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retention, support, stability

James W Antony, Ken A Paller
Repeatedly studying information is a good way to strengthen memory storage. Nevertheless, testing recall often produces superior long-term retention. Demonstrations of this testing effect, typically with verbal stimuli, have shown that repeated retrieval through testing reduces forgetting. Sleep also benefits memory storage, perhaps through repeated retrieval as well. That is, memories may generally be subject to forgetting that can be counteracted when memories become reactivated, and there are several types of reactivation: (i) via intentional restudying, (ii) via testing, (iii) without provocation during wake, or (iv) during sleep...
June 2018: Learning & Memory
Peter McPherson, Joanna Krotofil, Helen Killaspy
BACKGROUND: Post-deinstitutionalisation, mental health supported accommodation services have been implemented widely. The available research evidence is heterogeneous in nature and resistant to synthesis attempts, leaving researchers and policy makers with no clear summary what works and for whom. In this context, we undertook a comprehensive systematic review of quantitative studies in order to synthesise the current evidence on mental health and psychosocial outcomes for individuals residing in mental health supported accommodation services...
May 15, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
Misha Ali, Qayyum Husain
Ginger peroxidase (GP) was entrapped into the hydrogels of guar gum (GG)-alginate/agarose and these immobilized GP preparations were employed for the treatment of textile effluent. GG is a natural hydrophilic polysaccharide which may form complex with enzyme increasing its molecular dimension that can be easily retained inside the entrapping support. Therefore, the activity retention by alginate-guar gum (ANGG) and agarose-guar gum (AGG) was higher than that of alginate and agarose alone. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis also revealed that GG-GP complex was successfully entrapped inside the alginate/agarose gels...
May 8, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Min Jeong Kim, Seockmo Ku, Sun Young Kim, Hyun Ha Lee, Hui Jin, Sini Kang, Rui Li, Tony V Johnston, Myeong Soo Park, Geun Eog Ji
Over the past decade, a variety of lactic acid bacteria have been commercially available to and steadily used by consumers. However, recent studies have shown that some lactic acid bacteria produce toxic substances and display properties of virulence. To establish safety guidelines for lactic acid bacteria, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)/World Health Organization (WHO) has suggested that lactic acid bacteria be characterized and proven safe for consumers’ health via multiple experiments (e...
May 9, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Prerana D Tomke, Virendra K Rathod
This work explains the utilization of agro-waste (coconut and peanut shell) to produce mesoporous activated carbon which further utilized as a support material for lipase immobilization (Candida antarctica B, CALB). Various parameters affecting the binding of enzyme to activated carbon with high surface area (1603 m2  g-1 ) were optimized. Maximum 200 μg g-1 CALB has been loaded at 40 °C and pH 6.8 in 12 h by using glutaraldehyde as a cross-linker. The operational parameters such as pH (5.8-8...
May 4, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Mark L Jewell, Bradley P Bengtson, Kate Smither, Gina Nuti, TracyAnn Perry
Background: Surgical applications using breast implants are individualized operations to fill and shape the breast. Physical properties beyond shape, size, and surface texture are important considerations during implant selection. Objective: Compare form stability, gel material properties, and shell thickness of textured shaped, textured round, and smooth round breast implants from 4 manufacturers: Allergan, Mentor, Sientra, and Establishment Labs through bench testing...
April 28, 2018: Aesthetic Surgery Journal
Michael Kidorf, Robert K Brooner, Jeannie-Marie Leoutsakos, Jessica Peirce
This randomized clinical trial evaluated the efficacy of three treatment initiation strategies for improving retention to methadone maintenance for opioid-dependent individuals referred from a syringe exchange program (SEP). New admissions (n = 212) were randomly assigned to one of three 3-month initiation strategies: 1) Low Threshold (LTI), 2) Voucher Reinforcement (VRI), or 3) Standard Care (SCI). LTI was modeled on interim methadone maintenance to transition SEP admissions to the structure of medication-assisted treatment while maximizing exposure to methadone pharmacotherapy...
April 16, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Hui Yuan, Jiantao Li, Wei Yang, Zechao Zhuang, Yan Zhao, Liang He, Lin Xu, Xiaobin Liao, Ruiqi Zhu, Liqiang Mai
Rationally generating oxygen vacancies in electrocatalysts is an important approach to modulate the electrochemical activity of catalyst. Herein, we report a remarkable enhancement in oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity of NiCo2O4 supported on hollow carbon spheres achieved through generating abundant oxygen vacancies within the surface lattice. This catalyst exhibits enhanced ORR activity (larger limiting current density of ~-5.8 mA cm-2) and higher stability (~90% retention after 40,000 s) compared with those of NiCo2O4/HCS and NiCo2O4...
April 25, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Serhat Aslan
Tooth replacement with a dental implant in the esthetic zone is a challenging treatment modality for the clinician. Each step of the treatment from tooth extraction to the definitive restoration should be performed meticulously to achieve a good esthetic outcome. Negative effects of the extraction can be minimized by various treatment protocols. Recent developments involving partial root retention (socket-shield technique) offer enhanced buccal tissue contour in these cases. This clinical report presents a slight modification to the socket-shield technique by preparing a thin shield and performing immediate implant placement...
2018: International Journal of Esthetic Dentistry
Pooneh Mokhtari, Ali Tayebi Meybodi, Arnau Benet, Michael T Lawton
BACKGROUND: Learning to perform a microvascular anastomosis is one of the most difficult tasks in cerebrovascular surgery. Previous studies offer little regarding the optimal protocols to maximize learning efficiency. This failure stems mainly from lack of knowledge about the learning curve of this task. OBJECTIVE: To delineate this learning curve and provide information about its various features including acquisition, improvement, consistency, stability, and recall...
April 14, 2018: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
Yunqi Shao, Zhen Liu, Pan Huang, Boping Liu
Grignard reagents are among the most fundamental reagents in organic synthesis, yet studies have hitherto failed to fully explain the selectivity and kinetics of Grignard reagent formation (GRF). The present study provides new insights into the intermediates and pathways of GRF using density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Potential energy surfaces of RX dissociation along different directions reveal the origin of configuration retention of alkenyl and aromatic halides. Radical intermediates participate solely in the dissociation stage, and depend on the geometry of the reactant halide...
April 5, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Srinivasan Jayaraman, Balendra P Singh, Balasubramanian Ramanathan, Murukan Pazhaniappan Pillai, Laura MacDonald, Richard Kirubakaran
BACKGROUND: Endentulism is relatively common and is often treated with the provision of complete or partial removable dentures. Clinicians make final impressions of complete dentures (CD) and removable partial dentures (RPD) using different techniques and materials. Applying the correct impression technique and material, based on an individual's oral condition, improves the quality of the prosthesis, which may improve quality of life. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of different final-impression techniques and materials used to make complete dentures, for retention, stability, comfort, and quality of life in completely edentulous people...
April 4, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Min Zhang, Ming Chen, Nadimicherla Reddeppa, Dongli Xu, Qiangshan Jing, Ruhua Zha
Ultralight benzoxazine-derived porous nitrogen self-doped carbon aerogels with good yield can be prepared by direct polymerization of trifunctional benzoxazine monomers under acid catalysis using concentrated hydrochloric acid. This allows for a significantly widened density range (0.8-4.5 mg cm-3) and avoids any sacrificial etching. When serving as electrode materials for supercapacitors, the resulting hierarchical porous carbon aerogels show ultrahigh specific capacitance, excellent rate performance and good cycling stability (retention of 97...
March 26, 2018: Nanoscale
Darwin Ortiz, Amudhan Ponrajan, Juan Pablo Bonnet, Torbert Rocheford, Mario G Ferruzzi
Translation of the breeding efforts designed to biofortify maize (Z. mays) genotypes with higher levels of provitamin A carotenoid (pVAC) content for sub-Saharan Africa is dependent in part on the stability of carotenoids during post-harvest through industrial and in-home food processing operations. The purpose of this study was to simulate production of commercial milled products by determining the impact of dry-milling and extrusion processing on carotenoid stability in three higher pVAC maize genotypes (C17xDE3, Orange ISO, Hi27xCML328)...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Stephanie M Topp, Chanda Mwamba, Anjali Sharma, Njekwa Mukamba, Laura K Beres, Elvin Geng, Charles B Holmes, Izukanji Sikazwe
BACKGROUND: Failure to keep people living with HIV engaged in life-long care and treatment has serious implications for individual and population-level health. Nested within a four-province study of HIV care and treatment outcomes, we explored the dynamic role of social and service-related factors influencing retention in HIV care in Zambia. METHODS: From a stratified random sample of 31 facilities, eight clinics were selected, one urban and one rural from each province...
2018: PloS One
Peng Yu, Gejin Cao, Sha Yi, Xiong Zhang, Chen Li, Xianzhong Sun, Kai Wang, Yanwei Ma
Two-dimensional (2D) MXenes have a very good application prospect in the field of electrochemical energy storage due to their metallic conductivity, high volumetric capacity, mechanical and thermal stability. Herein, we report the preparation of titanium carbide (Ti3 C2 Tx )/carbon nanotube (CNT) flexible self-supporting composite films by vacuum filtration. The CNTs can effectively prevent Ti3 C2 Tx from stacking and improve the electrochemical performance. The as-fabricated Ti3 C2 Tx /CNT film shows a high reversible capacity of 489 mA h g-1 at a current density of 50 mA g-1 together with good cycling performance...
March 14, 2018: Nanoscale
Gerod Hall, Sarah Walters, Hannah Gould, Sungwoo Lim
BACKGROUND: Homeless persons with substance use disorders (SUD) have high disease risk, poor access to healthcare, and are frequent users of Medicaid and other social services. Low-demand supportive housing with no prerequisites for treatment or sobriety has been shown to improve housing stability and decrease public service use for chronically homeless persons with serious mental illness (SMI) and chronic medical conditions. The impact of low-demand housing on individuals with SUD but without co-occurring SMI has been little studied...
March 12, 2018: Substance Abuse
Sabina Rossini Oliva, M Dolores Mingorance, Dayan Sanhueza, Stephen C Fry, Eduardo O Leidi
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Tolerance to soil acidity was studied in two species of Ericaceae that grow in mine-contaminated soils (S Portugal, SW Spain) to find out if there are interspecific variations in H+ tolerance which might be related to their particular location. METHODS: Tolerance to H+ toxicity was tested in nutrient solutions using seeds collected in SW Spain. Plant growth and nutrient contents in leaves, stems and roots were determined. Viability tests and proton exchange were studied in roots exposed, short-term, to acidic conditions...
May 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Xiujuan Xu, Geng Zhang, Mahong Hu, Chunlian Ji, Jianbiao Meng, Zhizhen Lai, Muhua Dai, Lisha Pang, Wei Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To study the influence of clinical nutritional support on the effects of mechanical ventilation (MV), and to find the factors affecting the outcome of patients undergoing MV. METHODS: A case-control study was conducted. The clinical data of 235 patients undergoing MV admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) of Tongde Hospital of Zhejiang Province from January 2015 to June 2017 were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were divided into two groups according to whether weaning successfully within 7 days...
March 2018: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
Qidi Chen, Jinkang Miao, Liang Quan, Daoping Cai, Hongbing Zhan
Exploring high-performance and low-priced electrode materials for supercapacitors is important but remains challenging. In this work, a unique sandwich-like nanocomposite of reduced graphene oxide (rGO)-supported N-doped carbon embedded with ultrasmall CoNiSx nanocrystallites (rGO/CoNiSx /N-C nanocomposite) has been successfully designed and synthesized by a simple one-step carbonization/sulfurization treatment of the rGO/Co-Ni precursor. The intriguing structural/compositional/morphological advantages endow the as-synthesized rGO/CoNiSx /N-C nanocomposite with excellent electrochemical performance as an advanced electrode material for supercapacitors...
February 22, 2018: Nanoscale
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