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Dana Crooks, Nathaniel E Anderson, Matthew Widdows, Nia Petseva, Michael Koenigs, Charles Pluto, Kent A Kiehl
Cavum septum pellucidum (CSP) is a neuroanatomical variant of the septum pellucidum that is considered a marker for disrupted brain development. Several small sample studies have reported CSP to be related to disruptive behavior, persistent antisocial traits, and even psychopathy. However, no large-scale samples have comprehensively examined the relationship between CSP, psychopathic traits, and antisocial behavior in forensic samples. Here we test hypotheses about the presence of CSP and its relationship to psychopathic traits in incarcerated males (N=1432)...
March 12, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Vaughn R Steele, J Michael Maurer, Mohammad R Arbabshirani, Eric D Claus, Brandi C Fink, Vikram Rao, Vince D Calhoun, Kent A Kiehl
BACKGROUND: Successfully treating illicit drug use has become paramount, yet elusive. Devising specialized treatment interventions could increase positive outcomes, but it is necessary to identify risk factors of poor long-term outcomes to develop specialized, efficacious treatments. We investigated whether functional network connectivity (FNC) measures were predictive of substance abuse treatment completion using machine learning pattern classification of functional magnetic resonance imaging data...
February 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Jonathan Preszler, David K Marcus, John F Edens, Barbara E McDermott
The question of which features represent the most central components of psychopathy remains unresolved and is the subject of considerable debate. Network analysis, which is a relatively new way to conceptualize mental disorders that emphasizes complex causal systems, provides a means to graphically and quantitatively describe the centrality of the various symptoms of a disorder. We applied association and adaptive LASSO networks on two samples of forensic patients. The first sample included forensic inpatients (N = 277) who were administered the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (Hare, 2003), and the second sample included patients who previously had been civilly committed (N = 1136), who were administered the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version (Hart, Cox, & Hare, 1995)...
February 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Thomas H Costello, Ansley Unterberger, Ashley L Watts, Scott O Lilienfeld
Despite widespread assumptions that psychopathy is associated with serious and repeated law-breaking, individuals with psychopathic personality traits do not invariably become chronic criminal offenders. As a partial explanation for this finding, Lykken (1995) ventured that a fearless temperament underlies both psychopathic traits and heroic behavior, and that heroic individuals' early exposure to effective socializing forces such as warm parenting or healthy self-esteem often fosters a characteristic adaption that tends to beget "successful" behaviors, thereby differentiating heroes from convicts...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Wendy Zwaanswijk, Mitch van Geel, Paul Vedder
The current study aims to address socioeconomic status (SES) as a moderating variable between psychopathic traits and conduct problems in a sample of 2432 Dutch adolescents (Mage  = 14.50 years, SD = 1.67, 56% male). Both family and neighborhood SES were measured, with income as a proxy for the level of SES. There were small but significant positive correlations between the behavioral and interpersonal dimensions of psychopathy and family SES, a small but significant negative correlation between the affective dimension and neighborhood SES, and a small and significant positive correlation between neighborhood SES and the behavioral dimension of psychopathy...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
Xu-Bo Li, An Liu, Le Yang, Kun Zhang, Yu-Mei Wu, Ming-Gao Zhao, Shui-Bing Liu
The 18 kDa translocator protein (TSPO) is primarily localized in the outer mitochondrial membrane of steroid-synthesizing cells in the central and peripheral nervous systems. One of the protein's main functions is transporting substrate cholesterol into the mitochondria in a prerequisite process for steroid synthesis. Clinical trials have indicated that TSPO ligands might be valuable in treating some neuropathies and psychopathies. However, limited information is known about the role of TSPO in postpartum depression (PPD)...
March 5, 2018: Molecular Brain
David K Marcus, Samantha L Robinson, Alexander E Eichenbaum
Most conceptualizations of psychopathy emphasize its interpersonal consequences, yet most research on psychopathy has been conducted at the individual level. In small groups, well-acquainted members of sororities and fraternities (N = 111) rated one another and themselves on a variety of externalizing behaviors (e.g., cheating, risky sex), and completed a self-report measure of psychopathy. There was consensus about the extent to which members of the groups engaged in these behaviors. The associations between these target effects and respondents' self-reports suggest that these consensual judgments were reasonably accurate...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Personality Disorders
Bethany G Edwards, Elsa Ermer, Peter Salovey, Kent A Kiehl
Emotional impairment is a core feature of psychopathy, and the disorder has been linked to an inability to recognize and regulate emotion, leading to deficiencies in empathy and difficulties in social functioning. This study investigated associations among psychopathic traits and ability-based emotional intelligence (EI) in female offenders and integrated data with previously published male offender data (Ermer, Kahn, Salovey, & Kiehl, 2012) to examine gender differences in relationships. Results showed that female offenders were impaired in the understanding and management of emotion relative to the general population, and that female offenders scored higher than male offenders in EI...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Personality Disorders
Jenna Rice, Raymond A Knight
Although adults who have sexually offended against both child and adult victims (i.e., adults with mixed aged sexual offense victims [MASOVs]) have been found at increased risk to reoffend, they have been a neglected and rarely studied group of individuals who have sexually offended. The present study explored their differentiating characteristics by comparing them with adults who had sexually offended exclusively against children (child sex offense victims [CSOVs]) or adults (adult sex offense victims [ASOVs])...
March 1, 2018: Sexual Abuse: a Journal of Research and Treatment
Flor A Espinoza, Victor M Vergara, Daisy Reyes, Nathaniel E Anderson, Carla L Harenski, Jean Decety, Srinivas Rachakonda, Eswar Damaraju, Barnaly Rashid, Robyn L Miller, Michael Koenigs, David S Kosson, Keith Harenski, Kent A Kiehl, Vince D Calhoun
Psychopathy is a personality disorder characterized by antisocial behavior, lack of remorse and empathy, and impaired decision making. The disproportionate amount of crime committed by psychopaths has severe emotional and economic impacts on society. Here we examine the neural correlates associated with psychopathy to improve early assessment and perhaps inform treatments for this condition. Previous resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies in psychopathy have primarily focused on regions of interest...
March 2, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
R J R Blair
Empathy and anger are two social emotions that modulate an individual's risk for aggression. Empathy is an emotional reaction to another individual's emotional state. Anger is an emotional reaction to threat, frustration or social provocation. Reduced empathy, seen in psychopathy, increases the risk for goal-directed aggression. Atypically increased anger (i.e. irritability), seen in conditions like disruptive mood dysregulation disorder and borderline personality disorder, increases the risk for reactive aggression...
April 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Robert D Latzman, Isabella M Palumbo, Katheryn C Sauvigné, Lisa K Hecht, Scott O Lilienfeld, Christopher J Patrick
Methodological and conceptual differences across studies have impeded our understanding of the relationship between psychopathy and internalizing psychopathology. To shed further light on this question, we undertook correlational and structural-modeling analyses of data from two samples to characterize how facets of psychopathy relate to internalizing psychopathology when assessed using multidimensional measures of each construct (i.e., Triarchic Psychopathy Measure, Inventory of Depression and Anxiety Symptoms)...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Personality Disorders
Rheanna J Remmel, Andrea L Glenn, Jennifer Cox
Research on the biological factors influencing criminal behavior is increasingly being introduced into court, necessitating research on how such evidence is perceived and influences decision makers. Research on how this evidence influences sentencing recommendations is inconclusive. In this study, we focus on biological evidence related to psychopathy, a construct commonly associated with criminal behavior. Approximately 800 community members were presented with a case vignette detailing an individual who is described as having a high level of psychopathic traits...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Personality Disorders
Mark E Olver, Craig S Neumann, Lindsay A Sewall, Kathy Lewis, Robert D Hare, Stephen C P Wong
The present study examined the psychometric properties of Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R; Hare, 2003) scores in a multisite sample of 1,163 federally incarcerated Canadian indigenous and non-indigenous offenders from the Prairie Region of the Correctional Service of Canada. The research occurred against the backdrop of the Ewert v. Canada (2015) matter, in which the PCL-R was originally impugned in Federal Court for use with indigenous persons (later overturned in Canada v. Ewert, 2016). Indigenous men scored higher than non-indigenous men on most components of the PCL-R and had higher rates of recidivism, irrespective of follow-up...
February 22, 2018: Psychological Assessment
Ryan C T DeLapp, Gregory S Chasson, Jessica Swerbilow, Brittany Gibby, Ghazel Tellawi, Monnica T Williams
Aggressive intrusive thoughts (AITs) are unwanted and repetitive thoughts, impulses, or desires that enter into consciousness involuntarily. The current study compared the frequency of and distress from AITs in a sample of inmates jailed for violent crimes ( n = 78) versus college students ( n = 103; that is, participant status). The relationship between psychopathic traits and AITs was also explored. Results indicated that, although there were no differences between students and inmates, AIT frequency was positively associated with Primary Psychopathy...
February 1, 2018: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
Katherine H Rogers, Marina T Le, Erin E Buckels, Mikayla Kim, Jeremy C Biesanz
INTRODUCTION: The Dark Tetrad traits (subclinical psychopathy, narcissism, Machiavellianism, and everyday sadism) have interpersonal consequences. At present, however, how these traits are associated with the accuracy and positivity of first impressions is not well understood. OBJECTIVES: The present manuscript addresses three primary questions. First, to what extent are perceiver levels of Dark Tetrad traits associated with differing levels of perceptive accuracy? Second, to what extent are target levels of Dark Tetrad traits associated with differing levels of expressive accuracy? Finally, to what extent can Dark Tetrad traits be differentiated when examining perceptions of and by others? METHODS: In a round-robin design, participants (N = 412) in small groups engaged in brief, naturalistic, unstructured dyadic interactions before providing impressions of their partner...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Personality
Joye C Anestis, Michael D Anestis, Olivia C Preston
The capability to enact lethal self-harm has recently been highlighted as a critical risk factor for suicidal behavior. Klonsky and May's (2015) three step theory of suicide (3ST) expanded upon the construct of the capability for suicide by dividing it into categories: dispositional, acquired, and practical. The current study examined constructs of Patrick and colleagues' (2009) triarchic model of psychopathy as indicators of dispositional capability in gun owners, a sample at heightened risk for death by suicide (Anestis and Houtsma, 2017)...
February 13, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Sally G Olderbak, Andreas Mokros, Joachim Nitschke, Elmar Habermeyer, Oliver Wilhelm
Psychopathy is characteristically associated with deficits in emotion perception; however, findings surrounding this deficit are actually quite mixed. This is most likely due to limitations of study methodology, including the use of tasks with unknown or poor psychometric properties, underpowered samples, and a lack of control for third variables. We present a study that addressed these limitations. A sample of men (n = 339) ranging across the psychopathy continuum, recruited in and out of the German prison system, completed three psychometrically validated tasks that assessed the ability to perceive facially expressed emotions...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Arjun Sethi, Sagari Sarkar, Flavio Dell'Acqua, Essi Viding, Marco Catani, Declan G M Murphy, Michael C Craig
We recently reported that emotional detachment in adult psychopathy was associated with structural abnormalities in the dorsal 'default-mode' network (DMN). However, it is unclear whether these differences are present in young people at risk of psychopathy. The most widely recognised group at risk for psychopathy are children/adolescents with conduct disorder (CD) and callous-unemotional (CU) traits. We therefore examined the microstructure of the dorsal DMN in 27 CD youths (14-with/13-without CU traits) compared to 16 typically developing controls using DTI tractography...
January 27, 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Jean-Pierre Guay, Raymond A Knight, John Ruscio, Robert D Hare
The taxonomic status of psychopathy is the topic of considerable research interest. The latent structure of psychopathy will latent structure will guide the determination of the best assessment approaches, maximize the reliability and validity, will help to establish optimal cutting scores that minimize decision errors and will also facilitate the selection of the best research designs to advance the study of the construct. In the present study, taxometric analyses were used for assessing taxonicity, and they were applied to Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) ratings of 1218 female offenders...
March 2018: Psychiatry Research
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