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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045303/-parsing-the-heterogeneity-of-psychopathy-and-aggression-differential-associations-across-dimensions-and-gender-correction-to-hecht-et-al-2016
#1
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "Parsing the heterogeneity of psychopathy and aggression: Differential associations across dimensions and gender" by Lisa K. Hecht, Joanna M. Berg, Scott O. Lilienfeld and Robert D. Latzman (Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment, 2016[Jan], Vol 7[1], 2-14). In the article, there was an error in Table 3 and in the fifth paragraph of the Results. The correct information has been provided. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2015-29370-001.) Psychopathy is a multidimensional construct that is broadly associated with both reactive (RA) and proactive (PA) aggression...
January 2017: Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040454/towards-an-animal-model-of-callousness
#2
REVIEW
Julen Hernandez-Lallement, Marijn van Wingerden, Tobias Kalenscher
Callous-unemotional traits - the insensitivity to other's welfare and well-being - are characterized by a lack of empathy. They are characteristic of psychopathy and can be found in other anti-social disorders, such as conduct disorder. Because of the increasing prevalence of anti-social disorders and the rising societal costs of violence and aggression, it is of great importance to elucidate the psychological and physiological mechanisms underlying callousness in the search for pharmacological treatments. One promising avenue is to create a relevant animal model to explore the neural bases of callousness...
December 28, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031056/affective-startle-potentiation-differentiates-primary-and-secondary-variants-of-juvenile-psychopathy
#3
Eva R Kimonis, Kostas A Fanti, Natalie Goulter, Jason Hall
Individuals with psychopathic traits show an attenuated emotional response to aversive stimuli. However, recent evidence suggests heterogeneity in emotional reactivity among individuals with psychopathic or callous-unemotional (CU) traits in the identification of primary and secondary subtypes, or variants. We hypothesized that primary CU variants will respond with blunted affect to negatively valenced stimuli, whereas individuals with a history of childhood maltreatment, fitting with theoretical conceptualizations of secondary psychopathy, will display heightened emotional reactivity...
December 29, 2016: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007464/proneness-to-aggression-and-its-inhibition-in-schizophrenia-interconnections-between-personality-traits-cognitive-function-and-emotional-processing
#4
Menahem I Krakowski, Pal Czobor
OBJECTIVE: Research on aggression in schizophrenia has focused on narrowly defined deficits, while ignoring interconnections among these impairments which provide better explanatory power. Our goal was to investigate interrelations among impairments in important domains related to aggression: personality traits, including psychopathy and impulsivity, cognition and processing of emotions. METHOD: 34 healthy controls, 37 high aggression (HAG) and 31 low aggression (LAG) patients with schizophrenia participated...
December 19, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991812/self-and-partner-reported-psychopathic-traits-relations-with-couples-communication-marital-satisfaction-trajectories-and-divorce-in-a-longitudinal-sample
#5
Brandon Weiss, Justin A Lavner, Joshua D Miller
Given that psychopathy is composed in large part by an antagonistic relational approach and is associated with many troubling interpersonally relevant outcomes, its role in romantic functioning warrants greater attention. The current study used data from a community sample of 172 newlywed couples to examine spouses' psychopathic traits in relation to their partners' psychopathic traits, observed communication, 4-year marital satisfaction trajectories, and 10-year divorce rates. Spouses reporting greater levels of psychopathic traits were married to partners reporting greater levels of psychopathic traits...
December 19, 2016: Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989568/child-abuse-and-neglect-profiles-and-their-psychosocial-consequences-in-a-large-sample-of-incarcerated-males
#6
Agata Debowska, Daniel Boduszek
Research examining child abuse and neglect (CAN) profiles among adult offender populations is lacking. Therefore, the primary aim of the present study was to address this limitation by using latent class analysis (LCA) to identify meaningful classes of individuals who have experienced physical abuse, emotional abuse, sexual abuse, as well as neglect. Another aim was to estimate the association between CAN class membership and external criteria (psychopathy factors, self-esteem, attitudes towards male sexual violence in dating relationships, child sexual abuse myth acceptance, violent offending, and age)...
December 15, 2016: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965606/take-the-money-and-run-psychopathic-behavior-in-the-trust-game
#7
Manuel I Ibáñez, Gerardo Sabater-Grande, Iván Barreda-Tarrazona, Laura Mezquita, Sandra López-Ovejero, Helena Villa, Pandelis Perakakis, Generós Ortet, Aurora García-Gallego, Nikolaos Georgantzís
We study the association among different sources of individual differences such as personality, cognitive ability and risk attitudes with trust and reciprocate behavior in an incentivized experimental binary trust game in a sample of 220 (138 females) undergraduate students. The game involves two players, player 1 (P1) and player 2 (P2). In the first stage, P1 decides whether to trust and let P2 decide, or to secure an egalitarian payoff for both players. If P1 trusts P2, the latter can choose between a symmetric payoff that is double than the secure alternative discarded by P1, and an asymmetric payoff in which P2 earns more than in any other case but makes P1 worse off...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957886/self-rated-psychopathic-traits-in-a-sample-of-treatment-seeking-adolescent-girls-with-internalizing-and-externalizing-disorders-comparisons-to-girls-in-the-community
#8
Svetlana Oshukova, Riittakerttu Kaltiala-Heino, Jouko Miettunen, Riikka Marttila, Eeva T Aronen, Mauri Marttunen, Matti Kaivosoja, Nina Lindberg
BACKGROUND: Psychopathy research has thus far focused mostly on child, male, and delinquent samples, but the results are most likely non-generalizable to adolescent girls with mental health disorders. AIM: The present study aimed to compare self-rated psychopathic traits between female psychiatric outpatients and girls in the community, and to investigate how psychopathic traits relate to psychiatric disorders. METHOD: The outpatient sample comprised 163 girls aged 15-17-years recruited from municipal mental health services...
December 13, 2016: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957440/non-auditory-effect-of-noise-pollution-and-its-risk-on-human-brain-activity-in-different-audio-frequency-using-electroencephalogram-complexity
#9
Armin Allahverdy, Amir Homayoun Jafari
BACKGROUND: Noise pollution is one of the most harmful ambiance disturbances. It may cause many deficits in ability and activity of persons in the urban and industrial areas. It also may cause many kinds of psychopathies. Therefore, it is very important to measure the risk of this pollution in different area. METHODS: This study was conducted in the Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Tehran University of Medical Sciences from June to September of 2015, in which, different frequencies of noise pollution were played for volunteers...
October 2016: Iranian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942914/are-youth-psychopathic-traits-related-to-bullying-meta-analyses-on-callous-unemotional-traits-narcissism-and-impulsivity
#10
Mitch van Geel, Fatih Toprak, Anouk Goemans, Wendy Zwaanswijk, Paul Vedder
In the current manuscript meta-analyses are performed to analyze the relations between three aspects of psychopathy in youth, Callous-Unemotional (CU) traits, Narcissism, and Impulsivity, and bullying behaviors. The databases PsycINFO, MEDLINE, ERIC, Web of Science and Proquest were searched for relevant articles on bullying and CU traits, Narcissism, or Impulsivity in youth under 20 years of age. Two authors each independently screened 842 studies that were found in the literature search. Two authors independently coded ten studies on bullying and CU (N = 4115) traits, six studies on bullying and Narcissism (N = 3376) and 14 studies on bullying and Impulsivity (N = 33,574) that met the inclusion criteria...
December 10, 2016: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936839/potential-effects-of-severe-bilateral-amygdala-damage-on-psychopathic-personality-features-a-case-report
#11
Scott O Lilienfeld, Katheryn C Sauvigné, Justin Reber, Ashley L Watts, Stephan Hamann, Sarah Francis Smith, Christopher J Patrick, Shauna M Bowes, Daniel Tranel
The fearlessness model posits that psychopathy is underpinned by a deficiency in the capacity to experience fear, predisposing to other features of the condition, such as superficial charm, guiltlessness, callousness, narcissism, and dishonesty. Nevertheless, it is unclear whether fearlessness is irrelevant, necessary, sufficient, or merely contributory to psychopathy. In the present case study, we sought to examine the fearlessness model by studying an extensively investigated female patient-S. M.-who experienced early emerging bilateral calcifications of the amygdala, resulting in a virtual absence of fear...
December 12, 2016: Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936826/pcl-r-field-validity-in-prison-and-hospital-settings
#12
Inge Jeandarme, John F Edens, Petra Habets, Liesbeth Bruckers, Karel Oei, Stefan Bogaerts
Recent field studies have questioned the interrater reliability (IRR) and predictive validity regarding (violent) recidivism of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R). Using a forensic psychiatric sample, the current study investigated discrepancies in scoring between hospital and prison settings, as well as differences in predictive validity across these two settings. PCL-R information was collected from prison and hospital files, resulting in 224 PCL-R total scores and 74 double scores. When examining repeated measurements, large individual differences were found together with an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICCA,1) of ...
December 12, 2016: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921637/facets-of-psychopathy-in-relation-to-trauma-exposure-and-posttraumatic-stress-symptomology-in-a-sample-of-incarcerated-male-offenders
#13
Russell Woodfield, Katie Dhingra, Daniel Boduszek, Agata Debowska
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate the moderating role of psychopathy facets on the relationship between traumatic exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomology. Design/methodology/approach Participants were male prisoners incarcerated in the UK. Findings The analysis revealed differential associations between the two facets of psychopathy, with potentially traumatic events and symptoms of PTSD. Specifically, neither primary psychopathy nor trauma exposure were significantly related to PTSD, while secondary psychopathy was positively and significantly related with PTSD symptoms...
December 19, 2016: International Journal of Prisoner Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911790/psychopathic-individuals-exhibit-but-do-not-avoid-regret-during-counterfactual-decision-making
#14
Arielle Baskin-Sommers, Allison M Stuppy-Sullivan, Joshua W Buckholtz
Psychopathy is associated with persistent antisocial behavior and a striking lack of regret for the consequences of that behavior. Although explanatory models for psychopathy have largely focused on deficits in affective responsiveness, recent work indicates that aberrant value-based decision making may also play a role. On that basis, some have suggested that psychopathic individuals may be unable to effectively use prospective simulations to update action value estimates during cost-benefit decision making...
December 13, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909830/the-inventory-of-callous-unemotional-traits-icu-in-children-reliability-and-heritability
#15
Ashlee A Moore, Dever Carney, Elizabeth Moroney, Laura Machlin, Kenneth E Towbin, Melissa A Brotman, Daniel S Pine, Ellen Leibenluft, Roxann Roberson-Nay, John M Hettema
Callous-unemotional (CU) traits comprise the core symptoms of psychopathy, yet no study has estimated the heritability of CU traits in a community sample of children using an instrument designed solely to assess CU traits. The current study uses data from 339 twin pairs aged 9-14 to examine the reliability and heritability of the parent-report Inventory of Callous-unemotional Traits (ICU) at two assessments approximately 3 weeks apart. Time-specific measurement error was taken into account to obtain a more accurate estimate of the heritability reflecting the latent liability to CU traits...
December 1, 2016: Behavior Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893339/psychopathy-in-everyday-life
#16
Michael Eigen
Psychopathy is a spectrum of possibilities linked with survival drives. It appears in commonly accepted forms in everyday life and more egregious, devastating ways as well. Often extreme manifestations of psychopathy become part of everyday existence, almost taken as normal while its cumulative destructiveness mounts. This paper explores a range of psychopathic states in individuals and groups, including positive and negative contributions these tendencies can make. Psychopathy in individuals and culture interweave in many ways, and some of the latter are discussed...
December 2016: Psychoanalytic Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893226/the-relation-between-the-bifactor-model-of-the-youth-psychopathic-traits-inventory-and-conduct-problems-in-adolescence-variations-across-gender-ethnic-background-and-age
#17
Wendy Zwaanswijk, Violaine C Veen, Mitch van Geel, Henrik Andershed, Paul Vedder
The current study examines how the bifactor model of the Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory (YPI) is related to conduct problems in a sample of Dutch adolescents (N = 2,874; 43% female). It addresses to what extent the YPI dimensions explain variance over and above a General Psychopathy factor (i.e., one factor related to all items) and how the general factor and dimensional factors are related to conduct problems. Group differences in these relations for gender, ethnic background, and age were examined. Results showed that the general factor is most important, but dimensions explain variance over and above the general factor...
November 28, 2016: Psychological Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884933/using-the-personality-assessment-inventory-antisocial-and-borderline-features-scales-to-predict-behavior-change-a-multisite-longitudinal-study-of-youthful-offenders
#18
Brittany N Penson, Jared R Ruchensky, Leslie C Morey, John F Edens
A substantial amount of research has examined the developmental trajectory of antisocial behavior and, in particular, the relationship between antisocial behavior and maladaptive personality traits. However, research typically has not controlled for previous behavior (e.g., past violence) when examining the utility of personality measures, such as self-report scales of antisocial and borderline traits, in predicting future behavior (e.g., subsequent violence). Examination of the potential interactive effects of measures of both antisocial and borderline traits also is relatively rare in longitudinal research predicting adverse outcomes...
November 24, 2016: Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869459/the-perils-of-unitary-models-of-the-etiology-of-mental-disorders-the-response-modulation-hypothesis-of-psychopathy-as-a-case-example-rejoinder-to-newman-and-baskin-sommers-2016
#19
Scott O Lilienfeld, Sarah Francis Smith, Ashley L Watts
We respond to Newman and Baskin-Sommers's (2016) criticisms of our meta-analytic and narrative synthesis of the response modulation hypothesis (RMH) of psychopathy (Smith & Lilienfeld, 2015). We concur with Newman and Baskin-Sommers that our results offer modest support for the RMH and that several of our arguments apply with equal force to rival etiological models of psychopathy. Nevertheless, we contend that Newman and Baskin-Sommers' criticisms of our findings and conclusions are unconvincing, and that the research support for the RMH is considerably more mixed than implied by Newman and Baskin-Sommers...
December 2016: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869458/smith-and-lilienfeld-s-meta-analysis-of-the-response-modulation-hypothesis-important-theoretical-and-quantitative-clarifications
#20
Joseph P Newman, Arielle R Baskin-Sommers
In the first meta-analytic review of the response modulation hypothesis (RMH), an attention-based model for understanding the etiology of psychopathy, Smith and Lilienfeld (2015) report that the average effect size for response modulation deficits in psychopathic individuals fell in the small to medium range (r = .20; p < .001, d = .41). Moreover, support for the RMH extended to both psychopathy dimensions, applied across diverse assessments and settings, and spanned child, adult, female, and male samples...
December 2016: Psychological Bulletin
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