned, overexpressed and crystallized using 1...
August 2016: Acta Crystallographica. Section F, Structural Biology Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27469166/far-red-elongated-hypocotyl3-activates-sepallata2-but-inhibits-clavata3-to-regulate-meristem-determinacy-and-maintenance-in-arabidopsis
#18
Dongming Li, Xing Fu, Lin Guo, Zhigang Huang, Yongpeng Li, Yang Liu, Zishan He, Xiuwei Cao, Xiaohan Ma, Meicheng Zhao, Guohui Zhu, Langtao Xiao, Haiyang Wang, Xuemei Chen, Renyi Liu, Xigang Liu
Plant meristems are responsible for the generation of all plant tissues and organs. Here we show that the transcription factor (TF) FAR-RED ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL3 (FHY3) plays an important role in both floral meristem (FM) determinacy and shoot apical meristem maintenance in Arabidopsis, in addition to its well-known multifaceted roles in plant growth and development during the vegetative stage. Through genetic analyses, we show that WUSCHEL (WUS) and CLAVATA3 (CLV3), two central players in the establishment and maintenance of meristems, are epistatic to FHY3 Using genome-wide ChIP-seq and RNA-seq data, we identify hundreds of FHY3 target genes in flowers and find that FHY3 mainly acts as a transcriptional repressor in flower development, in contrast to its transcriptional activator role in seedlings...
August 16, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27409638/antisense-based-progerin-downregulation-in-hgps-like-patients-cells
#19
Karim Harhouri, Claire Navarro, Camille Baquerre, Nathalie Da Silva, Catherine Bartoli, Frank Casey, Guedenon Koffi Mawuse, Yassamine Doubaj, Nicolas Lévy, Annachiara De Sandre-Giovannoli
Progeroid laminopathies, including Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome (HGPS, OMIM #176670), are premature and accelerated aging diseases caused by defects in nuclear A-type Lamins. Most HGPS patients carry a de novo point mutation within exon 11 of the LMNA gene encoding A-type Lamins. This mutation activates a cryptic splice site leading to the deletion of 50 amino acids at its carboxy-terminal domain, resulting in a truncated and permanently farnesylated Prelamin A called Prelamin A Δ50 or Progerin. Some patients carry other LMNA mutations affecting exon 11 splicing and are named "HGPS-like" patients...
2016: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27402064/pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic-and-safety-profile-of-a-novel-anti-cd28-domain-antibody-antagonist-in-healthy-subjects
#20
Rong Shi, Marek Honczarenko, Sean Zhang, Catherine Fleener, Johanna Mora, Sun Ku Lee, Reena Wang, Xiaoni Liu, Diane E Shevell, Zheng Yang, Haiqing Wang, Bindu Murthy
We report pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and safety of a novel anti-CD28 domain antibody antagonist (lulizumab pegol) in healthy subjects following single- or multiple-dose administration. A minimal anticipated biological effect level approach was used to select a 0.01 mg starting dose for a single-ascending-dose (SAD), double-blind, first-in-human study. Part 1 included 9 intravenous (IV; 0.01-100 mg) and 3 subcutaneous (SC; 9-50 mg) doses or placebo. In part 2, a keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) immunization was performed in 16 subjects/panel, who received 1 of 3 IV doses (9-100 mg) or placebo...
February 2017: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
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