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Psychopathy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130695/a-test-of-the-empirical-profile-and-coherence-of-the-dsm-5-psychopathy-specifier
#1
Joshua D Miller, Joanna Lamkin, Jessica L Maples-Keller, Chelsea E Sleep, Donald R Lynam
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5th edition (DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013) introduced a psychopathy specifier (DSM-5 PS) as part of the Section III diagnostic model of antisocial personality disorder. Designed to capture the construct of fearless dominance/boldness, the DSM-5 PS is assessed on the basis of the presence of low scores on traits of withdrawal and anxiousness, and high scores on attention seeking. These constructs have garnered attention in the past decade but are the subject of substantial debate as to their role in the conceptualization and assessment of psychopathy, given their limited relations to the maladaptive outcomes typically associated with this personality disorder...
November 13, 2017: Psychological Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130147/callous-unemotional-traits-modulate-brain-drug-craving-response-in-high-risk-young-offenders
#2
Gina M Vincent, Lora M Cope, Jean King, Prashanth Nyalakanti, Kent A Kiehl
Adults with psychopathy have a high propensity for substance abuse, generally starting from a young age. This investigation tested hypotheses about differences in the neural responses associated with drug craving among high-risk young offenders with histories of abuse of stimulants and other drugs as a function of psychopathic traits. Fifty-four male adolescents (44 with a history of stimulant abuse and 10 controls) incarcerated at a maximum-security facility (M age = 17.08 years) completed a drug-cue exposure task while brain hemodynamic activity was monitored using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with a mobile MRI scanner stationed at the facility...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121810/the-relationship-between-grandiosity-psychopathy-and-narcissism-in-an-offender-sample
#3
Kristen M Klipfel, David S Kosson
Clinical accounts suggest grandiosity is an important characteristic of both psychopathy and narcissism. This study examined the relationships between grandiosity and each of these personality disorder syndromes, using a novel index, namely the Grandiosity Index. Seventy-five incarcerated males completed clinical interviews of psychopathy and narcissism and a self-report inventory of narcissism and were rated on interpersonal measures of psychopathy and narcissism. Trained research assistants rated participants on the Grandiosity Index...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120846/firesetting-and-general-criminal-recidivism-among-a-consecutive-sample-of-finnish-pretrial-male-firesetters-a-register-based-follow-up-study
#4
Annika Thomson, Jari Tiihonen, Jouko Miettunen, Matti Virkkunen, Nina Lindberg
The rate of criminal reoffending among firesetters varies greatly. Our aim was to investigate firesetting and general criminal recidivism in a consecutive sample of Finnish males who were sent for a forensic psychiatric examination (FPE)(1) after committing firesetting offenses. We also wanted to evaluate the relationships between psychopathy and criminal recidivism, and between schizophrenia-spectrum disorders and criminal recidivism. The sample comprised 113 firesetters with a mean age of 32.8 years, and the average follow-up time was 16...
November 5, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120276/personality-disorder-features-and-paraphilic-interests-among-undergraduates-differential-relations-and-potential-antecedents
#5
Ashley L Watts, Madeline G Nagel, Robert D Latzman, Scott O Lilienfeld
We examined the relations between: (1) narcissism, psychopathy, DSM-5 personality disorder symptom counts; and (2) paraphilic interests among undergraduates (N = 608). Base rates of paraphilic interests were appreciable. The disinhibition and meanness features of psychopathy and the entitlement and exploitativeness features of narcissism were robustly associated with paraphilic interests, particularly sexual sadism, whereas the boldness features of narcissism and psychopathy were essentially unrelated to these interests...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120196/psychopathy-and-heroism-in-first-responders-traits-cut-from-the-same-cloth
#6
Christina L Patton, Sarah Francis Smith, Scott O Lilienfeld
Some scholars have posited that certain traits associated with psychopathy-namely, fearlessness, boldness, and willingness to take risks-are associated with greater engagement in heroic and altruistic acts; nevertheless, this conjecture has received little empirical attention. We examined the relations among psychopathic traits, heroism, altruism, workplace deviance, and leadership in first-responder (n = 138) and civilian (n = 104) samples recruited by means of an online platform. Across samples, fearless dominance, boldness, sensation seeking, and several other psychopathy-related variables were positively and significantly associated with everyday heroism and altruism...
November 9, 2017: Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119362/intergenerational-stability-of-callous-unemotional-traits
#7
Antonio Mendoza Diaz, Sandy Overgaauw, David J Hawes, Mark R Dadds
This study investigated the stability of callous and unemotional (CU) traits across generations by assessing self-report assessments of psychopathy factors in parents and their relationship to children's CU traits in a clinical sample: 223 boys (M age = 7.65) and 83 girls (M = 7.35) referred for treatment of disruptive behavior disorders. First, we expanded previous findings showing a positive relationship between maternal psychopathy scores and CU traits in boys. Second, we tested whether parental psychopathy scores predicted CU traits in children over and above general indicators of mental health risk: parental psychopathology, parental warmth, and harsh parenting...
November 8, 2017: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117769/psychophysiological-reactivity-profiles-of-partner-violent-men-with-borderline-or-psychopathic-personality-features-the-role-of-empathy
#8
Nicholas A Armenti, Julia C Babcock
Borderline and psychopathic features have been linked to unique psychophysiological reactivity profiles. Studies have suggested that levels of psychophysiological reactivity for partner-violent men cannot be attributed to personality features alone. This study tested cognitive and affective empathy as moderators of relations between borderline personality, Factor 1 psychopathy, and psychophysiological reactivity using a community sample of 135 male participants and their female partners. Cognitive empathy moderated the relation between borderline personality features and heart rate reactivity...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106280/the-nature-and-correlates-of-the-dark-triad-the-answers-depend-on-the-questions
#9
Ashley L Watts, Irwin D Waldman, Sarah Francis Smith, Holly E Poore, Scott O Lilienfeld
The past several decades have witnessed a proliferation of research on the dark triad (DT), a set of traits comprising Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy. The bulk of DT research has been marked by several core assumptions, most notably that each DT construct is a monolithic entity that is clearly separable from its counterpart DT constructs. To examine the tenability of these assumptions, we pooled data from 2 samples of North American community members (ns = 312 and 351) to explore (a) the external validity and profile similarities of DT indicators and (b) the factor structure of the DT...
October 2017: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106279/perils-of-partialing-redux-the-case-of-the-dark-triad
#10
Chelsea E Sleep, Donald R Lynam, Courtland S Hyatt, Joshua D Miller
The Dark Triad (DT) is a collection of overlapping aversive personality profiles constituting psychopathy, narcissism, and Machiavellianism. Debates remain regarding the optimal way to examine the unique outcomes associated with each construct, with several scholars advocating partialing these profiles in multiple regression analyses (i.e., removing their shared variance). The present paper details the pitfalls inherent in this approach by comparing the convergence and divergence of relations derived from raw and residualized DT composite scores...
October 2017: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106278/dark-traits-and-suicide-associations-between-psychopathy-narcissism-and-components-of-the-interpersonal-psychological-theory-of-suicide
#11
Tiffany M Harrop, Olivia C Preston, Lauren R Khazem, Michael D Anestis, Regis Junearick, Bradley A Green, Joye C Anestis
Studies have identified independent relationships between psychopathy, narcissism, and suicidality. The current study expands upon the extant literature by exploring psychopathic and narcissistic personality traits and components of the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicide, utilizing a 3-factor model of psychopathy and 2-factor model of pathological narcissism in community, undergraduate, and military individuals. We hypothesized that the impulsive-antisocial facets of psychopathy would be related to suicidal desire, whereas all facets of psychopathy would relate to the capability for suicide...
October 2017: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106277/dark-and-vulnerable-personality-trait-correlates-of-dimensions-of-criminal-behavior-among-adult-offenders
#12
Bethany G Edwards, Emily Albertson, Edelyn Verona
Given the high-level impact of crime, empirical work is needed to identify personality traits, or overarching factors of personality pathology, that may leave individuals more prone to engage in criminal behaviors. This study empirically tested the distinction between the dark personality and vulnerable dark personality spectra (Miller et al., 2010) in a large offender sample and aimed to test how these personality factors relate to criminal dimensions and individual types of crime. Self-report and public record data verified criminal behaviors for 493 (34...
October 2017: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106276/leader-dark-traits-workplace-bullying-and-employee-depression-exploring-mediation-and-the-role-of-the-dark-core
#13
Alexander Tokarev, Abigail R Phillips, David J Hughes, Paul Irwing
A growing body of empirical evidence now supports a negative association between dark traits in leaders and the psychological health of employees. To date, such investigations have mostly focused on psychopathy, nonspecific measures of psychological wellbeing, and have not considered the mechanisms through which these relationships might operate. In the current study (N = 508), we utilized other-ratings of personality (employees rated leaders' personality), psychometrically robust measures, and sophisticated modeling techniques, to examine whether the effects of leaders' levels of narcissism and psychopathy on employee depression are mediated by workplace bullying...
October 2017: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106272/concurrent-and-developmental-correlates-of-psychopathic-traits-using-a-triarchic-psychopathy-model-approach
#14
Hailey L Dotterer, Rebecca Waller, Lora M Cope, Brian M Hicks, Joel T Nigg, Robert A Zucker, Luke W Hyde
Psychopathy refers to a heterogeneous set of harmful dark traits and behaviors, including superficial charm, callousness, irresponsibility, and antisocial behavior. The triarchic psychopathy model (TriPM) posits that psychopathy is the combination of 3 traits: boldness, disinhibition, and meanness. However, little research has examined the concurrent and developmental correlates of these traits. We developed TriPM scales from the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised using an empirical-derived approach in a high-risk sample of 561 young adults (ages 17-25; 70...
October 2017: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106271/developmental-pathways-of-childhood-dark-traits
#15
Barbara De Clercq, Joeri Hofmans, Jasmine Vergauwe, Filip De Fruyt, Carla Sharp
The dark triad of personality has traditionally been defined by 3 interrelated constructs, defined as Narcissism, Machiavellianism, and Psychopathy. Although the content of each of these constructs is clearly represented in childhood maladaptive trait measures, no studies have jointly addressed the prospective developmental course of this core set of maladaptive characteristics throughout childhood and adolescence. The current study uses latent growth modeling to explore how early dark traits develop over time, relying on a selected set of 6 childhood maladaptive traits that conceptually cover the adult dark triad...
October 2017: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106270/the-dark-personality-and-psychopathology-toward-a-brighter-future
#16
Sander Thomaes, Eddie Brummelman, Joshua D Miller, Scott O Lilienfeld
The young field of research on dark personality traits (i.e., socially aversive traits such as psychopathy, narcissism, and Machiavellianism) is gaining momentum. This Special Section examines the nature, origins, development, and sequelae of dark traits, underscoring their largely unappreciated relevance to abnormal psychology. The articles in this section adopt diverse perspectives (e.g., clinical, developmental, organizational, social personality), use diverse methods (e.g., longitudinal, experience sampling), and sample diverse populations (e...
October 2017: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076477/-features-of-diagnostic-and-surgical-tactics-for-suicidal-and-autoaggressive-thoracic-and-abdominal-lesions
#17
M M Abakumov, E V Tatarinova, A P Vilk, O V Zubareva, Sh N Danielyan
AIM: To analyze diagnostic and surgical tactics for suicidal and autoaggressive thoracic and abdominal lesions. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We have analyzed the features of emergency surgical care depending on type of patients' behavior at admission. There were 516 patients with suicidal and autoaggressive thoracic and abdominal lesions. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Depressive (34%) and adequate (46%) patients were examined routinely. Inadequate (aggressive) behavior is inappropriate for instrumental examination while medical sedation may be followed by significant hemodynamic disorders in patients with severe lesions...
2017: Khirurgiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066760/simulating-moral-actions-an-investigation-of-personal-force-in-virtual-moral-dilemmas
#18
K B Francis, S Terbeck, R A Briazu, A Haines, M Gummerum, G Ganis, I S Howard
Advances in Virtual Reality (VR) technologies allow the investigation of simulated moral actions in visually immersive environments. Using a robotic manipulandum and an interactive sculpture, we now also incorporate realistic haptic feedback into virtual moral simulations. In two experiments, we found that participants responded with greater utilitarian actions in virtual and haptic environments when compared to traditional questionnaire assessments of moral judgments. In experiment one, when incorporating a robotic manipulandum, we found that the physical power of simulated utilitarian responses (calculated as the product of force and speed) was predicted by individual levels of psychopathy...
October 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054288/using-the-research-domain-criteria-rdoc-to-conceptualize-impulsivity-and-compulsivity-in-relation-to-addiction
#19
Samantha J Brooks, Christine Lochner, Steve Shoptaw, Dan J Stein
Nomenclature for mental disorder was updated in 2013 with the publication of the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-5). In DSM-5, substance use disorders are framed as more dimensional. First, the distinction between abuse and dependence is replaced by substance use. Second, the addictions section now covers both substances and behavioral addictions. This contemporary move toward dimensionality and transdiagnosis in the addictions and other disorders embrace accumulating cognitive-affective neurobiological evidence that is reflected in the United States' National Institutes of Health Research Domain Criteria (NIH RDoC)...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054099/examining-factors-associated-with-elevated-lie-scale-responding-on-the-child-abuse-potential-inventory
#20
Amanda H Costello, Natalie J Shook, Nancy M Wallace, Cheryl B McNeil
Child maltreatment remains a serious public health issue in the United States. Therefore, it is important to engage in quality control of the assessment, prevention, and treatment services for families affected by maltreatment. Parenting capacity assessments (PCAs) are typically an integral part of service delivery for families affected by maltreatment and can carry serious consequences for the referred parent. The Child Abuse Potential Inventory (CAPI) is a measure that is widely used in PCAs; however, socially desirable responding on the CAPI can serve to invalidate the important information derived from this assessment, as well as lead to negative impressions of the parent...
October 17, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
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