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Complement alternative pathway

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935905/impacts-of-no-tillage-management-on-nitrate-loss-from-corn-soybean-and-wheat-cultivation-a-meta-analysis
#1
Stefani Daryanto, Lixin Wang, Pierre-André Jacinthe
Although no-till (NT) has been promoted as an alternative land management practice to conventional tillage (CT), its impact on water quality, especially nitrate (NO3(-)) loss remain controversial. We conducted a meta-analysis to compare NO3(-) concentration and load in NT and CT systems via two major transport pathways: runoff and leaching. Rainfall variability, aridity, soil texture, tillage duration, crop species, and fertilizer type were used as co-varying factors. In comparison to CT, NT resulted in an overall increase of runoff NO3(-) concentration, but similar runoff NO3(-) load...
September 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919885/trypanosoma-cruzi-evades-the-complement-system-as-an-efficient-strategy-to-survive-in-the-mammalian-host-the-specific-roles-of-host-parasite-molecules-and-trypanosoma-cruzi-calreticulin
#2
REVIEW
Galia Ramírez-Toloza, Arturo Ferreira
American Trypanosomiasis is an important neglected reemerging tropical parasitism, infecting about 8 million people worldwide. Its agent, Trypanosoma cruzi, exhibits multiple mechanisms to evade the host immune response and infect host cells. An important immune evasion strategy of T. cruzi infective stages is its capacity to inhibit the complement system activation on the parasite surface, avoiding opsonizing, immune stimulating and lytic effects. Epimastigotes, the non-infective form of the parasite, present in triatomine arthropod vectors, are highly susceptible to complement-mediated lysis while trypomastigotes, the infective form, present in host bloodstream, are resistant...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917486/effects-of-the-potential-probiotics-bacillus-aerophilus-kadr3-in-inducing-immunity-and-disease-resistance-in-labeo-rohita
#3
Dharmaraj Ramesh, Sami Souissi, Tharifkhan Shan Ahamed
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the dietary administration of Bacillus aerophilus KADR3 on enhancing the immunity and disease resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila infection in Labeo rohita. B. aerophilus culture supernatant exhibited antagonistic activity against fish pathogenic bacteria in an agar well diffusion assay. Four fish groups were fed with either of following diets containing different concentrations of B. aerophilus KADR3 (cfu g(-1)): 0 (control), 1 × 10(7) (DI), 1 × 10(8) (DII), and 1 × 10(9) (DIII) -cfu g(-1)...
September 14, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912782/the-sand-fly-salivary-protein-lufaxin-inhibits-the-early-steps-of-the-alternative-pathway-of-complement-by-direct-binding-to-the-proconvertase-c3b-b
#4
Antonio F Mendes-Sousa, Vladimir Fazito do Vale, Naylene C S Silva, Anderson B Guimaraes-Costa, Marcos H Pereira, Mauricio R V Sant'Anna, Fabiano Oliveira, Shaden Kamhawi, José M C Ribeiro, John F Andersen, Jesus G Valenzuela, Ricardo N Araujo
Saliva of the blood feeding sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis was previously shown to inhibit the alternative pathway (AP) of the complement system. Here, we have identified Lufaxin, a protein component in saliva, as the inhibitor of the AP. Lufaxin inhibited the deposition of C3b, Bb, Properdin, C5b, and C9b on agarose-coated plates in a dose-dependent manner. It also inhibited the activation of factor B in normal serum, but had no effect on the components of the membrane attack complex. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) experiments demonstrated that Lufaxin stabilizes the C3b-B proconvertase complex when passed over a C3b surface in combination with factor B...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894700/targeting-the-type-ii-secretion-system-development-optimization-and-validation-of-a-high-throughput-screen-for-the-identification-of-small-molecule-inhibitors
#5
Ursula Waack, Tanya L Johnson, Khalil Chedid, Chuanwu Xi, Lyle A Simmons, Harry L T Mobley, Maria Sandkvist
Nosocomial pathogens that develop multidrug resistance present an increasing problem for healthcare facilities. Due to its rapid rise in antibiotic resistance, Acinetobacter baumannii is one of the most concerning gram-negative species. A. baumannii typically infects immune compromised individuals resulting in a variety of outcomes, including pneumonia and bacteremia. Using a murine model for bacteremia, we have previously shown that the type II secretion system (T2SS) contributes to in vivo fitness of A. baumannii...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891413/post-infectious-glomerulonephritis
#6
Ramnath Balasubramanian, Stephen D Marks
Post-infectious glomerulonephritis (PIGN) is one of the most common causes of acute glomerulonephritis in children. Although post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis (PSGN) is still common, there is a wide spectrum of causative agents of PIGN. Non-streptococcal organisms are emerging as the main aetiological agents in high-income countries. Nephritis-associated plasmin receptor (NAPlr) and streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin B (SPeB) are the two common antigens implicated in the pathogenesis of PSGN. Both NAPlr and SPeB activate the alternative complement pathway, resulting in low serum complement levels, and have an affinity to plasmin and glomerular proteins...
September 11, 2017: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884355/influenza-associated-thrombotic-microangiopathies
#7
REVIEW
Martin Bitzan, Jakub Zieg
Thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) refers to phenotypically similar disorders, including hemolytic uremic syndromes (HUS) and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP). This review explores the role of the influenza virus as trigger of HUS or TTP. We conducted a literature survey in PubMed and Google Scholar using HUS, TTP, TMA, and influenza as keywords, and extracted and analyzed reported epidemiological and clinical data. We identified 25 cases of influenza-associated TMA. Five additional cases were linked to influenza vaccination and analyzed separately...
September 7, 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868796/ige-auto-reactivity-in-bullous-pemphigoid-eosinophils-and-mast-cells-as-major-targets-of-pathogenic-immune-reactants
#8
P C Freire, C H Muñoz, G Stingl
BACKGROUND: Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is an autoimmune disease characterised by tense blisters that are usually preceded by urticarial eruptions. Affected patients exhibit IgG and/or IgE auto-antibodies against BP180 and/or BP230. Their relative importance in disease pathogenesis has not been fully elucidated. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to better characterise circulating and tissue-resident IgE in BP patients at the serological, structural and functional level...
September 4, 2017: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864337/complement-genomics-and-antibody-mediated-rejection-in-heart-recipients
#9
EDITORIAL
Javier Carbone
In this issue of the Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation, Marrón-Liñares et al report the results of an interesting study in which they evaluated 51 genes associated with the complement pathway in a small number of heart recipients to explore their relationship with antibody-mediated rejection (AMR). Next-generation sequencing was used in 46 heart transplant recipients (23 with AMR and 23 without AMR). The authors identified a significant association of 2 single-nucleotide polymorphisms with the absence or presence of AMR, respectively, p...
August 19, 2017: Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863792/genetics-of-immune-mediated-glomerular-diseases-focus-on-complement
#10
REVIEW
Marina Noris, Giuseppe Remuzzi
The spectrum of immune-mediated glomerular diseases is wide, ranging from rare diseases with well-recognized genetic origins to more common and multifactorial diseases. Immune-mediated glomerular injury is complex and involves both the innate and the adaptive immune systems. In the past 20 years a huge effort has been undertaken to unravel the genetic basis of immune-mediated glomerular diseases. The discovery of abnormalities in genes encoding proteins of the alternative pathway of complement in more than 50% of patients with atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS), and in approximately 20% of patients with membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN), has highlighted the role of this complement pathway in the pathogenesis of immune-mediated glomerular diseases...
September 2017: Seminars in Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855795/reduction-in-ocular-complement-factor-b-protein-in-mice-and-monkeys-by-systemic-administration-of-factor-b-antisense-oligonucleotide
#11
Tamar R Grossman, Michele Carrer, Lijiang Shen, Robert B Johnson, Lisa A Hettrick, Scott P Henry, Brett P Monia, Michael L McCaleb
PURPOSE: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of permanent vision loss among the elderly in many industrialized countries, and the complement system plays an important role in the pathogenesis of AMD. Inhibition of complement factor B, a key regulator of the alternative pathway, is implicated as a potential therapeutic intervention for AMD. Here we investigated the effect of liver factor B reduction on systemic and ocular factor B levels. METHODS: Second-generation antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) targeting mouse and monkey factor B mRNA were administered by subcutaneous injection to healthy mice or monkeys, and the level of factor B mRNA was assessed in the liver and the eye...
2017: Molecular Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855313/complexity-of-complement-resistance-factors-expressed-by-acinetobacter-baumannii-needed-for-survival-in-human-serum
#12
Amaro F Sanchez-Larrayoz, Noha M Elhosseiny, Marc G Chevrette, Yang Fu, Peter Giunta, Raúl G Spallanzani, Keerthikka Ravi, Gerald B Pier, Stephen Lory, Tomás Maira-Litrán
Acinetobacter baumannii is a bacterial pathogen with increasing impact in healthcare settings, due in part to this organism's resistance to many antimicrobial agents, with pneumonia and bacteremia as the most common manifestations of disease. A significant proportion of clinically relevant A. baumannii strains are resistant to killing by normal human serum (NHS), an observation supported in this study by showing that 12 out of 15 genetically diverse strains of A. baumannii are resistant to NHS killing. To expand our understanding of the genetic basis of A...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855277/experimental-confirmation-of-the-c3-tickover-hypothesis-by-studies-with-an-ab-s77-that-inhibits-tickover-in-whole-serum
#13
Peter J Lachmann, Elizabeth Lay, David J Seilly
The complement component 3 (C3) tickover hypothesis was put forward in the early 1970s to account for the spontaneous activation of the alternative complement pathway that occurs after the genetic absence or in vitro depletion of Factor I, the enzyme that is essential for the breakdown of C3b. The hypothesis was widely accepted, but experimental demonstration of the tickover was elusive. A phage Ab against C3b that inhibited the alternative complement pathway, but not the classical pathway, was described in 2009...
August 29, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846925/interaction-of-extremophilic-archaeal-viruses-with-human-and-mouse-complement-system-and-viral-biodistribution-in-mice
#14
Linping Wu, Kristine Buch Uldahl, Fangfang Chen, Halli Benasutti, Deborah Logvinski, Vivian Vu, Nirmal K Banda, Xu Peng, Dmitri Simberg, Seyed Moein Moghimi
Archaeal viruses offer exceptional biophysical properties for modification and exploration of their potential in bionanotechnology, bioengineering and nanotherapeutic developments. However, the interaction of archaeal viruses with elements of the innate immune system has not been explored, which is a necessary prerequisite if their potential for biomedical applications to be realized. Here we show complement activation through lectin (via direct binding of MBL/MASPs) and alternative pathways by two extremophilic archaeal viruses (Sulfolobus monocaudavirus 1 and Sulfolobus spindle-shaped virus 2) in human serum...
August 25, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844335/sacubitril-valsartan-an-important-piece-in-the-therapeutic-puzzle-of-heart-failure
#15
REVIEW
Pedro Marques da Silva, Carlos Aguiar
Sacubitril/valsartan (LCZ696), a supramolecular sodium salt complex of the neprilysin inhibitor prodrug sacubitril and the angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) valsartan, was recently approved in the EU and the USA for the treatment of chronic heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) (NYHA class II-IV). Inhibition of chronically activated neurohormonal pathways (the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system [RAAS] and sympathetic nervous system [SNS]) is central to the treatment of chronic HFrEF. Furthermore, enhancement of the natriuretic peptide (NP) system, with favorable cardiovascular (CV) and renal effects in HF, is a desirable therapeutic goal to complement RAAS and SNS blockade...
August 23, 2017: Portuguese Journal of Cardiology: An Official Journal of the Portuguese Society of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811496/genome-wide-expression-differences-in-anti-vegf-and-dexamethasone-treatment-of-inflammatory-angiogenesis-in-the-rat-cornea
#16
Pierfrancesco Mirabelli, Anthony Mukwaya, Anton Lennikov, Maria Xeroudaki, Beatrice Peebo, Mira Schaupper, Neil Lagali
Angiogenesis as a pathological process in the eye can lead to blindness. In the cornea, suppression of angiogenesis by anti-VEGF treatment is only partially effective while steroids, although effective in treating inflammation and angiogenesis, have broad activity leading to undesirable side effects. In this study, genome-wide expression was investigated in a suture-induced corneal neovascularization model in rats, to investigate factors differentially targeted by dexamethasone and anti-Vegf. Topical treatment with either rat-specific anti-Vegf, dexamethasone, or normal goat IgG (sham) was given to sutured corneas for 48 hours, after which in vivo imaging, tissue processing for RNA microarray, and immunofluorescence were performed...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808775/how-novel-structures-inform-understanding-of-complement-function
#17
REVIEW
Elena Goicoechea de Jorge, Hugo Yebenes, Marina Serna, Agustín Tortajada, Oscar Llorca, Santiago Rodríguez de Córdoba
During the last decade, the complement field has experienced outstanding advancements in the mechanistic understanding of how complement activators are recognized, what C3 activation means, how protein complexes like the C3 convertases and the membrane attack complex are assembled, and how positive and negative complement regulators perform their function. All of this has been made possible mostly because of the contributions of structural biology to the study of the complement components. The wealth of novel structural data has frequently provided support to previously held knowledge, but often has added alternative and unexpected insights into complement function...
August 14, 2017: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803115/immunological-response-to-nitroglycerin-loaded-shear-responsive-liposomes-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#18
Marzia Buscema, Sofiya Matviykiv, Tamás Mészáros, Gabriela Gerganova, Andreas Weinberger, Ute Mettal, Dennis Mueller, Frederik Neuhaus, Etienne Stalder, Takashi Ishikawa, Rudolf Urbanics, Till Saxer, Thomas Pfohl, János Szebeni, Andreas Zumbuehl, Bert Müller
Liposomes formulated from the 1,3-diamidophospholipid Pad-PC-Pad are shear-responsive and thus promising nano-containers to specifically release a vasodilator at stenotic arteries. The recommended preclinical safety tests for therapeutic liposomes of nanometer size include the in vitro assessment of complement activation and the evaluation of the associated risk of complement activation-related pseudo-allergy (CARPA) in vivo. For this reason, we measured complement activation by Pad-PC-Pad formulations in human and porcine sera, along with the nanopharmaceutical-mediated cardiopulmonary responses in pigs...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801815/plasma-levels-of-complement-activation-fragments-c3b-and-sc5b-9-significantly-increased-in-patients-with-thrombotic-microangiopathy-after-allogeneic-stem-cell-transplantation
#19
Jiaqian Qi, Jie Wang, Jia Chen, Jian Su, Yaqiong Tang, Xiaojin Wu, Xiao Ma, Feng Chen, Changgeng Ruan, X Long Zheng, Depei Wu, Yue Han
Transplantation-associated thrombotic microangiopathy (TA-TMA) is an uncommon but severe complication in patients undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT). However, the mechanism is unclear. From 2011 to 2014, 20 patients with TA-TMA, 20 patients without, and 54 patients with various other complications, including veno occlusive disease (VOD), graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), and infection, were recruited in the study. Plasma vWF antigen (vWFAg), vWF activity (vWFAc), and ADAMTS13 activity were determined in these patients by ELISAs and FRETS-vWF73 assay, respectively...
August 11, 2017: Annals of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798244/atypical-haemolytic-uremic-syndrome-ahus-and-membranoproliferative-glomerulonephritis-mpgn-different-diseases-or-a-spectrum-of-complement-mediated-glomerular-diseases
#20
Ghada A Ankawi, William F Clark
Historically, patients with kidney diseases caused by genetic or acquired dysregulation of the complement alternative pathway have been grouped into clinical syndromes, C3 glomerulopathy (C3GN/DDD) and thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA), specifically atypical haemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS). Recent data suggested that these diseases share a common pathophysiology and that patients can transition between glomerulopathies in this spectrum. Histopathologically, the main difference cited is the immunofluorescence (IF) findings, with C3 predominance in C3 glomerulopathy (compared with immunoglobulins and complements in immune complex-mediated membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN)) and negative IF in TMA...
August 10, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
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