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Psychopathy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522165/a-new-legal-treatment-for-psychopaths-perplexities-for-legal-thinkers
#1
REVIEW
Maria Isabel Gonzalez-Tapia, Ingrid Obsuth, Rachel Heeds
Public perception, fueled not only by popular and news media but also by expert claims that psychopaths are archetypes of evil: incorrigible, remorseless, cold-blooded criminals, whose crimes manifest in the most extreme levels of violence. But is there empirical evidence that psychopaths truly are what they are portrayed to be? If so, should the law respond, and adjust its treatment of psychopaths in court - permitting psychopathy to be admitted under an insanity defense and/or resulting in mitigation? In this paper, we demonstrate that fundamental questions from the law to science remain unanswered and must be addressed before any alternative treatment of psychopathy can be considered...
May 15, 2017: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521281/functional-connectivity-in-incarcerated-male-adolescents-with-psychopathic-traits
#2
Sandra Thijssen, Kent A Kiehl
The present study examined the association between psychopathic traits and functional connectivity in 177 incarcerated male adolescents. We hypothesized that psychopathic symptoms would be associated with functional connectivity within networks encompassing limbic and paralimbic regions, such as the default mode (DMN), salience networks (SN), and executive control network (ECN). The present sample was drawn from the Southwest Advanced Neuroimaging Cohort, Youth sample, and from research at a youth detention facility in Wisconsin...
May 11, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516848/the-role-of-psychopathic-traits-in-female-sexual-coercion
#3
Holly A Miller, Jeffrey A Bouffard, Cassidy A DeHaan
Researchers have consistently found a relationship between psychopathy and the use of sexual coercion in samples of males with and without previous sexual arrests (Abbey, Jacques-Tiura, & LeBreton, 2011; Hare, 1991; Hersh & Gray-Little, 1998; Seto & Lalumiere, 2000). Although there is growing recognition that females also engage in sexually coercive behavior, current understanding of female coercion is limited (Bouffard, Bouffard, & Miller, 2015; Cortoni, Hanson, & Coache, 2010; Muñoz, Khan, & Cordwell, 2011)...
May 17, 2017: Violence and Victims
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515474/blunted-ambiguity-aversion-during-cost-benefit-decisions-in-antisocial-individuals
#4
Joshua W Buckholtz, Uma Karmarkar, Shengxuan Ye, Grace M Brennan, Arielle Baskin-Sommers
Antisocial behavior is often assumed to reflect aberrant risk processing. However, many of the most significant forms of antisocial behavior, including crime, reflect the outcomes of decisions made under conditions of ambiguity rather than risk. While risk and ambiguity are formally distinct and experimentally dissociable, little is known about ambiguity sensitivity in individuals who engage in chronic antisocial behavior. We used a financial decision-making task in a high-risk community-based sample to test for associations between sensitivity to ambiguity, antisocial behavior, and arrest history...
May 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513350/examining-the-relationships-between-the-triarchic-psychopathy-constructs-and-behavioral-deviance-in-a-community-sample
#5
C Adam Coffey, Jennifer Cox, Megan R Kopkin
Few studies have examined the extent to which psychopathic traits relate to the commission of mild to moderate acts of deviance, such as vandalism and minor traffic violations. Given that psychopathy is now studied in community populations, the relationship between psychopathic traits and less severe deviant behaviors, which are more normative among noninstitutionalized samples, warrants investigation. The current study examined the relationships between the triarchic model of psychopathy (Patrick, Fowles & Krueger, 2009) and seven forms of deviant behavior (drug use, alcohol use, theft, vandalism, school misconduct, assault, and general deviance) in a nationally representative sample...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503367/etiology-of-triarchic-psychopathy-dimensions-in-chimpanzees-pan-troglodytes
#6
Robert D Latzman, Christopher J Patrick, Hani J Freeman, Steven J Schapiro, William D Hopkins
The current study undertook analyses of genealogical data from a sample of 178 socially-housed chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) with well-documented pedigrees, to clarify the etiologic bases of triarchic psychopathy dimensions and the influence of early social rearing experiences. Whereas biometric analyses for the full sample indicated significant heritability for the boldness dimension of psychopathy only, heritability estimates varied by early rearing, with all three triarchic dimensions showing significant heritabilities among mother-reared but not nursery-reared apes...
March 2017: Clinical Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499409/in-your-face-the-biased-judgement-of-fear-anger-expressions-in-violent-offenders
#7
Martin Wegrzyn, Sina Westphal, Johanna Kissler
BACKGROUND: Why is it that certain violent criminals repeatedly find themselves engaged in brawls? Many inmates report having felt provoked or threatened by their victims, which might be due to a tendency to ascribe malicious intentions when faced with ambiguous social signals, termed hostile attribution bias. METHODS: The present study presented morphed fear-anger faces to prison inmates with a history of violent crimes, a history of child sexual abuse, and to matched controls form the general population...
May 12, 2017: BMC Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493729/the-clinician-administered-ptsd-scale-for-dsm-5-caps-5-development-and-initial-psychometric-evaluation-in-military-veterans
#8
Frank W Weathers, Michelle J Bovin, Daniel J Lee, Denise M Sloan, Paula P Schnurr, Danny G Kaloupek, Terence M Keane, Brian P Marx
The Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) is an extensively validated and widely used structured diagnostic interview for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The CAPS was recently revised to correspond with PTSD criteria in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013). This article describes the development of the CAPS for DSM-5 (CAPS-5) and presents the results of an initial psychometric evaluation of CAPS-5 scores in 2 samples of military veterans (Ns = 165 and 207)...
May 11, 2017: Psychological Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490392/a-systematic-review-of-the-heritability-of-specific-psychopathic-traits-using-hare-s-two-factor-model-of-psychopathy
#9
Sapna Dhanani, Veena Kumari, Basant K Puri, Ian Treasaden, Susan Young, Piyal Sen
BACKGROUND: There have been no systematic reviews that investigated the heritability of the two-factor model of psychopathy: interpersonal-affective and behavioral. Our review aimed, first, to examine the heritability of general psychopathic traits and, second, if genetic influences were suggested, to determine the heritability of various traits related to the interpersonal-affective and behavioral factors of psychopathy. METHOD: A systematic literature search was conducted using articles from the PsycINFO, Embase, Global Health, Medline, PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus databases (January of 1980 to December of 2015) in order to identify eligible literature that reported on the heritability of psychopathy-related traits...
May 11, 2017: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449956/implicit-vs-explicit-dimensions-of-guilt-and-dominance-in-criminal-psychopathy
#10
Lieke Nentjes, David P Bernstein, Maaike Cima, Reinout W Wiers
The current study investigated the relationship between psychopathy and two concepts that hold a central position in conceptualizations of this disorder, being guilt and dominance. Both constructs were measured using explicit measures (i.e., self-report), as well as indirect assessment (i.e., the Single Category Implicit Association Test; Sc-IAT). Our sample consisted of 43 psychopathic offenders, 42 nonpsychopathic offenders, and 26 nonoffender controls. Although no overall group differences emerged, the lifestyle/antisocial traits of psychopathy (Factor 2) predicted reduced self-reported guilt on a dimensional level...
April 24, 2017: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449235/psychometric-properties-of-the-mental-health-and-social-inadaptation-assessment-for-adolescents-mia-in-a-population-based-sample
#11
Sylvana M Côté, Massimiliano Orri, Mara Brendgen, Frank Vitaro, Michel Boivin, Christa Japel, Jean R Séguin, Marie-Claude Geoffroy, Alexandra Rouquette, Bruno Falissard, Richard E Tremblay
We report on the psychometric properties of the Mental Health and Social Inadaptation Assessment for Adolescents (MIA), a self-report instrument for quantifying the frequency of mental health and psychosocial adaptation problems using a dimensional approach and based on the DSM-5. The instrument includes 113 questions, takes 20-25 minutes to answer, and covers the past 12 months. A population-based cohort of adolescents (n = 1443, age = 15 years; 48% males) rated the frequency at which they experienced symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Conduct Disorder, Oppositional Defiant Disorder, Depression, Generalized Anxiety, Social Phobia, Eating Disorders (i...
April 27, 2017: International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406671/a-comparison-of-self-report-measures-of-psychopathy-among-nonforensic-samples-using-item-response-theory-analyses
#12
Siny Tsang, Randall T Salekin, C Adam Coffey, Jennifer Cox
This study investigated how well components of the psychopathy trait are measured among college students with the Levenson Self-Report Psychopathy Scale (LSRP), the Personality Assessment Inventory-Antisocial Features Scale (PAI ANT), the Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Short Form (PPI-SF), and the Self-Report Psychopathy Scale-II (SRP-II). Using Samejima (1969)'s graded response model (GRM), the subscales were found to vary in their ability to measure the corresponding latent traits. The LSRP primary psychopathy factor is more precise in measuring the latent trait than the secondary psychopathy factor...
April 13, 2017: Psychological Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406658/the-role-of-boldness-in-psychopathy-a-study-of-academic-and-clinical-perceptions
#13
Joanna M Berg, Scott O Lilienfeld, Martin Sellbom
The relevance of boldness to psychopathy has recently become a major flashpoint of scientific controversy. Although some authors have contended that boldness is a necessary (although insufficient) component of psychopathy, others have asserted that it is largely or entirely irrelevant to psychopathy. We addressed this issue by examining clinical perceptions of the relevance of the 3 triarchic dimensions (boldness, disinhibition, and meanness) to psychopathy among a sample of mental health professionals and graduate students (N = 228) using a vignette-based, person-centered methodology...
April 13, 2017: Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406657/using-latent-variable-and-person-centered-approaches-to-examine-the-role-of-psychopathic-traits-in-sex-offenders
#14
Sonja Krstic, Craig S Neumann, Sandeep Roy, Carrie A Robertson, Raymond A Knight, Robert D Hare
The current study employed both latent variable- and person-centered approaches to examine psychopathic traits in a large sample of sex offenders (N = 958). The offenders, who had committed a range of sexual crimes, had been assessed with the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R; Hare, 2003). Structural equation modeling results indicated that the four-factor model of psychopathy (Hare, 2003; Neumann, Hare, & Newman, 2007) provided good representation of the dimensional nature of psychopathic traits across the sample of offenders, and that the PCL-R factors significantly predicted sexual crimes...
April 13, 2017: Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402565/impulsive-antisocial-psychopathic-traits-linked-to-increased-volume-and-functional-connectivity-within-prefrontal-cortex
#15
Cole Korponay, Maia Pujara, Philip Deming, Carissa Philippi, Jean Decety, David S Kosson, Kent A Kiehl, Michael Koenigs
Psychopathy is a personality disorder characterized by callous lack of empathy, impulsive antisocial behavior, and criminal recidivism. Studies of brain structure and function in psychopathy have frequently identified abnormalities in the prefrontal cortex. However, findings have not yet converged to yield a clear relationship between specific subregions of prefrontal cortex and particular psychopathic traits. We performed a multimodal neuroimaging study of prefrontal cortex volume and functional connectivity in psychopathy, using a sample of adult male prison inmates (N=124)...
April 11, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401045/differences-between-british-and-japanese-perspectives-on-forensic-mental-health-systems-a-preliminary-study
#16
Akihiro Shiina, Aika Tomoto, Soichiro Omiya, Aiko Sato, Masaomi Iyo, Yoshito Igarashi
AIM: To clarify the differences in views on forensic mental health (FMH) systems between the United Kingdom and Japan. METHODS: We conducted a series of semi-structured interviews with six leading forensic psychiatrists. Based on a discussion by the research team, we created an interview form. After we finished conducting all the interviews, we qualitatively analyzed their content. RESULTS: In the United Kingdom the core domain of FMH was risk assessment and management; however, in Japan, the core domain of FMH was psychiatric testimony...
March 22, 2017: World Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397535/validity-of-the-youth-psychopathic-traits-inventory-short-version-in-justice-involved-and-at-risk-adolescents
#17
Christopher T A Gillen, Emily A M MacDougall, Adelle E Forth, Christopher T Barry, Randall T Salekin
The current study examined the reliability and validity of the Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory-Short Version (YPI-S) in two different samples of at-risk adolescents enrolled in a residential program ( n = 160) and at a detention facility ( n = 60) in the United States. YPI-S scores displayed adequate internal consistency and were moderately associated with concurrent scales on other self-report psychopathy measures and externalizing behaviors. YPI-S scores were moderately related to interviewer-ratings of the construct using the four-factor model of the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version...
April 1, 2017: Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395907/emotion-based-learning-systems-and-the-development-of-morality
#18
R J R Blair
In this paper it is proposed that important components of moral development and moral judgment rely on two forms of emotional learning: stimulus-reinforcement and response-outcome learning. Data in support of this position will be primarily drawn from work with individuals with the developmental condition of psychopathy as well as fMRI studies with healthy individuals. Individuals with psychopathy show impairment on moral judgment tasks and a pronounced increased risk for instrumental antisocial behavior. It will be argued that these impairments are developmental consequences of impaired stimulus-aversive conditioning on the basis of distress cue reinforcers and response-outcome learning in individuals with this disorder...
April 7, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383982/are-adolescent-risk-assessment-tools-sensitive-to-change-a-framework-and-examination-of-the-savry-and-the-yls-cmi
#19
Jodi L Viljoen, Catherine S Shaffer, Andrew L Gray, Kevin S Douglas
Although many adolescent risk assessment tools include an emphasis on dynamic factors, little research has examined the extent to which these tools are capable of measuring change. In this article, we outline a framework to evaluate a tool's capacity to measure change. This framework includes the following: (a) measurement error and reliable change, and (b) sensitivity (i.e., internal, external, and relative sensitivity). We then used this framework to evaluate the Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth (SAVRY) and Youth Level of Service/Case Management Inventory (YLS/CMI)...
April 6, 2017: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382846/revisiting-the-structure-of-the-short-dark-triad
#20
Björn N Persson, Petri J Kajonius, Danilo Garcia
In the past decade, extensive interest has been directed toward the Dark Triad (i.e., Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy), popularly assessed by the Short Dark Triad (SD3). Nevertheless, relatively little research has been conducted on the SD3's factor structure. We investigated the SD3's psychometric properties in three studies with three independent samples, using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses ( N1 = 1,487; N2 = 17,740; N3 = 496). In all three studies, Machiavellianism and psychopathy items displayed large general factor loadings, and narcissism larger specific factor loadings...
April 1, 2017: Assessment
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