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Rachel K B Hamilton, Joseph P Newman
Hamilton and colleagues (2015) recently proposed that an integrative deficit in psychopathy restricts simultaneous processing, thereby leaving fewer resources available for information encoding, narrowing the scope of attention, and undermining associative processing. The current study evaluated this parallel processing deficit proposal using the Simultaneous-Sequential paradigm. This investigation marks the first a priori test of the Hamilton et al.'s theoretical framework. We predicted that psychopathy would be associated with inferior performance (as indexed by lower accuracy and longer response time) on trials requiring simultaneous processing of visual information relative to trials necessitating sequential processing...
October 24, 2016: Personality Disorders
I A Brazil, J D M van Dongen, J H R Maes, R B Mars, A R Baskin-Sommers
Antisocial behavior is a heterogeneous construct that can be divided into subtypes, such as antisocial personality and psychopathy. The adverse consequences of antisocial behavior produce great burden for the perpetrators, victims, family members, and for society at-large. The pervasiveness of antisocial behavior highlights the importance of precisely characterizing subtypes of antisocial individuals and identifying specific factors that are etiologically related to such behaviors to inform the development of targeted treatments...
October 16, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Elyse N Mowle, Shannon E Kelley, John F Edens, M Brent Donnellan, Shannon Toney Smith, Dustin B Wygant, Martin Sellbom
Inconsistent or careless responding to self-report measures is estimated to occur in approximately 10% of university research participants and may be even more common among offender populations. Inconsistent responding may be a result of a number of factors including inattentiveness, reading or comprehension difficulties, and cognitive impairment. Many stand-alone personality scales used in applied and research settings, however, do not include validity indicators to help identify inattentive response patterns...
October 17, 2016: Psychological Assessment
Kathleen Brewer-Smyth, Monica Cornelius, Ryan T Pohlig
The staggering prevalence of obesity and obesity-related health conditions takes exorbitant tolls on health care resources. This cross-sectional study with private evaluations of 636 adult inmates in a southern state prison was conducted with regressions comparing obese (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 30) to nonobese individuals to define obesity risk factors. Obese individuals more likely were female, were victims of childhood sexual abuse, suffered greater severity of childhood sexual abuse, attempted suicide, reported drug dependency, were non-Caucasian, and were older than nonobese...
October 2016: Journal of Correctional Health Care
Svetlana Oshukova, Riittakerttu Kaltiala-Heino, Matti Kaivosoja, Nina Lindberg
BACKGROUND: In DSM 5, conduct disorder was expanded with the new specifier 'with limited prosocial emotions (LPE)'. These callous-unemotional traits have been emphasized as the 'core' of psychopathy syndrome providing greater information about current and future impairment. Individuals with callous-unemotional traits have shown elevated levels of impairment, and these traits have been suggested to serve as a useful indicator for psychiatric vulnerability and psychosocial maladjustment also among community youth...
October 14, 2016: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry
Yiyun Shou, Martin Sellbom, Jing Xu, Tunong Chen, Aiping Sui
The contemporary knowledge of the construct and operationalization of psychopathy in East Asian countries is still limited. The present paper examines the validity and applicability of the Triarchic Psychopathy Measure (TriPM) based on the triarchic model of psychopathy in Chinese clinical and nonclinical samples. The results of Study 1 using a psychiatric patient sample (N = 193) showed that the pattern of associations between the TriPM scales (Boldness, Meanness, and Disinhibition) and the 3 factors (Egocentricity, Callous, and Antisocial) of the Levenson Self-Report Psychopathy Scale were similar to previous studies using English-speaking samples...
October 13, 2016: Psychological Assessment
Colin E Vize, Donald R Lynam, Katherine L Collison, Joshua D Miller
Since its emergence 14 years ago the dark triad (DT), composed of narcissism, psychopathy, and Machiavellianism, has become an increasingly popular research focus. Yet questions remain over whether the DT components are sufficiently distinct from another. We examined the nomological networks of each DT component through a meta-analysis of the available literature on the DT. We conducted 3 separate analyses-an examination of the average intercorrelations among the DT components (k = 156), an examination of similarities in each DT component's nomological network (k = 159), and an examination of the effect sizes between DT components and 15 outcome categories (k range = 7 to 42)...
October 13, 2016: Personality Disorders
Marta Roczniewska, Arnold B Bakker
Although job crafting has been linked repeatedly to positive employee and organizational outcomes, its detrimental side has not been well explored. To understand the way dark personality traits affect the type of crafting in which employees engage, this research focuses on two frameworks: the PEN (psychopathy, extraversion, and neuroticism) framework and the Dark Triad (narcissism, psychopathy, and Machiavellianism). In Study 1, we collected data on the PEN traits and job crafting from 155 individuals in various occupations...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Psychology
Evelyn Klein Haneveld, Jan H Kamphuis, Wineke Smid, Johnathan D Forbey
This study documents the associations between the MMPI-2-RF (Ben-Porath & Tellegen, 2008 ) scale scores and the Psychopathy Checklist Revised (PCL-R; Hare, 2003 ) facet scores in a forensic psychiatric sample. Objectives were to determine how the MMPI-2-RF scales might enhance substantive understanding of the nature of the 4 PCL-R facets and to discern possible implications for the treatment of psychopathic patients. A sample of 127 male forensic psychiatric offenders admitted to a Dutch forensic psychiatric hospital completed the PCL-R and the MMPI-2...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Personality Assessment
John Tully, Marija M Petrinovic
Empathy is a cornerstone of social behavior, impairments of which are characteristic of neuropsychiatric disorders such as autism and psychopathy. According to the "shared representations" theory, empathy relies upon neural processes similar to those underpinning the first-hand experience of a given emotion. A recent study by Mischkowski et al. (2016) provides novel insights into neurobiological underpinnings of empathy by demonstrating that acetaminophen, a widely-used painkiller, reduces empathy for other's physical and social pain...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
Joeri K Tijdink, Lex M Bouter, Coosje L S Veldkamp, Peter M van de Ven, Jelte M Wicherts, Yvo M Smulders
BACKGROUND: Personality influences decision making and ethical considerations. Its influence on the occurrence of research misbehavior has never been studied. This study aims to determine the association between personality traits and self-reported questionable research practices and research misconduct. We hypothesized that narcissistic, Machiavellianistic and psychopathic traits as well as self-esteem are associated with research misbehavior. METHODS: Included in this cross-sectional study design were 535 Dutch biomedical scientists (response rate 65%) from all hierarchical layers of 4 university medical centers in the Netherlands...
2016: PloS One
Gabriele Masi, Annarita Milone, Paola Brovedani, Simone Pisano, Pietro Muratori
Disruptive Behavior Disorders (DBDs) are stable and impairing disorders, heterogeneous in presentation, developmental pathways, and treatment needs. Disentangling subtypes according to psychopathological dimensions is helpful for timely diagnoses, precise prognoses and tailored interventions. Psychopathic traits are relevant in subtyping DBDs with severe antisocial and aggressive behaviors. Three psychopathy dimensions have been found: 1) an affective dimension, the callous-unemotional (CU) trait, with lack of empathy and remorse, and with short-lived emotions; 2) an interpersonal dimension, the narcissistic domain, with manipulative abilities, superficial charm, egocentricity and grandiosity; 3) a behavioral dimension, the impulsivity or impulsive-irresponsibility, with irresponsibility, proneness to boredom, and novelty seeking...
September 25, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Angela Book, Tabitha Methot-Jones, Julie Blais, Ashley Hosker-Field, Anthony Volk, Beth A Visser, Nathalie Gauthier, Ronald R Holden, Madeleine T D'Agata
The present study was a direct test of the cheater-hawk hypothesis which argues that psychopathy is related to two potentially adaptive interpersonal strategies: cheating and aggression. As expected, the measures of cheater and hawk behaviors comprised a single factor, according to a maximum-likelihood factor analysis. As hypothesized, psychopathic traits exhibited large positive correlations with measures of both cheater (entitlement, exploitiveness, and short-term mating orientation) and hawk (vengeance and aggression) behaviors...
September 19, 2016: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Mehmet K Mahmut, Louise Cridland, Richard J Stevenson
This study examined the helping behavior of participants with high (High-P; 15 males, 13 females) and low (Low-P; 14 males, 16 females) psychopathic traits without their awareness. In the first of three tests, we found Low-P participants offered more help to an apparently lost female confederate than High-P participants. In the second test, High-P compared to Low-P males offered more help to an "injured" female experimenter, the reverse was true for females. In the third test, High-P compared to Low-P females offered more help to a female confederate who had apparently dropped papers they were carrying; whereas the reverse was true for males...
October 2016: Journal of General Psychology
Ayame Tamura, Yoshinori Sugiura, Tomoko Sugiura, Jun Moriya
Psychopathy is personality traits, which is consisted of primary psychopathy characterized by affective and interpersonal problems and secondary psychopathy characterized by behavioral problems. Prior researchers have suggested that people with psychopathy have peculiar attention, which prevents them from detecting information peripheral to their concern, and we hypothesized that this explains their low empathy. Based on these reasoning, the present study assessed whether attention moderates the relationship between psychopathy and affective empathy...
September 16, 2016: Psychological Reports
Aiste Jusyte, Michael Schönenberg
Aggressive behavior is assumed to be associated with certain patterns of social information processing. While some theories link aggression to a tendency to interpret ambiguous stimuli as hostile (i.e., enhanced sensitivity to anger), others assume an insufficient ability to perceive emotional expressions, particularly fear. Despite compelling evidence to support both theories, no previous study has directly investigated the predictions made by these two accounts in aggressive populations. The aim of the current study was to test processing patterns for angry and fearful facial expressions in violent offenders (VOs) and healthy controls (CTLs) and their association with self-reported aggression and psychopathy scores...
September 13, 2016: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
Elyse N Mowle, John F Edens, John W Clark, Karolina Sörman
Several recent studies have examined the effects of mental health and neuroscientific evidence on attitudes toward criminal defendants, suggesting that these factors may influence juror decision-making in meaningful ways. Few studies to date have manipulated both of these variables while also considering theoretically important individual difference variables (e.g., political orientation). Using a criminal case simulation, this study manipulated the presence of evidence concerning mental disorders (psychopathy and schizophrenia) and increasing levels of neuroscientific detail regarding a defendant's brain injury, and examined verdicts and sentencing recommendations in over 400 persons attending jury duty...
September 13, 2016: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
Eva R Kimonis, Natalie Goulter, David J Hawes, Rhonda R Wilbur, Maureen W Groer
The characteristic pattern of emotional hypo-reactivity observed in primary psychopathy is not evident in secondary psychopathy, which is thought to originate from childhood adversity and co-occurring anxiety. The main aim of this study was to test whether salivary afternoon cortisol, Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), and cortisol-to-DHEA concentrations, which at high levels indicate risk for chronic stress and poor mental health, distinguished secondary from primary variants of callous-unemotional (CU) traits-the affective component of psychopathy...
September 12, 2016: Developmental Psychobiology
Christopher T A Gillen, Christopher T Barry, Lovina R Bater
BACKGROUND: Although the relation between impulsive-irresponsible psychopathic traits and substance use is well-documented, the path to developing substance use problems is less understood in adolescents with these characteristics. OBJECTIVES: To examine the associations between psychopathy, anxiety, and substance use motives and a mechanism by which anxiety and alcohol and marijuana coping motives mediate the relation between psychopathic traits and substance use-related problems...
December 5, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
Elizabeth A Bates, John Archer, Nicola Graham-Kevan
The current studies examined whether several risk and protective factors operate similarly for intimate partner violence (IPV) and same-sex aggression (SSA) in the same sample, and to assess whether they show similar associations for men and women. Study 1 (N = 345) tested perceived benefits and costs, and instrumental and expressive beliefs about aggression: perceived costs predicted IPV and SSA for both men and women. Expressive beliefs predicted IPV (more strongly for women), and instrumental beliefs predicted SSA...
September 7, 2016: Aggressive Behavior
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