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Psychopathy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778051/assessing-psychopathy-in-forensic-schizophrenia-spectrum-disorders-validating-the-comprehensive-assessment-of-the-psychopathic-personality-institutional-rating-scale-capp-irs
#1
Louis De Page, Sophie Mercenier, Pierre Titeca
The assessment of psychopathy in (forensic) schizophrenia spectrum disorders is long-standing debate. In the present study, we investigated the psychometric properties of the Comprehensive Assessment of Psychopathic Personality-Institutional Rating Scale (CAPP-IRS) in a sample of 72 male forensic patients with a primary diagnosis of schizophrenia spectrum disorders. We compared the CAPP-IRS' psychometric properties to those of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R). The CAPP-IRS showed good interrater reliability and internal consistency except for the CAPP-IRS Cognition and Emotional Domains...
May 16, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754711/changes-in-resting-eeg-in-colombian-ex-combatants-ith-antisocial-personality-disorder
#2
Claudia Ramos, Jon Duque-Grajales, Jorge Rendón, Alejandro Montoya-Betancur, Ana Baena, David Pineda, Carlos Tobón
INTRODUCTION: Although the social and economic consequences of Colombian internal conflicts mainly affected the civilian population, they also had other implications. The ex-combatants, the other side of the conflict, have been the subject of many studies that question their personality structures and antisocial features. Results suggest that ex-combatants usually have characteristics of an antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) that is related with their behaviour. METHODS: Quantitative EEG (qEEG) was used to evaluate differences in cortical activity patterns between an ex-combatants group and a control group...
April 2018: Revista Colombiana de Psiquiatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752216/primary-and-secondary-variants-of-psychopathy-in-a-volunteer-sample-are-associated-with-different-neurocognitive-mechanisms
#3
Arjun Sethi, Eamon McCrory, Vanessa Puetz, Ferdinand Hoffmann, Annchen R Knodt, Spenser R Radtke, Bartholomew D Brigidi, Ahmad R Hariri, Essi Viding
BACKGROUND: Recent work has indicated that there at least two distinct subtypes of psychopathy. Primary psychopathy is characterized by low anxiety and thought to result from a genetic predisposition, whereas secondary psychopathy is characterized by high anxiety and thought to develop in response to environmental adversity. Primary psychopathy is robustly associated with reduced neural activation to others' emotions and, in particular, distress. However, it has been proposed that the secondary presentation has different neurocognitive correlates...
April 12, 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743806/troubled-or-traumatized-youth-the-relations-between-psychopathy-violence-exposure-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-and-antisocial-behavior-among-juvenile-offenders
#4
Siny Tsang
The current study examined how psychopathy, exposure to violence, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are associated with antisocial behavior among 1,354 serious delinquent adolescents from the Pathways to Desistance study. Results showed that psychopathy, violence exposure, and PTSD are independently linked to self-reported involvement of delinquency, even after controlling for respondents' demographic characteristics. However, the effect of PTSD on antisocial behavior was small. Differential associations were observed between the 2 factors of psychopathy, interpersonal/affective and social deviance, and PTSD symptoms...
2018: Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725317/psychopathy-to-altruism-neurobiology-of-the-selfish-selfless-spectrum
#5
REVIEW
James W H Sonne, Don M Gash
The age-old philosophical, biological, and social debate over the basic nature of humans as being "universally selfish" or "universally good" continues today highlighting sharply divergent views of natural social order. Here we analyze advances in biology, genetics and neuroscience increasing our understanding of the evolution, features and neurocircuitry of the human brain underlying behavior in the selfish-selfless spectrum. First, we examine evolutionary pressures for selection of altruistic traits in species with protracted periods of dependence on parents and communities for subsistence and acquisition of learned behaviors...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723067/incremental-validity-of-the-durand-adaptive-psychopathic-traits-questionnaire-above-self-report-psychopathy-measures-in-community-samples
#6
Guillaume Durand
Although highly debated, the notion of the existence of an adaptive side to psychopathy is supported by some researchers. Currently, 2 instruments assessing psychopathic traits include an adaptive component, which might not cover the full spectrum of adaptive psychopathic traits. The Durand Adaptive Psychopathic Traits Questionnaire (DAPTQ; Durand, 2017 ) is a 41-item self-reported instrument assessing adaptive traits known to correlate with the psychopathic personality. In this study, I investigated in 2 samples (N = 263 and N = 262) the incremental validity of the DAPTQ over the Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Short Form (PPI-SF) and the Triarchic Psychopathy Measure (TriPM) using multiple criterion measures...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Personality Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722995/from-theoretical-to-empirical-considering-reflections-of-psychopathy-across-the-thin-blue-line
#7
Diana M Falkenbach, Justin Balash, Maria Tsoukalas, Stephanie Stern, Scott O Lilienfeld
The majority of psychopathy research has focused on negative outcomes in criminal populations. However, psychopathy encompasses a variety of traits, and recent research suggests that certain features of psychopathy, such as a fearless temperament, may be related to psychological resiliency, "successful" functioning, and even heroic behavior (Hall & Benning, 2006; Lykken, 1995). Despite anecdotal discussion, little is known about the possible "successful" or adaptive reflections of psychopathic personality traits in ostensible heroes...
May 3, 2018: Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718978/general-trust-impedes-perception-of-self-reported-primary-psychopathy-in-thin-slices-of-social-interaction
#8
Joseph H Manson, Matthew M Gervais, Gregory A Bryant
Little is known about people's ability to detect subclinical psychopathy from others' quotidian social behavior, or about the correlates of variation in this ability. This study sought to address these questions using a thin slice personality judgment paradigm. We presented 108 undergraduate judges (70.4% female) with 1.5 minute video thin slices of zero-acquaintance triadic conversations among other undergraduates (targets: n = 105, 57.1% female). Judges completed self-report measures of general trust, caution, and empathy...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717650/the-shadows-in-healthcare-leadership
#9
Tracey Lynn Nigro
This article outlines personality traits such as psychopathy, narcissism, Machiavellianism, and sadism which, when elevated in health leaders, may have negative effects upon teams, the organizations they work for, and ultimately the public. The implications of such traits for specific core health leadership competency domains are explored as well as potential mitigation approaches to minimize and possibly redirect such personality traits.
May 2018: Healthcare Management Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704414/level-of-personality-integration-in-psychopathy
#10
Lidia Cierpiałkowska, Jarosław Groth, Paweł Kleka
OBJECTIVES: Aim of this research was to determine whether differences in clinical picture of psychopathy (on the basis of which subtypes of psychopathy are identified) reflect differences in pathology of personality organization (integration) according to O. Kernberg. METHODS: The research was conducted on 417 subjects, of whom 88.5% were criminals, 11.5% - non-criminals. Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Revised (PPI-R), developed by S.O. Lilienfeld, was used to assess level of psychopathy while personality organization level was assessed by Borderline Personality Inventory (BPI) developed by F...
February 28, 2018: Psychiatria Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703994/behavioral-and-neurobiological-mechanisms-of-punishment-implications-for-psychiatric-disorders
#11
Philip Jean-Richard-Dit-Bressel, Simon Killcross, Gavan P McNally
Punishment involves learning about the relationship between behavior and its adverse consequences. Punishment is fundamental to reinforcement learning, decision-making and choice, and is disrupted in psychiatric disorders such as addiction, depression, and psychopathy. However, little is known about the brain mechanisms of punishment and much of what is known is derived from study of superficially similar, but fundamentally distinct, forms of aversive learning such as fear conditioning and avoidance learning...
March 27, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700834/psychopathic-traits-are-differentially-associated-with-efficiency-of-neural-communication
#12
Scott Tillem, Josanne van Dongen, Inti A Brazil, Arielle Baskin-Sommers
Recent advances in the application of graph theory made it possible to quantify the efficiency of communication within a neural network, going beyond traditional connectivity methods that only identify the degree to which neural regions are connected. Psychopathic traits, namely, interpersonal-affective and impulsive-antisocial traits, have been linked to widespread and distinct disruptions in neural connectivity. The efficiency of neural communication for individuals high on these psychopathic traits, though, is unknown...
April 26, 2018: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29697994/affective-traits-of-psychopathy-are-linked-to-white-matter-abnormalities-in-impulsive-male-offenders
#13
Anouk Vermeij, Maaike M Kempes, Maaike J Cima, Rogier B Mars, Inti A Brazil
OBJECTIVE: Psychopathy is a personality disorder typified by lack of empathy and impulsive antisocial behavior. Psychopathic traits may partly relate to disrupted connections between brain regions. The aim of the present study was to link abnormalities in microstructural integrity of white-matter tracts to the severity of different psychopathic traits in 15 male offenders with impulse control problems and 10 without impulse control problems. METHOD: Psychopathic traits were assessed using the Psychopathy Checklist-revised (PCL-R)...
April 26, 2018: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667482/hot-utilitarianism-and-cold-deontology-insights-from-a-response-patterns-approach-to-sacrificial-and-real-world-dilemmas
#14
Alejandro Rosas, Hugo Viciana, Esteban Caviedes, Alejandra Arciniegas
Research on moral judgment with moral dilemmas suggests that "utilitarian" responses (UR) to sacrificial high-conflict dilemmas are due to decreased harm aversion, not only in individuals with clinical conditions, but also in healthy participants with high scores in antisocial personality traits. We investigated the patterns of responses to different dilemma types in healthy participants and present evidence that some URs to sacrificial dilemmas are morally motivated, as indicated by their empathic concern (EC) or primary psychopathy (PP) scores...
April 18, 2018: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663404/do-psychopathic-birds-of-a-feather-flock-together-psychopathic-personality-traits-and-romantic-preferences
#15
Ashley L Watts, Jessica C Rohr, Katherine L McCauley, Sarah Francis Smith, Kristin Landfield Howe, Scott O Lilienfeld
OBJECTIVE: The goal of the present studies was to investigate whether people are especially attracted to psychopathic traits, and whether there are individual differences characteristics in such attraction. METHOD: Female undergraduates (N = 270; Mage = 19; 57% White, 20% Asian, 8% Black) and female and male community members (N = 426, Mage = 37; 56% female; 81% Caucasian, 10% African American, 4% Asian) reported on their own personality and constructed their ideal mate for a dating, short-term, and long-term relationship from a list of 70 characteristics drawn from well-validated criteria for psychopathic personality and diagnostic criteria for DSM-5 personality disorders (PDs)...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660102/psychopathic-traits-influence-amygdala-anterior-cingulate-cortex-connectivity-during-facial-emotion-processing
#16
Michael P Ewbank, Luca Passamonti, Cindy C Hagan, Ian M Goodyer, Andrew J Calder, Graeme Fairchild
There is accumulating evidence that youths with antisocial behavior or psychopathic traits show deficits in facial emotion recognition, but little is known about the neural mechanisms underlying these impairments. A number of neuroimaging studies have investigated brain activity during facial emotion processing in youths with Conduct Disorder (CD) and adults with psychopathy, but few of these studies tested for group differences in effective connectivity - i.e., changes in connectivity during emotion processing...
April 12, 2018: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658728/-beyond-sacrificial-harm-a-two-dimensional-model-of-utilitarian-psychology-correction
#17
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "Beyond Sacrificial Harm: A Two-Dimensional Model of Utilitarian Psychology" by Guy Kahane, Jim A. C. Everett, Brian D. Earp, Lucius Caviola, Nadira S. Faber, Molly J. Crockett and Julian Savulescu ( Psychological Review , Advanced Online Publication, Dec 21, 2017, np). The copyright attribution was incorrectly listed, and the Creative Commons CC-BY license disclaimer was incorrectly omitted from the author note. The correct copyright is "© 2017 The Author(s)" and the omitted disclaimer is presented in the erratum...
March 2018: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651681/higher-autistic-traits-among-criminals-but-no-link-to-psychopathy-findings-from-a-high-security-prison-in-portugal
#18
Diana Loureiro, Ana Machado, Tânia Silva, Tânia Veigas, Carlos Ramalheira, Joaquim Cerejeira
The relationship between autism, criminality and psychopathy has gained increased attention in recent years, although research has focused on autism spectrum disorders, and not autistic traits. We measured autistic traits (with the Autism Spectrum Quotient) in a sample of 101 inmates from a high-security prison and compared them to a control group, using a logistic regression model that included age, education, psychopathology, psychopathy and attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder as covariates. Prisoners had more autistic traits (OR 1...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649258/clinician-ratings-of-the-comprehensive-assessment-of-psychopathic-personality-capp-in-a-representative-sample-of-spanish-prison-inmates-new-validity-evidence
#19
Gerardo Flórez, Ventura Ferrer, Luis S García, María R Crespo, Manuel Pérez, Pilar A Saíz, David J Cooke
The Comprehensive Assessment of Psychopathic Personality (CAPP) is a concept map of psychopathic personality disorder (PPD). The CAPP- Institutional Rating Scale (IRS) is a tool designed to assess CAPP symptoms in institutional settings. The CAPP contains 33 personality traits organized in six domains: attachment, behavioural, cognitive, dominance, emotional and self. Until now, much of the CAPP research has been conducted out of clinical, forensic and correctional settings using self-ratings. In the current study, the psychometric properties and construct validity of the CAPP-IRS were evaluated in a non-convenience sample of 204 Spanish convicts...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628070/interactions-between-oxytocin-receptor-gene-methylation-and-callous-unemotional-traits-impact-socioaffective-brain-systems-in-conduct-disordered-offenders
#20
Moji Aghajani, Eduard T Klapwijk, Olivier F Colins, Christiane Ziegler, Katharina Domschke, Robert R J M Vermeiren, Nic J A van der Wee
BACKGROUND: The developmental trajectory of psychopathy seemingly begins early in life and includes the presence of callous-unemotional (CU) traits (e.g., perturbed socioaffective reactivity and empathy, callousness) in youths with conduct disorder (CD). Whereas oxytocin receptor gene methylation (OXTRMeth ) and its downstream neuromodulatory effects are deemed relevant to CU traits, nothing is known of how OXTRMeth interacts with CU traits to impact socioaffective brain systems in youngsters with CD...
April 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
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