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Poovvathingal Haris, Varughese Mary, Chellappanpillai Sudarsanakumar
6-Gingerol [5-hydroxy-1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl) decan-3-one], the bio-active ingredient of the popular Indian spice ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe), is well-known for its pharmacological and physiological actions. The potent antioxidant, antiemetic, antiulcer, antimicrobial, analgesic, hypoglycemic, antihypertensive, antihyperlipidemic, immunostimulant, anti-inflammatory, cardiotonic, and cancer prevention activities of 6-Gingerol has been investigated and explored. 6-Gingerol is a good candidate for the treatment of various cancers including prostrate, pancreatic, breast, skin, gastrointestinal, pulmonary, and renal cancer...
February 15, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Niluni M Wijesundara, H P Vasantha Rupasinghe
In the present study, essential oils (EOs) extracted from oregano, sage, cloves, and ginger were evaluated for the phytochemical profile, antibacterial, and anti-biofilm activities against Streptococcus pyogenes. The broth microdilution method was used to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) of EOs. The minimum biofilm inhibitory concentrations (MBICs) were determined using MTT assay and fixed biofilms were observed through scan electron microscopy...
February 13, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Apinya Rachkeeree, Kuttiga Kantadoung, Ratchuporn Suksathan, Ratchadawan Puangpradab, Paul Alexander Page, Sarana Rose Sommano
The nutritional compositions and phytochemical properties of eight edible flowers of the ginger family (Zingiberaceae) commonly found in Thailand are reported herein. The plant genera investigated were Zingiber (Ginger, Phlai Dam, Krathue), Hedychium (two morphological filament forms), Curcuma (Ao), Etlingera (Torch ginger), Amomum (Chi Kuk), and Alpinia (Galangal), which are eaten fresh or cooked as ingredients in the preparation of many Thai dishes. The proximate compositions (moisture, ash, fiber, protein, fat, and carbohydrate contents) varied among the different genera...
2018: Frontiers in Nutrition
Rao Mukkavilli, Chunhua Yang, Reenu Singh Tanwar, Roopali Saxena, Sushma R Gundala, Yingyi Zhang, Ahmed Ghareeb, Stephan D Floyd, Subrahmanyam Vangala, Wei-Wen Kuo, Padmashree C G Rida, Ritu Aneja
Anticancer efficacy of ginger phenolics (GPs) has been demonstrated in various in vitro assays and xenograft mouse models. However, only sub-therapeutic plasma concentrations of GPs were detected in human and mouse pharmacokinetic (PK) studies. Intriguingly, a significant portion of GPs occurred as phase II metabolites (mainly glucuronide conjugates) in plasma. To evaluate the disposition of GPs and understand the real players responsible for efficacy, we performed a PK and tissue distribution study in mice...
February 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ginger D Blonde, Susan P Travers, Alan Craig Spector
The taste of L-glutamate and its synergism with 5'-ribonucleotides is thought to be primarily mediated through the T1R1+T1R3 heterodimer in some mammals including rodents and humans. While knockout (KO) mice lacking either receptor subunit show impaired sensitivity to a range of monosodium glutamate (MSG) concentrations mixed with 2.5mM inosine 5'-monophosphate (IMP) in amiloride, wild-type (WT) controls can detect this IMP concentration, hindering direct comparison between genotypes. Moreover, some residual sensitivity persists in the KO group, suggesting that the remaining subunit could maintain a limited degree of function...
February 14, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Soumyadyuti Samai, Zhaoxia Qian, Jian Ling, Kathryn N Guye, David S Ginger
We synthesize and characterize stimulus-responsive nanocomposites consisting of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) with controlled loadings of anisotropic plate-like silver nanoprisms. These composites show strong, reversible switching of their optical extinction and scattering properties in response to temperature cycling. We use UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering to characterize the hybrids and show that the loading density of the silver nanoprisms in the polymer and the size of the nanoprisms are both factors that can be used to tailor the optical response of the composites, extending the range of colors beyond that previously reported with PNIPAM/plasmonic nanoparticle composites...
February 14, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
F Vetter, C Müller, M Stöckelhuber, F Bracher
Cinnamon is a traditional herbal drug, but more importantly, it is used as a flavor compound in the production of foodstuff. Due to the content of significant concentrations of coumarin in Cassia cinnamon, effective control of the coumarin content in seasonal bakery products like ginger bread and cinnamon biscuits is urgently needed. Here we present a novel, fast and fully validated protocol for the determination of coumarin in marketed bakery products using the QuEChERS sample preparation technique in combination with GC-MS analysis...
June 1, 2017: Die Pharmazie
Chunyu Yang, Fengqian Guo, Chen Zang, Cui Li, Hui Cao, Baoxian Zhang
Rhizoma coptidis (RC) has been used as an herbal medicine in China for over one thousand years, and it was subjected to specific processing before use as materia medica. Processing is a pharmaceutical technique that aims to enhance the efficacy and/or reduce the toxicity of crude drugs according to traditional Chinese medicine theory. In this study, the chemical profiles of RC, ginger juice processed RC (GRC), and water processed RC (WRC) was determined to reveal the mechanism of processing of RC. UPLC-QTOF-MS analysis of methanol extract of RC, GRC, and WRC has been conducted to investigate the effect of processing on the composition of RC...
February 10, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Shabnam Sepahpour, Jinap Selamat, Mohd Yazid Abdul Manap, Alfi Khatib, Ahmad Faizal Abdull Razis
This study evaluated the efficacy of various organic solvents (80% acetone, 80% ethanol, 80% methanol) and distilled water for extracting antioxidant phenolic compounds from turmeric, curry leaf, torch ginger and lemon grass extracts. They were analyzed regarding the total phenol and flavonoid contents, antioxidant activity and concentration of some phenolic compounds. Antioxidant activity was determined by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay and the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay...
February 13, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Isiaka Ayofe Adekunle, Christian Eseigbe Imafidon, Ayowole Abraham Oladele, Abiodun Oladele Ayoka
Cyclosporine (CYA), a common immuno-suppressant drug that is used in organ transplants, is associated with nephrotoxic effects. Scientific exploration of natural products of plant origin should be considered; especially, in a world with increasing prevalence of kidney diseases. Effects of ginger polyphenols (GP) in Wistar rats with CYA-induced perturbations in electrolyte balance and kidney function was determined. Fifty Wistar rats were recruited for this study such that graded doses of GP were administered following CYA-induced kidney injury and comparisons were made against control and toxic groups at p < 0...
February 7, 2018: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
Nur Syafinaz Zainal, Chai Phei Gan, Beng Fye Lau, Pei San Yee, Kai Hung Tiong, Zainal Ariff Abdul Rahman, Vyomesh Patel, Sok Ching Cheong
BACKGROUND: The CXCR4-RhoA and PI3K-mTOR signaling pathways play crucial roles in the dissemination and tumorigenesis of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Activation of these pathways have made them promising molecular targets in the treatment of OSCC. Zerumbone, a bioactive monocyclic sesquiterpene isolated from the rhizomes of tropical ginger, Zingiber zerumbet (L.) Roscoe ex Sm. has displayed promising anticancer properties with the ability to modulate multiple molecular targets involved in carcinogenesis...
January 15, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Sergio Montserrat-de la Paz, Maria Dolores Garcia-Gimenez, Ana Maria Quilez, Rocio De la Puerta, Angeles Fernandez-Arche
BACKGROUND: The dried rhizome of ginger has been widely used for more than 2500 years in folk medicine for the treatment of various diseases that involve inflammation or are caused by oxidative stress. AIMS: This study was designed to compare the anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effect of dried powdered ginger rhizome (GR) and paracetamol (APAP) on an experimental mouse model of fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) induced by intermittent cold stress (ICS). METHODS: Forty-eight female C57BL/6 J mice were used for the experiments...
February 8, 2018: Inflammopharmacology
Jonathan Isbill, Jayanthi Kandiah, Jagdish Khubchandani
Background: The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies has increased in the United States, but little is known about consumers' perceptions of use of such therapies. The purpose of this study was to assess knowledge, perceptions, and predictors of spice use for health promotion among adults in the Midwestern US. Methods: UUsing a cross-sectional study design, adults in the Midwestern US (n = 703) completed a valid and reliable survey which was pilot tested with a small convenience sample of adults (n = 38)...
2018: Health Promotion Perspectives
Xiangfeng Li, Ying Qin, Wei Liu, Xiao-Yu Zhou, Ya-Nan Li, Li-Ying Wang
Nausea and vomiting are among the most common and distressing side effects of chemotherapy. Additional antiemetic drugs are urgently needed to effectively manage and ameliorate chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). The efficacy of ginger as an antiemetic modality for ameliorating CINV has not been established in previous studies. The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of ginger, as an adjuvant drug to standard antiemetic therapy, in ameliorating acute and delayed CINV in patients with lung cancer receiving cisplatin-based regimens...
February 1, 2018: Integrative Cancer Therapies
Xingran Kou, Xiaoqi Wang, Ruya Ji, Lang Liu, Yening Qiao, Zaixiang Lou, Chaoyang Ma, Shiming Li, Hongxin Wang, Chi-Tang Ho
As one of the main bioactive compounds of dried ginger, 6-shogaol has been widely used to alleviate many ailments. It is also a major pungent flavor component, and its precursor prior to dehydration is 6-gingerol, which is reported to be responsible for the pungent flavor and biological activity of fresh ginger. Structurally, gingerols including 6-gingerol have a β-hydroxyl ketone moiety and is liable to dehydrate to generate an α,β-unsaturated ketone under heat and/or acidic conditions. The conjugation of the α,β-unsaturated ketone skeleton in the chemical structure of 6-shogaol explicates its higher potency and efficacy than 6-gingerol in terms of antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antiemetic and other bioactivities...
February 8, 2018: Food & Function
Lei Lv, Yongdong Jin, Xiaojiao Kang, Yangyang Zhao, Chengbi Cui, Zhijun Guo
This paper describes an aptamer/gold nanoparticle-based assay for ochratoxin A (OTA) detection. This assay is based on the use of an aptamer labeled with carboxyfluorescein (FAM) at its 5'-end and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) that act as quenchers of fluorescence. When OTA is absent in the system, the fluorescently labeled aptamers are adsorbed on the surface of AuNPs. The fluorescence signal of the fluorescein-labeled OTA aptamer generated is quenched by the fluorescence resonance energy transfer effect of AuNPs...
May 30, 2018: Food Chemistry
Xiaojian Yin, Shi-Lei Wang, Raphael N Alolga, Enos Mais, Ping Li, Pingfang Yang, Setsuko Komatsu, Lian-Wen Qi
Ginger is a popular spice used in food and beverages. In this study, we sought to characterize and differentiate ginger samples of Ghana and China origin using label-free proteomic and untargeted metabolomic analyses. As result, a total of 180 proteins significantly changed between the ginger samples from both studied countries. Among them, 17 proteins were specifically identified in the Chinese ginger, while 23 proteins were only identified in the Ghanaian ginger. Function and bioinformatics analyses indicated that changes in carbon metabolism, secondary metabolites biosyntheses, citrate acid cycle, and amino acids biosyntheses-related pathways contributed to the differences...
May 30, 2018: Food Chemistry
Wagih A El-Shouny, Sameh S Ali, Jianzhong Sun, Sara M Samy, Asmaa Ali
OBJECTIVES: Pseudomonas aeruginosa producing extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESβL) enzyme had the ability for antimicrobial resistance mechanisms and its multidrug-resistant (MDR) phenotype, has been increasingly reported as a major clinical concern worldwide. The aim of this study was to (i) characterize ESβL-producing MDR P. aeruginosa isolated from burn wound infections phenotypically and molecularly, (ii) evaluate the antibacterial activity of some essential oils (EOs) against selected ESβL-producing drug resistant P...
February 3, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Najmeh Maharlouei, Reza Tabrizi, Kamran B Lankarani, Abbas Rezaianzadeh, Maryam Akbari, Fariba Kolahdooz, Maryam Rahimi, Fariba Keneshlou, Zatollah Asemi
This systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was performed to summarize the effect of ginger intake on weight loss, glycemic control and lipid profiles among overweight and obese subjects. We searched the following databases through November 2017: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. The relevant data were extracted and assessed for quality of the studies according to the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Data were pooled using the inverse variance method and expressed as Standardized Mean Difference (SMD) with 95% Confidence Intervals (95% CI)...
February 2, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Jiwen Xin, Cyrus Afrasiabi, Sebastien Lelong, Julee Adesara, Ginger Tsueng, Andrew I Su, Chunlei Wu
BACKGROUND: Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) are now widely used to distribute biological data. And many popular biological APIs developed by many different research teams have adopted Javascript Object Notation (JSON) as their primary data format. While usage of a common data format offers significant advantages, that alone is not sufficient for rich integrative queries across APIs. RESULTS: Here, we have implemented JSON for Linking Data (JSON-LD) technology on the BioThings APIs that we have developed, MyGene...
February 1, 2018: BMC Bioinformatics
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