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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720011/facial-emotion-recognition-and-empathy-in-employees-at-a-juvenile-detention-center
#1
Luz Anyela Morales Quintero, Jairo Muñoz-Delgado, José Carlos Sánchez-Ferrer, Ana Fresán, Martin Brüne, Iván Arango de Montis
Numerous studies have shown that emotion recognition is impaired in individuals with a history of violent offenses, especially in those diagnosed with psychopathy. However, in criminological contexts, there is insufficient research regarding the role of empathy and facial emotion recognition abilities of personnel employed in correction centers. Accordingly, we sought to explore facial emotion recognition abilities and empathy in administrative officers and security guards at a center for institutionalized juvenile offenders...
July 1, 2017: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715777/regular-cannabis-and-alcohol-use-is-associated-with-resting-state-time-course-power-spectra-in-incarcerated-adolescents
#2
Sandra Thijssen, Barnaly Rashid, Shruti Gopal, Prashanth Nyalakanti, Vince D Calhoun, Kent A Kiehl
Cannabis and alcohol are believed to have widespread effects on the brain. Although adolescents are at increased risk for substance use, the adolescent brain may also be particularly vulnerable to the effects of drug exposure due to its rapid maturation. Here, we examined the association between cannabis and alcohol use duration and resting-state functional connectivity in a large sample of male juvenile delinquents. The present sample was drawn from the Southwest Advanced Neuroimaging Cohort, Youth sample, and from a youth detention facility in Wisconsin...
July 8, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703011/psychopathic-personality-traits-in-the-military-an-examination-of-the-levenson-self-report-psychopathy-scales-in-a-novel-sample
#3
Joye C Anestis, Bradley A Green, Randolph C Arnau, Michael D Anestis
The Levenson Self-Report Psychopathy Scale is a short, self-report measure initially developed to assess psychopathic traits in noninstitutionalized samples. The present study aimed to explore factor structure and convergent and discriminant validity of the Levenson Self-Report Psychopathy Scale in a large U.S. military sample (90.7% Army National Guard). Factor analytic data, regression, and correlational analyses point to the superiority of Brinkley, Diamond, Magaletta, and Heigel's three-factor model in this sample...
July 1, 2017: Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689756/sensorimotor-gating-characteristics-of-violent-men-with-comorbid-psychosis-and-dissocial-personality-disorder-relationship-with-antisocial-traits-and-psychosocial-deprivation
#4
Ottilie Sedgwick, Susan Young, Ben Greer, Jack Arnold, Aisling Parsons, Ignazio Puzzo, Mariafatima Terracciano, Mrigendra Das, Veena Kumari
Evidence suggests violence amongst those with psychosis is not aetiologically homogeneous, and that a large proportion of those who engage in violent behaviour have a comorbid antisocial personality disorder. Initial investigations indicate that this subgroup has distinct historical and neuropsychological characteristics, which may indicate diverse treatment needs. This study investigated sensorimotor gating characteristics of violent men with diagnoses of both psychosis and dissocial personality disorder (DPD) (n=21) relative to violent men with psychosis alone (n=12), DPD alone (n=14) and healthy, non-violent male controls (n=27), using the prepulse inhibition (PPI) paradigm...
July 6, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683266/disrupted-prefrontal-regulation-of-striatal-subjective-value-signals-in-psychopathy
#5
Jay G Hosking, Erik K Kastman, Hayley M Dorfman, Gregory R Samanez-Larkin, Arielle Baskin-Sommers, Kent A Kiehl, Joseph P Newman, Joshua W Buckholtz
Psychopathy is a personality disorder with strong links to criminal behavior. While research on psychopathy has focused largely on socio-affective dysfunction, recent data suggest that aberrant decision making may also play an important role. Yet, the circuit-level mechanisms underlying maladaptive decision making in psychopathy remain unclear. Here, we used a multi-modality functional imaging approach to identify these mechanisms in a population of adult male incarcerated offenders. Psychopathy was associated with stronger subjective value-related activity within the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) during inter-temporal choice and with weaker intrinsic functional connectivity between NAcc and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC)...
July 5, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681106/proactive-and-reactive-aggression-subgroups-in-typically-developing-children-the-role-of-executive-functioning-psychophysiology-and-psychopathy
#6
Nicholas D Thomson, Luna C M Centifanti
This study aimed to assess whether groups of aggressive children differed on psychopathic traits, and neuropsychological and neurobiological measures of prefrontal functioning consistent with the objectives of their aggression-reactive or proactive. Including 110 typically developing children (9-11 years), a latent class analysis identified a low aggression group, a high reactive aggression group, and a mixed (high reactive and proactive) aggression group. Results show high callous-unemotional traits and low resting respiratory sinus arrhythmia increased the likelihood of children being in the mixed aggression group, when compared to the reactive and low aggression groups...
July 5, 2017: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668228/initial-development-of-the-psychopathic-processing-and-personality-assessment-papa-across-populations
#7
Michael Lewis, Jane L Ireland, Janice Abbott, Carol A Ireland
Three studies describe development of the Psychopathic Processing and Personality Assessment (PAPA). Study one outlines a literature review and Expert Delphi (n=32) to develop the initial PAPA. Study two validates the PAPA with 431 participants (121 male prisoners and 310 university students: 154 men, 156 women), also using the Levenson Self Report Psychopathy scale and a measure of cognitive schema and affect. Study three refined the PAPA, employing it with 50 male students and 40 male forensic psychiatric patients using clinical (interview) assessments of psychopathy: the Psychopathy Checklist - Screening Version and the Affect, Cognitive and Lifestyle assessment...
June 28, 2017: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666247/associations-between-psychopathic-traits-and-brain-activity-during-instructed-false-responding
#8
Andrea L Glenn, Hyemin Han, Yaling Yang, Adrian Raine, Robert A Schug
Lying is one of the characteristic features of psychopathy, and has been recognized in clinical and diagnostic descriptions of the disorder, yet individuals with psychopathic traits have been found to have reduced neural activity in many of the brain regions that are important for lying. In this study, we examine brain activity in sixteen individuals with varying degrees of psychopathic traits during a task in which they are instructed to falsify information or tell the truth about autobiographical and non-autobiographical facts, some of which was related to criminal behavior...
June 19, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654838/callous-unemotional-traits-moderate-executive-function-in-children-with-asd-and-adhd-a-pilot-event-related-potential-study
#9
C Tye, R Bedford, P Asherson, K L Ashwood, B Azadi, P Bolton, G McLoughlin
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are associated with varied executive function (EF) difficulties. Callous-unemotional (CU) traits, a proposed antecedent of adult psychopathy, are often associated with intact or enhanced EF. Here we test whether CU traits may therefore modulate EF in ASD and ADHD, in which EF is typically impaired. We collected CU traits and measured event-related potentials (ERPs) that index EF during a cued-continuous performance test (CPT-OX) in boys with ASD, ADHD, comorbid ASD+ADHD and typical controls...
June 13, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643444/how-media-exposure-relates-to-laypersons-understanding-of-psychopathy
#10
Michael E Keesler, David DeMatteo
While conceptualization of psychopathy has evolved, so too has the public's relationship with psychology changed. Concurrently, portrayal of psychopaths has made several shifts, both through nonfiction sources and in popular film and television. Psychopathic villains of the mid-20th century have made space for a growing cast of protagonist psychopaths. This study examined whether a relationship existed between exposure to fictional psychopaths and how lay individuals conceptualize psychopathy. Specifically, this study explored conceptualization differences based on exposure to antagonist versus protagonist fictional psychopaths...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638035/-the-abnomal-personalities-in-the-conception-of-h-gruhle
#11
N Yu Pyatnitsky
Understanding of psychopathic personality in the conception of H. Gruhle, a famous German psychiatrist, is analyzed. The issue that the psychopathic personality is accidentally combined with mental illness, psychosis is contradictory to the conception of 'general degenerative constitution'; psychopathology can be isolated and transient. There is absence of age criteria in the diagnosis of psychopathy as well. The initial attempt of H. Gruhle to systematically consider all types of psychopathy was not well substantiated, therefore the author returned to Kraepelin's systematics of psychopathic personality according to prominent traid...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635343/primary-psychopathy-and-alcohol-pathology-in-college-students-the-role-of-protective-behavioral-strategies
#12
Matthew P Kramer, Brittany L Stevenson, Robert D Dvorak
OVERVIEW: Though not an official diagnosis, psychopathy has become an important area of research due to the litany of deleterious outcomes associated with this aspect of temperament. Psychopathy is composed of primary and secondary traits. Research consistently links psychopathy to alcohol pathology, though often only via secondary traits which are comprised of intractable aspects of behavior (e.g., poor impulse control). In contrast, primary psychopathy is comprised of behaviors that can be learned and thus may be more malleable (i...
February 13, 2017: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627923/examination-of-the-triarchic-assessment-procedure-for-inconsistent-responding-in-six-non-english-language-samples
#13
Shannon E Kelley, Josanne D M van Dongen, M Brent Donnellan, John F Edens, Hedwig Eisenbarth, Andrea Fossati, Katarina Howner, Antonella Somma, Karolina Sörman
The Triarchic Assessment Procedure for Inconsistent Responding (TAPIR; Mowle et al., 2016) was recently developed to identify inattentiveness or comprehension difficulties that may compromise the validity of responses on the Triarchic Psychopathy Measure (TriPM; Patrick, 2010). The TAPIR initially was constructed and cross-validated using exclusively English-speaking participants from the United States; however, research using the TriPM has been increasingly conducted internationally, with numerous foreign language translations of the measure emerging...
June 19, 2017: Psychological Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627902/responses-to-dominance-challenge-are-a-function-of-psychopathy-level-a-multimethod-study
#14
Jill Lobbestael, Arnoud Arntz, Marisol Voncken, Michael Potegal
This study assesses the relationship between psychopathy and dominance, both as a trait level and in 2 interpersonal contexts. Following the interpersonal circumplex model, we expected that interacting with a dominant interviewer would reduce dominance displays by low psychopathy participants (interpersonal complementarity) but might increase such displays in those with higher psychopathy (anticomplementarity). Psychopathic traits and dominance were assessed in a community sample (N = 91) using multiple dominance indicators: self-reported overall dominance level, job preference, dominance displays observed during identical interviews with a subordinate and dominant interviewer, and baseline and postinterview measures of personal space and testosterone level...
June 19, 2017: Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602816/neurobiological-correlates-of-impulsivity-in-healthy-adults-lower-prefrontal-gray-matter-volume-and-spontaneous-eye-blink-rate-but-greater-resting-state-functional-connectivity-in-basal-ganglia-thalamo-cortical-circuitry
#15
Cole Korponay, Daniela Dentico, Tammi Kral, Martina Ly, Ayla Kruis, Robin Goldman, Antoine Lutz, Richard J Davidson
Studies consistently implicate aberrance of the brain's reward-processing and decision-making networks in disorders featuring high levels of impulsivity, such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, substance use disorder, and psychopathy. However, less is known about the neurobiological determinants of individual differences in impulsivity in the general population. In this study of 105 healthy adults, we examined relationships between impulsivity and three neurobiological metrics - gray matter volume, resting-state functional connectivity, and spontaneous eye-blink rate, a physiological indicator of central dopaminergic activity...
June 8, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594630/psychopathy-and-deviant-workplace-behavior-a-comparison-of-two-psychopathy-models
#16
Jessica R Carre, Steven M Mueller, Karly M Schleicher, Daniel N Jones
Although psychopathy is an interpersonally harmful construct, few studies have compared different psychopathy models in predicting different types of workplace deviance. We examined how the Triarchic Psychopathy Model (TRI-PM) and the Self-Report Psychopathy-Short Form (SRP-SF) predicted deviant workplace behaviors in two forms: sexual harassment and deviant work behaviors. Using structural equations modeling, the latent factor of psychopathy was predictive for both types of deviant workplace behavior. Specifically, the SRP-SF significantly predicted both measures of deviant workplace behavior...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594218/examining-the-interrater-reliability-of-the-hare-psychopathy-checklist-revised-across-a-large-sample-of-trained-raters
#17
Julie Blais, Adelle E Forth, Robert D Hare
The goal of the current study was to assess the interrater reliability of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) among a large sample of trained raters (N = 280). All raters completed PCL-R training at some point between 1989 and 2012 and subsequently provided complete coding for the same 6 practice cases. Overall, 3 major conclusions can be drawn from the results: (a) reliability of individual PCL-R items largely fell below any appropriate standards while the estimates for Total PCL-R scores and factor scores were good (but not excellent); (b) the cases representing individuals with high psychopathy scores showed better reliability than did the cases of individuals in the moderate to low PCL-R score range; and (c) there was a high degree of variability among raters; however, rater specific differences had no consistent effect on scoring the PCL-R...
June 2017: Psychological Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594208/field-measures-of-psychopathy-and-sexual-deviance-as-predictors-of-recidivism-among-sexual-offenders
#18
Paige B Harris, Marcus T Boccaccini, Amanda K Rice
Offenders with high levels of both psychopathy and deviant sexual interests are often described as being more prone to recidivate than other sexual offenders, and many forensic evaluators report considering this psychopathy and sexual deviance interaction when coming to conclusions about sex offender risk. However, empirical support for the interaction comes from studies using sexual deviance measures that are rarely used in the field. We examined the ability of Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) field scores and possible field measures of sexual deviance (e...
June 2017: Psychological Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580638/emotional-reactivity-and-regulation-in-individuals-with-psychopathic-traits-evidence-for-a-disconnect-between-neurophysiology-and-self-report
#19
Jennifer D Ellis, Hans S Schroder, Christopher J Patrick, Jason S Moser
Individuals with psychopathic traits often demonstrate blunted reactivity to negative emotional stimuli. However, it is not yet clear whether these individuals also have difficulty regulating their emotional responses to negative stimuli. To address this question, participants with varying levels of psychopathic traits (indexed by the Triarchic Measure of Psychopathy; Patrick, 2010) completed a task in which they passively viewed, increased, or decreased their emotions to negative picture stimuli while electrocortical activity was recorded...
June 5, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556964/psychopathy-and-mortality
#20
Olli Vaurio, Eila Repo-Tiihonen, Hannu Kautiainen, Jari Tiihonen
It is not known how mortality differs between psychopathic and nonpsychopathic individuals. We linked data from subjects having been in forensic mental examinations at Niuvanniemi Hospital during 1984-1993 to the data from the National Death Registry to estimate the association between psychopathy and mortality. One hundred psychopathic individuals scoring 25 or higher in the PCL-R scale were followed up for 20-30 years. Two control groups were used as follows: 178 offenders scoring less than 25 on the PCL-R, and sample of general population drawn from the Finnish National Statistics database...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
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