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Juan L Molina, María Calvó, Eduardo Padilla, Mara Balda, Gabriela González Alemán, Néstor V Florenzano, Gonzalo Guerrero, Danielle Kamis, Beatriz Molina Rangeon, Mercedes Bourdieu, Sergio A Strejilevich, Horacio A Conesa, Javier I Escobar, Igor Zwir, C Robert Cloninger, Gabriel A de Erausquin
Identifying endophenotypes of schizophrenia is of critical importance and has profound implications on clinical practice. Here we propose an innovative approach to clarify the mechanims through which temperament and character deviance relates to risk for schizophrenia and predict long-term treatment outcomes. We recruited 61 antipsychotic naïve subjects with chronic schizophrenia, 99 unaffected relatives, and 68 healthy controls from rural communities in the Central Andes. Diagnosis was ascertained with the Schedules of Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry; parkinsonian motor impairment was measured with the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale; mesencephalic parenchyma was evaluated with transcranial ultrasound; and personality traits were assessed using the Temperament and Character Inventory...
2017: NPJ Schizophrenia
Christian Kasperk, Carmen Georgescu, Peter Nawroth
Diabetes mellitus and bone metabolism affect mesenchymal tissues and have numerous epidemiological and pathophysiological associations in common. Diabetes mellitus affects bone metabolism and increases fracture risk. The pathophysiological mechanims how type 1 and type 2 diabetes impair bone metabolism and bone strength may differ which is outlined in this review. Direct metabolic effects in additon to centrally controlled endocrine loops exert suppressive effects on bone formation and may also stimulate bone Resorption...
January 10, 2017: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
I S Severina, V I Fedchenko, A V Veselovsky, A E Medvedev
Renalase is a recently discovered secretory protein, which plays a certain (still poorly understood) role in regulation of blood pressure. The review summarizes own and literature data accumulated since the first publication on relanase (2005). Initial reports on FAD-dependent amine oxidase activity of this protein were not confirmed in independent experiments performed in different laboratories. In addition, proposed amine oxidase activity of circulating extracellular renalase requires the presence of FAD, which has not been detected either in blood or urinary renalase...
November 2015: Biomedit︠s︡inskai︠a︡ Khimii︠a︡
Jorge Valencia-Ortega, Arturo Zárate, Renata Saucedo, Hernández-Valencia Marcelino, José Gregorio Cruz-Durán, Edgardo Puello-Tamara, Fabián Arechavaleta-Velasco
Preeclampsia is one of the main causes of maternal and perinatal mortality in the world; however, the pathophysiologic pathways haven't been clearly elucidated. It is thought to result from a breakdown of maternal tolerance to paternal antigens in placenta that start an immune response against the trophoblast inducing a defective placentation and a hipoxic/isquemic environment which in turn triggers a systemic inflamatory response. This review gives an overview of the mechanims involved in maternal tolerance, how these are disrupted in preeclampsia, and how they contribute to the inflamatory response...
August 2015: Ginecología y Obstetricia de México
Sunxiao Chen, Hongli Yan, Lei Zhang, Wei Kong, Yi Sun, Weiwei Zhang, Yan Chen, Anmei Deng
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Cryptococcus neoformans infections are becoming increasingly prevalent and remain a life-threatening clinical issue in immune-compromised hosts. The microorganism evades a variety of endogenous anti-fungal mechanims of host immune cells. The signaling pathways in human immune cells that become activated in response to Cryptococcus neoformans infection have yet to be fully characterized. METHODS: Human monocytes were incubated with Cryptococcus neoformans, and the whole transcriptome of monocytes was sequenced before and after exposure to Cryptococcus neoformans using mass parallel sequencing techniques...
2015: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Pasquale Bianco, Zsolt Mártonfalvi, Katalin Naftz, Dorina Kőszegi, Miklós Kellermayer
Titin is a giant filamentous protein of the muscle sarcomere in which stretch induces the unfolding of its globular domains. However, the mechanisms of how domains are progressively selected for unfolding and which domains eventually unfold have for long been elusive. Based on force-clamp optical tweezers experiments we report here that, in a paradoxical violation of mechanically driven activation kinetics, neither the global domain unfolding rate, nor the folded-state lifetime distributions of full-length titin are sensitive to force...
July 21, 2015: Biophysical Journal
Béatrice Gaume, Nathalie Dodet, Jean-Pierre Thomé, Soazig Lemoine
Chlordecone is a persistent organochlorine pesticide widely used between 1972 and 1993 in the French West Indies to control the root borer in banana fields. Chlordecone use resulted in long-term pollution of soils, contamination of waters, of aquatic organisms, and of fields. Chlordecone is known to be neurotoxic, to increase prostate cancer, and to have negative effects on cognitive and motor development during infancy. In Guadeloupe, most of the freshwater species living in contaminated rivers exceed the French legal limit of 20 μg·kg(-1) wet weight...
June 2015: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Letizia Scola, Federica M Di Maggio, Loredana Vaccarino, Manuela Bova, Giusy I Forte, Calogera Pisano, Giuseppina Candore, Giuseppina Colonna-Romano, Domenico Lio, Giovanni Ruvolo, Carmela R Balistreri
Thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA) is a progressive disorder involving gradual dilation of ascending and/or descending thoracic aorta with dissection or rupture as complications. It occurs as sporadic or defined syndromes/familial forms.Genetic, molecular and cellular mechanims of sporadic TAA forms are poorly characterized and known. Thus, our interest has been focused on investigating the role of genetic variants of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) pathways in TAA risk. On the other hand, no data on the role of genetic variants of TGF-β pathway in sporadic TAA exist until now...
2014: Mediators of Inflammation
Gabriela Sevignani, Maria Fernanda Soares, Gustavo Lenci Marques, Ana Karyn Ehrenfried de Freitas, Arthur Gentili, Domingos Candiota Chula, Marcelo Mazza do Nascimento
INTRODUCTION: Influenza A (H1N1) virus was first reported on April 2009 and, since then, several studies have reported the characteristics concerning the clinical presentation and pulmonary involvement. However, accurate information about the acute kidney injury (AKI) and kidney histopathological findings in these patients remain scarce. OBJECTIVE: To describe the kidney histopathological findings of 6 patients with H1N1 who developed AKI and underwent kidney biopsy, correlating them with clinical features...
July 2013: Jornal Brasileiro de Nefrologia: ʹorgão Oficial de Sociedades Brasileira e Latino-Americana de Nefrologia
Christophe Jamin, Achouak Achour, Pierre Youinou, Jacques-Olivier Pers
Mechanims of peripheral tolerance include molecular controls and the presence of regulatory lymphocytes. Regulatory T lymphocytes (Tregs) correspond to different sub-populations of T cells that control immune responses due to the production of cytokines, such as IL-10 and with direct cell-to-cell contacts. Tregs targets are antigen presenting cells, such as dendritic cells, effector CD4(+) and CD8(+) lymphocytes but also effector antibody-producing B lymphocytes. Regulatory B lymphocytes (Bregs) have been more recently described and likely represent different sub-populations of B cells that control the development of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases due to the production of IL-10 and using intercellular contacts...
January 2014: La Presse Médicale
Samuele De Minicis, Chris Day, Gianluca Svegliati-Baroni
NAFLD is the most common liver disease worldwide but it is the potential evolution to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) that makes NAFLD of such clinical importance. The current work provides an overview of the main mechanims and potential therapeutical insights involved in NAFLD, NASH, fibrosis and HCC progression.
2013: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Edy Meiyanto, Adam Hermawan, Anindyajati
Targeted therapy has been a very promising strategy of drug development research. Many molecular mechanims of diseases have been known to be regulated by abundance of proteins, such as receptors and hormones. Chemoprevention for treatment and prevention of diseases are continuously developed. Pre-clinical and clinical studies in chemoprevention field yielded many valuable data in preventing the onset of disease and suppressing the progress of their growth, making chemoprevention a challenging and a very rational strategy in future researches...
2012: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
Maria Emilia P F Silva, Rosilda M Mussury, Maria do Carmo Vieira, Valter V Alves Junior, Zefa V Pereira, Silvana P Q Scalon
Tropaeolum majus L. (nasturtium) is a culture popularly known by its medicinal, ornamental and culinary utility. This work aimed to evaluate the interaction between Astylus variegatus (Germar 1824) (Coleoptera: Melyridae) and the nasturtium flowers associated to the weeks of flourishing, in order to conceive the floral mechanims used by the species to attract A. variegatus. The insects collection was achieved with an entomologic net by the sweeping method, during the weekly flowering, at two hours, from 7am to 5pm...
December 2011: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Yue-Ping Guo, Yan Liu, Jing-Bo Li, Yun Huang, Han-Ping Qi, Jing Xie, Xiao-Guang Cui, Zi-Yong Yue, Wen-Zhi Li
BACKGROUND: Previous studies demonstrate that macrophages synthesis and release catecholamines, which regulate the immune responses in an autocrine manner. These responses are mediated in part by β-adrenoceptors expressed on macrophages. Some β-adrenoceptor antagonists are commonly used in clinical conditions. Here we investigated whether the chronic administration of β-adrenoceptor antagonists upregulate adrenergic system of alveolar macrophage and the potential mechanims. METHODS: Propranolol (30 mg/kg·d) or atenolol (5 mg/kg·d) was administered by gavage to rats for 4 weeks...
2011: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Robrecht Raedt, Ralph Clinckers, Lies Mollet, Kristl Vonck, Riëm El Tahry, Tine Wyckhuys, Veerle De Herdt, Evelien Carrette, Wytse Wadman, Yvette Michotte, Ilse Smolders, Paul Boon, Alfred Meurs
Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is an effective adjunctive treatment for medically refractory epilepsy. In this study, we measured VNS-induced changes in hippocampal neurotransmitter levels and determined their potential involvement in the anticonvulsive action of VNS, to elucidate the mechanism of action responsible for the seizure suppressing effect of VNS in an animal model for limbic seizures. We used in vivo intracerebral microdialysis to measure VNS-induced changes in hippocampal extracellular concentrations of noradrenaline, dopamine, serotonin and GABA in freely moving, male Wistar rats...
May 2011: Journal of Neurochemistry
Mehdi Ouaïssi, Urs Giger, Igor Sielezneff, Nicolas Pirrò, Bernard Sastre, Ali Ouaissi
There is ongoing interest to identify signaling pathways and genes that play a key role in carcinogenesis and the development of resistance to antitumoral drugs. Given that histone deacetylases (HDACs) interact with various partners through complex molecular mechanims leading to the control of gene expression, they have captured the attention of a large number of researchers. As a family of transcriptional corepressors, they have emerged as important regulators of cell differentiation, cell cycle progression, and apoptosis...
2011: Journal of Biomedicine & Biotechnology
Stéphane Aloïse, Michel Sliwa, Zuzanna Pawlowska, Julien Réhault, Julien Dubois, Olivier Poizat, Guy Buntinx, Aurélie Perrier, François Maurel, Shouhei Yamaguchi, Michinori Takeshita
Two photochromic diarylethenes blocked by alkyl bridges in an ideal conformation for photocyclization are studied by stationary and femtosecond transient spectroscopy in order to depict the photocyclization processes: the bistable 1,2-dicyano[2.n]metacyclophan-1-ene with n = 2, abbreviated as [2.2], and its non-bistable analogue with n = 4, abbreviated as [2.4]. The data are interpreted in the light of AM1-CIS calculations and state correlation diagrams based on conclusive TD-DFT calculations. For [2.2], a solvent-sensitive excitation wavelength threshold governing the photocyclization yield is clearly evidenced between the S(1) and S(2) singlet states...
June 2, 2010: Journal of the American Chemical Society
A Urruticoechea, R Alemany, J Balart, A Villanueva, F Viñals, G Capellá
The landscape of cancer treatment has dramatically changed over the last four decades. The age when surgery and radiotherapy were the only effective way to fight tumour growth has ended. A complex scenario where the molecular features of tumours seem to be the cornerstone of any therapy is now emerging. Here we provide an overview on the different approaches to cancer treatment. This review will help the reader to acknowledge the pivotal role of some classic cancer therapies, including surgery, radiation, chemotherapy and endocrine therapy, now better understood in the mechanims underpinning their efficacy...
January 2010: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Antonio Alcami, Margarida Saraiva
Chemokines are chemoattractant cytokines that play an important role in immunity. The role of chemokines against invading pathogens is emphasized by the expression of chemokine inhibitors by many pathogens. A mechanims employed by poxviruses and herpesviruses is the secretion of chemokine bindingproteins unrelated to host receptors that bind chemokines with high affinity and block their activity. Soluble chemokine binding proteins have also been identified in the human parasite Schistosoma mansoni and in ticks...
2009: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Z Z Sanogo, Z Ouattara, S Yena, D Doumbia, Y Coulibaly, A Tembely, D Sangaré, S Soumaré
OBJECT: The cutaneous gangrenes, in particular those of Fournier are described like evolving/moving often in a way striking down. We report, over a study period of 10 months, the clinical and therapeutic characteristics of the lesions observed thus that their evolution in a context of developing country. PATIENTS AND METHOD: it is about an exploratory study running 2005 in the service of surgery "A" of the hospital of the Point G and of urology. We listed a patient presenting a cutaneous gangrene post Caesarean like 5 cases of gangrene of the external genitals or gangrene of Fournier...
2006: Le Mali Médical
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