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Psychopathy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324826/facial-responsiveness-of-psychopaths-to-the-emotional-expressions-of-others
#1
Janina Künecke, Andreas Mokros, Sally Olderbak, Oliver Wilhelm
Psychopathic individuals show selfish, manipulative, and antisocial behavior in addition to emotional detachment and reduced empathy. Their empathic deficits are thought to be associated with a reduced responsiveness to emotional stimuli. Immediate facial muscle responses to the emotional expressions of others reflect the expressive part of emotional responsiveness and are positively related to trait empathy. Empirical evidence for reduced facial muscle responses in adult psychopathic individuals to the emotional expressions of others is rare...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323528/current-directions-in-laboratory-studies-of-personality-pathology-examples-from-borderline-personality-disorder-psychopathy-and-schizotypy
#2
Alexis K Matusiewicz, Katherine L McCauley, Julie M McCarthy, Nadia Bounoua, C W Lejuez
Much of the earliest research on personality pathology was observational and descriptive in nature, drawing heavily on subjective self-reports, however, the last 20 years have seen a surge of interest in laboratory-based studies. Laboratory research offers a number of benefits for researchers interested in personality disorders and personality pathology including the opportunities to use objective performance-based and behavioral measures, reveal the neuropsychological and biobehavioral processes that may help shape the experience and behavior of individuals with personality disorders, and create experimental designs that allow researchers to systematically explore the effect of context on emotional, behavioral and cognitive responding...
January 2018: Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294686/working-alliance-and-psychopathy-linkages-to-treatment-outcome-in-a-sample-of-treated-sexual-offenders
#3
Danielle R DeSorcy, Mark E Olver, J Stephen Wormith
The present study examined the working alliance, as measured by the full-length Working Alliance Inventory (WAI), and its association with psychopathy, treatment completion, and recidivism in a sample of 111 incarcerated adult male sexual offenders. The men completed the WAI 3 months into their treatment program, while psychopathy was measured via file-based ratings of the Hare's Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R), and outcome data were collected via the Canadian Police Information Centre. The majority (85%) of high PCL-R scoring men (PCL-R 25+) successfully completed their treatment program, and by and large, the men demonstrated strong working alliances with their primary therapists...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294642/an-exploratory-study-of-female-psychopathy-and-drug-related-violent-crime
#4
Nicholas D Thomson
There is a clear link between drugs and violence, and the extensive burden drug-related violence inflicts on society. However, drug-related violence is largely understudied, especially in female populations. The aim of the present study was to explore whether women convicted of drug-related violent crime differed on individual-level risk factors from women convicted of a nondrug-related violent crime and women convicted of nonviolent crimes. One hundred and twenty-five female inmates were classified using official criminal records...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285817/predicting-delinquency-by-self-reported-impulsivity-in-adolescents-in-ghana
#5
Samuel Adjorlolo, Edward Asamoah, Sarah Adu-Poku
BACKGROUND: Impulsivity is one of several variables associated with delinquent and criminal acts, but its utility depends on the psychometric properties of the measure used. AIM: To investigate the latent structure of the abbreviated Barratt Impulsivity Scale (ABIS) and its convergent validity with measures of aggression and psychopathy in a Ghanaian sample. METHODS: In a cross-sectional survey, high school students were recruited from two randomly selected schools in Ghana and asked to respond to the ABIS and measures of delinquency, aggression and psychopathy...
December 28, 2017: Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health: CBMH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284378/assessing-protective-factors-for-violence-risk-in-u-k-general-mental-health-services-using-the-structured-assessment-of-protective-factors
#6
Alina Haines, Andrew Brown, Syed Fahad Javaid, Fayyaz Khan, Steve Noblett, Oladipupo Omodunbi, Khurram Sadiq, Wahid Zaman, Richard Whittington
Violence risk assessment and management are key tasks in mental health services and should be guided by validated instruments covering both risk and protective factors. This article is part of an international effort to validate the Structured Assessment of Protective Factors (SAPROF) for violence. The SAPROF, Historical, Clinical, Risk Management-20 (HCR-20) and the Psychopathy Checklist-Screening Version (PCL-SV) were administered in a sample of 261 patients in U.K. forensic, general inpatient, and community mental health settings...
December 1, 2017: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279229/aggression-as-a-trait-the-dark-tetrad-alternative
#7
REVIEW
Delroy L Paulhus, Shelby R Curtis, Daniel N Jones
Aggression is often construed as a unitary trait fully captured by the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (BPAQ). Our review of the literature questions that assumption in several respects. Instead of a top-down approach, we argue for a bottom-up conception based on the Dark Tetrad of personality, that is, narcissism, Machiavellianism, psychopathy, and sadism. We highlight research showing that each member of the tetrad responds to different provocations. We conclude that the unitary trait conception of aggression has yielded more confusion than understanding...
February 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249948/psychopathy-moderates-the-relationship-between-orbitofrontal-and-striatal-alterations-and-violence-the-investigation-of-individuals-accused-of-homicide
#8
Bess Y H Lam, Yaling Yang, Robert A Schug, Chenbo Han, Jianghong Liu, Tatia M C Lee
Brain structural abnormalities in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and striatum (caudate and putamen) have been observed in violent individuals. However, a uni-modal neuroimaging perspective has been used and prior findings have been mixed. The present study takes the multimodal structural brain imaging approaches to investigate the differential gray matter volumes (GMV) and cortical thickness (CTh) in the OFC and striatum between violent (accused of homicide) and non-violent (not accused of any violent crimes) individuals with different levels of psychopathic traits (interpersonal and unemotional qualities, factor 1 psychopathy and the expressions of antisocial disposition and impulsivity, factor 2 psychopathy)...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240538/pathways-to-infidelity-the-roles-of-self-serving-bias-and-betrayal-trauma
#9
Benjamin Warach, Lawrence Josephs, Bernard S Gorman
This study employed a structural equation modeling (SEM) approach to examine the interrelationships between the self-serving bias and various known predictors of infidelity. Specifically, we sought to generate a path model depicting how the following variables jointly predict sexual infidelity perpetration: (1) insecure attachment, (2) pathological narcissism, (3) sexual narcissism, (4) primary psychopathy, (5) self-serving attributions for retaliatory infidelity, and (6) sexual betrayal victimization. We developed a structural model describing various pathways to sexual infidelity perpetration based on these six variables...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239628/psychopathy-in-detained-boys-the-search-for-primary-and-secondary-variants-in-a-clinical-setting
#10
Olivier F Colins, Kostas A Fanti, Randall T Salekin, Eva Mulder, Henrik Andershed
This study investigates whether primary and secondary variants of psychopathy can be identified in an applied, forensic setting based on self-reports of psychopathy and anxiety. Data were available for two samples of detained boys (Sample A: N = 847, Sample B: N = 749). Using three psychopathy dimensions and anxiety as clustering variables, latent profile analysis arrived at 4 latent classes (LCs) that were tentatively labeled as control (LC1), high anxiety (LC2), moderate psychopathy (LC3), and high psychopathy (LC4)...
December 14, 2017: Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225887/a-prospective-longitudinal-study-of-men-with-borderline-personality-disorder-with-and-without-comorbid-antisocial-personality-disorder
#11
Marie-Pier Robitaille, Dave Checknita, Frank Vitaro, Richard E Tremblay, Joel Paris, Sheilagh Hodgins
Background: Some evidence suggests that the prevalence of Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) is elevated among male criminal offenders. It is not presently known whether offending, and violent offending, are limited to those presenting comorbid Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD) who have a childhood history of conduct problems and whether offending is linked to psychopathic traits. Methods: A community sample of 311 males followed from age 6 to 33 years, one third of whom had a criminal charge between ages 18 and 24, completed diagnostic interviews and the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised interview...
2017: Borderline Personality Disorder and Emotion Dysregulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217464/the-relationship-between-trait-psychopathy-and-emotional-intelligence-a-meta-analytic-review
#12
REVIEW
A Megías, R Gómez-Leal, M J Gutiérrez-Cobo, R Cabello, P Fernández-Berrocal
Psychopathy is a personality construct that has been related to important emotional deficits. These findings have led to a growing interest in exploring if psychopathic traits are associated with emotional intelligence (EI). However, the literature exploring this association has revealed conflicting results. The aim of the present study was to provide a reliable estimate of the relationship between psychopathy traits and EI (measured as performance-based ability) through meta-analysis. A quantitative and systematic review of the literature using Scopus, Medline, Pubmed, and PsicINFO showed a total of 13 studies meeting inclusion criteria with a combined sample of 2401 participants...
January 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187772/fearful-faces-do-not-lead-to-faster-attentional-deployment-in-individuals-with-elevated-psychopathic-traits
#13
Sylco S Hoppenbrouwers, Jaap Munneke, Karen A Kooiman, Bethany Little, Craig S Neumann, Jan Theeuwes
In the current study, a gaze-cueing experiment (similar to Dawel et al. 2015) was conducted in which the predictivity of a gaze-cue was manipulated (non-predictive vs highly predictive). This was done to assess the degree to which individuals with elevated psychopathic traits can use contextual information (i.e., the predictivity of the cue). Psychopathic traits were measured with the Self-Report Psychopathy Scale-Short Form (SRP-SF) in a mixed sample (undergraduate students and community members). Results showed no group difference in reaction times between high and non-predictive cueing blocks, suggesting that individuals with elevated psychopathic traits can indeed use contextual information when it is relevant...
2017: Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180243/investigating-error-related-processing-in-incarcerated-adolescents-with-self-report-psychopathy-measures
#14
J Michael Maurer, Vaughn R Steele, Brandi C Fink, Gina M Vincent, Vince D Calhoun, Kent A Kiehl
Disparate results have been found in previous reports when incorporating both interview-based and self-report measures of psychopathic traits within the same sample, suggesting such assessments should not be used interchangeably. We previously found Total and Facet 4 scores from Hare's Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL:YV) were negatively related to amplitude of the error-related positivity (Pe) event-related potential (ERP) component. Here, we investigated using the same previously published sample whether scores on four different self-report measures of adolescent psychopathic traits (the Antisocial Process Screening Device [APSD], Child Psychopathy Scale [CPS], Inventory of Callous and Unemotional Traits [ICU], and Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory [YPI]) were similarly associated with reduced Pe amplitude...
November 24, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172806/hostile-attribution-bias-as-a-mediator-of-the-relationships-of-psychopathy-and-narcissism-with-aggression
#15
Helen Law, Diana M Falkenbach
Hostile attribution bias (HAB), the tendency to perceive hostility in ambiguous situations, has been linked to aggressive outcomes, such as reactive aggression. HAB has been connected to personality types involving hostile beliefs and reactive aggression, including narcissism and psychopathy. Specifically, secondary psychopathy is associated with HAB and reactive aggression. Despite research and theory connecting these constructs, few studies have examined if HAB mediates the relationships among psychopathy, narcissism, and aggression...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172600/what-features-of-psychopathy-might-be-central-a-network-analysis-of-the-psychopathy-checklist-revised-pcl-r-in-three-large-samples
#16
Bruno Verschuere, Sophia van Ghesel Grothe, Lourens Waldorp, Ashley L Watts, Scott O Lilienfeld, John F Edens, Jennifer L Skeem, Arjen Noordhof
Despite a wealth of research, the core features of psychopathy remain hotly debated. Using network analysis, an innovative and increasingly popular statistical tool, the authors mapped the network structure of psychopathy, as operationalized by the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R; Hare, 2003) in two large U.S. offender samples (nNIMH = 1559; nWisconsin = 3954), and 1 large Dutch forensic psychiatric sample (nTBS = 1937). Centrality indices were highly stable within each sample, and indicated that callousness/lack of empathy was the most central PCL-R item in the 2 U...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172574/gender-and-violence-risk-assessment-in-prisons
#17
Janet I Warren, James M Wellbeloved-Stone, Park E Dietz, Sara B Millspaugh
Our study examines the association between Historical, Clinical, Risk Management-20: Version 2; Psychopathy Checklist-Revised; and Violence Risk Assessment Guide scores and violence perpetrated during incarceration by male and female inmates. Using a sample of 288 men and 183 women selected from prisons in 2 states, we used receiver operating characteristics analyses to assess the potential of these 3 measures to predict threatened, physical, or sexual prison violence measured in 2 ways: inmate self-report and formal institutional infractions...
November 27, 2017: Psychological Services
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172554/interfacing-five-factor-model-and-triarchic-conceptualizations-of-psychopathy
#18
Laura E Drislane, Sarah J Brislin, Shayne Jones, Christopher J Patrick
The lexically based five-factor model (FFM) of personality has been a highly influential research framework for characterizing clinical-psychological conditions, including psychopathy, in lexical-trait terms. An alternative trait-descriptive framework, the triarchic model was formulated to characterize psychopathy in neurobehavioral-trait terms, in order to facilitate linkages with variables in the domain of neurobiology. The current study used data from a mixed-gender sample (N = 769; M age = 19.3) to establish an interface between the FFM and triarchic frameworks by identifying subsets of items from a widely used five-factor personality inventory, the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO-PI-R), that effectively index the dimensional constructs of the triarchic model (boldness, meanness, and disinhibition)...
November 27, 2017: Psychological Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171491/-the-efficacy-and-tolerability-of-pericyazine-in-the-treatment-of-patients-with-schizotypal-disorder-organic-personality-disorders-and-pathocharacterological-changes-within-personality-disorders
#19
D S Danilov
AIM: To assess the efficacy and tolerability of pericyazine in the treatment of patients with mental disorders manifesting with psychopathic-like symptoms and correction of pathocharacterological disorders in patients with personality disorders during the short-term admission to the hospital or the long-term outpatient treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Sixty-three patients with schizotypal personality disorder and organic personality disorder with psychopathic-like symptoms and pathocharacterological changes within the diagnosis of dissocial personality disorder and borderline personality disorder were examined...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167654/dark-triad-perceptions-of-organizational-politics-and-counterproductive-work-behaviors-the-moderating-effect-of-political-skills
#20
Muhammad A Baloch, Fanchen Meng, Zefeng Xu, Ignacio Cepeda-Carrion, Danish, Muhammad W Bari
The aim of this work focuses on the relationship among the Dark Triad (psychopathy, narcissism, and Machiavellianism), perceptions of organizational politics, political skills, and counterproductive work behavior. This study empirically tests the mediating role of perceptions of organizational politics in the relationship between the Dark Triad and counterproductive work behavior. Furthermore, the study investigates the moderating role of political skills in strengthening the link between the Dark Triad and the perceptions of organizational politics...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
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