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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346115/the-malevolent-side-of-human-nature
#1
Peter Muris, Harald Merckelbach, Henry Otgaar, Ewout Meijer
The term dark triad refers to the constellation of narcissism, Machiavellianism, and psychopathy. Over the past few years, the concept has gained momentum, with many researchers assuming that the dark triad is a prominent antecedent of transgressive and norm-violating behavior. Our purpose in this meta-analytic review was to evaluate (a) interrelations among narcissism, Machiavellianism, and psychopathy; (b) gender differences in these traits; (c) how these traits are linked to normal personality factors; and (d) the psychosocial correlates of the dark triad...
March 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342766/antisocial-behaviour-and-psychopathy-uncovering-the-externalizing-link-in-the-p3-modulation
#2
REVIEW
Rita Pasion, Carina Fernandes, Mariana R Pereira, Fernando Barbosa
In 2009, Gao and Raine's meta-analysis analysed P3 modulation over the antisocial spectrum. However, some questions remained open regarding the P3 modulation patterns across impulsive and violent manifestations of antisocial behaviour, phenotypic components of psychopathy, and P3 components. A systematic review of 36 studies was conducted (N=3514) to extend previous results and to address these unresolved questions. A clear link between decreased P3 amplitude and antisocial behaviour was found. In psychopathy, dimensional approaches become more informative than taxonomic models...
March 22, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326048/developing-a-taxonomy-of-dark-triad-triggers-at-work-a-grounded-theory-study-protocol
#3
Annika Nübold, Josef Bader, Nera Bozin, Romil Depala, Helena Eidast, Elisabeth A Johannessen, Gerhard Prinz
In past years, research and corporate scandals have evidenced the destructive effects of the dark triad at work, consisting of narcissism (extreme self-centeredness), psychopathy (lack of empathy and remorse) and Machiavellianism (a sense of duplicity and manipulativeness). The dark triad dimensions have typically been conceptualized as stable personality traits, ignoring the accumulating evidence that momentary personality expressions - personality states - may change due to the characteristics of the situation...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315981/the-development-of-severe-and-chronic-violence-among-youth-the-role-of-psychopathic-traits-and-reward-processing
#4
Dennis E Reidy, Elizabeth Krusemark, David S Kosson, Megan C Kearns, Joanne Smith-Darden, Kent A Kiehl
Psychopathic traits are a manifestation of a personality pathology that comprises a core affective-interpersonal dysfunction (callous-unemotional traits) and an impulsive-antisocial behavioral component. Of particular importance, psychopathic traits are associated with the perpetration of some of the most severe acts of violence, and they appear to indicate a subset of youth at risk for earlier onset, greater frequency, and persistence of violent offending. Although these youth represent a minority of the population, they commit a significant proportion of the violence in the general community...
March 18, 2017: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301194/risk-sophistication-treatment-inventory-self-report-rsti-sr-a-confirmatory-factor-analysis-and-exploration-of-factor-relations
#5
Xinying Ang, Randall T Salekin, Martin Sellbom, C Adam Coffey
The RSTI-SR was recently designed to facilitate juvenile evaluations by tapping 3 pertinent juvenile psycho-legal variables including risk, developmental maturity, and treatment amenability. The present study examined the factor structure and construct validity of the RSTI-SR with 190 adolescent offenders (Mage = 15.6) who completed the RSTI-SR and a short battery of theoretically relevant psychological measures. The findings from the current study demonstrated that the proposed 3-factor model for the RSTI produced good fit to the data...
March 16, 2017: Psychological Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293987/risk-taking-and-the-triarchic-model-of-psychopathy
#6
Robert J Snowden, Chloe Smith, Nicola S Gray
INTRODUCTION: High risk behaviors, such as aggression, criminality, sexual promiscuity, drug use, and gambling, are often associated with psychopathic traits. Such behaviors might arise due to a lack of fear of the consequences (boldness) or due to impulsive actions (disinhibition). We examined risk taking behavior in the laboratory setting using the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART), where an individual can inflate a balloon to earn a reward, but will lose this accumulated reward if the balloon bursts...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287840/a-statistical-consideration-regarding-the-threshold-of-the-psychopathy-checklist-revised
#7
Steve Balsis, Alexander J Busch, Kevin M Wilfong, Joseph W Newman, John F Edens
The Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R; Hare, 2003 ) is one of the most commonly used measures of psychopathy. Scores range from 0 to 40, and legal and mental health professionals sometimes rely on a cut score or threshold to classify individuals as psychopaths. This practice, among other things, assumes that all items contribute equally to the overall raw score. Results from an item response theory analysis (Bolt, Hare, Vitale, & Newman, 2004 ), however, indicate that PCL-R items differ in the amount of information they can provide about psychopathy...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Personality Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286371/further-evidence-for-reliability-and-validity-of-the-triarchic-psychopathy-measure-in-a-forensic-sample-and-a-community-sample
#8
Josanne D M van Dongen, Laura E Drislane, Henk Nijman, Sabrina E Soe-Agnie, Hjalmar J C van Marle
Psychopathy is often described as a constellation of personality characteristics encompassing features such as impulsivity and antisociality, and a lack of empathy and guilt. Although the use of self-reports to assess psychopathy is still debated, there are distinct advantages to such measures and recent research suggests that they may not be as problematic as previously thought. This study further examined the reliability and validity of the Triarchic Psychopathy Measure (TriPM) in a community sample (N = 496) and forensic psychiatric patient sample (N = 217)...
2017: Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286370/interaction-between-prenatal-maternal-stress-and-autonomic-arousal-in-predicting-conduct-problems-and-psychopathic-traits-in-children
#9
Yu Gao, Yonglin Huang, Xiaobo Li
BACKGROUND: Evidence has suggested that neurobiological deficits combine with psychosocial risk factors to impact on the development of antisocial behavior. The current study concentrated on the interplay of prenatal maternal stress and autonomic arousal in predicting antisocial behavior and psychopathic traits. METHODS: Prenatal maternal stress was assessed by caregiver's retrospective report, and resting heart rate and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) were measured in 295 8- to 10-year-old children...
March 2017: Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263094/development-and-validation-of-the-treatment-attrition-retention-scale-for-personality-disorders
#10
Dominick Gamache, Claudia Savard, Sophie Lemelin, Evens Villeneuve
This study is an investigation of the psychometric properties of the Treatment Attrition-Retention Scale for Personality Disorders (TARS-PD), an instrument developed to identify patients with personality disorder (PD) at risk of early dropout from psychotherapy. In a first study, assessment files from 320 patients referred for PD evaluation at an outpatient clinic were examined to assess the instrument's inter-rater reliability, construct validity, and discriminant validity. Results showed that the global scale could be scored with excellent reliability...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253006/duplicity-among-the-dark-triad-three-faces-of-deceit
#11
Daniel N Jones, Delroy L Paulhus
Although all 3 of the Dark Triad members are predisposed to engage in exploitative interpersonal behavior, their motivations and tactics vary. Here we explore their distinctive dynamics with 5 behavioral studies of dishonesty (total N = 1,750). All 3 traits predicted cheating on a coin-flipping task when there was little risk of being caught (Study 1). Only psychopathy predicted cheating when punishment was a serious risk (Study 2). Machiavellian individuals also cheated under high risk-but only if they were ego-depleted (Study 3)...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205232/preliminary-study-of-testosterone-and-empathy-in-determining-recidivism-and-antisocial-behavior
#12
Samuel J House, Jacob M Laan, Raymond K Molden, James C Ritchie, Zachary N Stowe
Recidivism, repeated criminal behavior after conviction and correction of prior offenses, is a costly problem across the nation. However, the contribution of empathy in determining the risk of recidivism has received limited attention, although lack of empathy has been related to antisocial personality disorder in various studies. Studies linked testosterone to aggression, antisocial behavior, and criminality, and evidence support hormonal connections between empathy and aggression. Adult male prison inmates convicted of violent or nonviolent offenses were included in a cross-sectional study of empathy, antisocial behavior, salivary testosterone, and recidivism...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174546/once-an-impression-manager-always-an-impression-manager-antecedents-of-honest-and-deceptive-impression-management-use-and-variability-across-multiple-job-interviews
#13
Nicolas Roulin, Joshua S Bourdage
Research has examined the antecedents of applicants' use of impression management (IM) tactics in employment interviews. All existing empirical studies have measured IM in one particular interview. Yet, applicants generally interview multiple times for different positions, and thus have multiple opportunities to engage in IM, before they can secure a job. Similarly, recent theoretical advances in personnel selection and IM research have suggested that applicant behaviors should be considered as dynamic and adaptive in nature...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28171793/response-inhibition-in-the-parametric-go-no-go-task-in-psychopathic-offenders
#14
Kathrin Weidacker, Robert J Snowden, Frederic Boy, Stephen J Johnston
Previous research on response inhibition in psychopaths has failed to find consistent evidence for aberrant inhibitory ability, despite strong expectations to the contrary. However, previous examinations have utilised inhibition paradigms that suffer from critical shortcomings, such as a lack of ecological validity and overly simplistic response criteria. To assess inhibition under conditions close to the demands of everyday settings, the current study employs a parametric Go/No-go task in male offenders (n77)...
January 31, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169424/callous-unemotional-impulsive-irresponsible-and-grandiose-manipulative-traits-distinct-associations-with-heart-rate-skin-conductance-and-startle-responses-to-violent-and-erotic-scenes
#15
Kostas A Fanti, Melina N Kyranides, Giorgos Georgiou, Maria Petridou, Olivier F Colins, Catherine Tuvblad, Henrik Andershed
The present study aimed to examine whether callous-unemotional, grandiose-manipulative, and impulsive-irresponsible dimensions of psychopathy are differentially related to various affective and physiological measures, assessed at baseline and in response to violent and erotic movie scenes. Data were collected from young adults (N = 101) at differential risk for psychopathic traits. Findings from regression analyses revealed a unique predictive contribution of grandiose-manipulative traits in particular to higher ratings of positive valence for violent scenes...
February 7, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165260/psychometric-properties-of-the-triarchic-psychopathy-measure-an-item-response-theory-approach
#16
Yiyun Shou, Martin Sellbom, Jing Xu
There is cumulative evidence for the cross-cultural validity of the Triarchic Psychopathy Measure (TriPM; Patrick, 2010) among non-Western populations. Recent studies using correlational and regression analyses show promising construct validity of the TriPM in Chinese samples. However, little is known about the efficiency of items in TriPM in assessing the proposed latent traits. The current study evaluated the psychometric properties of the Chinese TriPM at the item level using item response theory analyses...
February 6, 2017: Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161609/patient-characteristics-associated-with-aggression-in-mental-health-units
#17
Tegan Podubinski, Stuart Lee, Yitzchak Hollander, Michael Daffern
Aggression in mental health units is a significant and pervasive problem. However, the characteristics of patients associated with increased aggression propensity remain unclear and there are few attempts to expand understanding of these characteristics by drawing upon contemporary aggression theory. This study assessed the influence of interpersonal (hostile-dominance) and personality (psychopathy), General Aggression Model-specified (aggressive script rehearsal, attitudes towards violence, and trait anger), and clinical (psychiatric symptoms) factors on aggression during psychiatric hospitalization in 200 inpatients (132 men and 68 women; 19-64 years, M=38...
January 31, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152398/derailing-the-trolley-everyday-utilitarian-judgments-in-groups-high-versus-low-in-psychopathic-traits-or-autistic-traits
#18
Karishma Vyas, Leila Jameel, Giulia Bellesi, Sarah Crawford, Shelley Channon
Moral decision-making has been linked with empathy. The present study built on previous work examining the relationship between psychopathy or autism spectrum disorder (ASD), two conditions putatively associated with deficits in empathy, and utilitarian decision-making. Students scoring high on self-report measures of psychopathic or autistic traits were presented with a novel task, 'Utilitarian Judgments', and compared to low trait control groups. This study replicated the classic finding that more direct links between the agents' actions and harm to victims mitigated utilitarian decision-making...
January 22, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150975/witnessing-domestic-violence-during-childhood-is-associated-with-psychopathic-traits-in-adult-male-criminal-offenders
#19
Monika Dargis, Michael Koenigs
While there is growing evidence that suffering physical abuse during childhood is subsequently associated with psychopathic traits in both juvenile and adult offenders, there is considerably less research on whether exposure to domestic violence as a witness, rather than as a direct victim, influences the subsequent presentation of psychopathic traits in adulthood. Accordingly, the current study examined the relationship between witnessing domestic violence during childhood (i.e., witnessing, hearing, or intervening in abuse against a parent/sibling) and psychopathic traits in adulthood in a sample of n = 127 incarcerated male offenders...
April 2017: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124372/how-likable-are-personality-disorder-and-general-personality-traits-to-those-who-possess-them
#20
Joanna Lamkin, Jessica L Maples-Keller, Joshua D Miller
OBJECTIVE: The goal of the present study was to investigate whether having higher scores on maladaptive personality traits was related to rating these traits as more likable. METHOD: Two studies were conducted, one with personality disorder traits (N = 219; Mage  = 19.4; 63.8% female; 76.6% Caucasian) and one with general personality traits (N = 198; Mage  = 19.5; 69.7% female; 77.3% Caucasian). In each study, participants self-rated their own personality and separately provided ratings of how "likable" they considered those personality traits...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Personality
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