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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931447/psychopathology-of-terrorists
#1
Armando Piccinni, Donatella Marazziti, Antonello Veltri
Terrorist behavior represents a subtype of human aggression probably determined by a combination of biological, psychological, and social factors, as well as by peculiar environmental influences and group dynamics. As regards terrorists' psychological characteristics, the available studies (mostly carried out with no sound scientific design) have failed to identify the common or typical pathological personality traits of modern terrorists. The popular opinion that terrorists must be insane or psychopathic is still widespread; however, no evidence exists that terrorist behavior may be caused either by prior or current psychiatric disorders or psychopathy...
September 21, 2017: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931400/conduct-disorders-and-psychopathy-in-children-and-adolescents-aetiology-clinical-presentation-and-treatment-strategies-of-callous-unemotional-traits
#2
REVIEW
Simone Pisano, Pietro Muratori, Chiara Gorga, Valentina Levantini, Raffaella Iuliano, Gennaro Catone, Giangennaro Coppola, Annarita Milone, Gabriele Masi
Conduct Disorder (CD) is a psychiatric diagnosis characterized by a repetitive and persistent pattern of behaviour in which the basic rights of others and major age-appropriate social norms or rules are violated. Callous Unemotional (CU) traits are a meaningful specifier in subtyping CD for more severe antisocial and aggressive behaviours in adult psychopathology; they represent the affective dimension of adult psychopathy, but they can be also detected in childhood and adolescence. The CU traits include lack of empathy, sense of guilt and shallow emotion, and their characterization in youth can improve our diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic abilities...
September 20, 2017: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924580/measuring-malevolent-character-data-using-the-swedish-version-of-jonason-s-dark-triad-dirty-dozen
#3
Danilo Garcia, Patricia Rosenberg, Shane MacDonald, Christine Räisänen, Max Rapp Ricciardi
The data include responses to the Swedish version of a brief questionnaire used to operationalize the Dark Triad of malevolent character: Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy. The data was collected among 342 Swedish university students and white-collar workers (see Garcia et al. (2017) [1]). In this article, we include the Swedish version of Jonason's Dark Triad Dirty Dozen questionnaire. The data is available, SPSS and cvs file, as supplementary material in this article. Additionally, we also provide the scoring key as SPSS syntax file...
October 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912740/the-dark-triad-traits-from-a-life-history-perspective-in-six-countries
#4
Peter K Jonason, Joshua D Foster, Marina S Egorova, Oksana Parshikova, Árpád Csathó, Atsushi Oshio, Valdiney V Gouveia
Work on the Dark Triad traits has benefited from the use of a life history framework but it has been limited to primarily Western samples and indirect assessments of life history strategies. Here, we examine how the Dark Triad traits (i.e., psychopathy, Machiavellianism, and narcissism) relate to two measures of individual differences in life history strategies. In Study 1 (N = 937), we replicated prior observed links between life history strategies, as measured by the Mini-K, and the Dark Triad traits using samples recruited from three countries...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910216/psychopathy-in-the-medical-emergency-department
#5
Stephen D Benning, Stephany M Molina, Emily A Dowgwillo, Christopher J Patrick, Karen F Miller, Alan B Storrow
Psychopathy is a personality disorder representing an admixture of a fearless and dominant temperament with an impulsive and antisocial orientation. A sample of 1,026 participants in the waiting room of the medical emergency department of a city hospital exhibited levels of fearless dominance similar to university undergraduates and federal inmates; their levels of impulsive antisociality fell between those of federal and state inmates. Both psychopathy factors were correlated with male gender, younger age, and more frequent average alcohol consumption...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905165/interpersonal-relationships-as-protective-and-risk-factors-for-psychopathy-a-follow-up-study-in-adolescent-offenders
#6
Heidi Backman, Taina Laajasalo, Markus Jokela, Eeva T Aronen
Friendships and romantic relationships may function as protective and risk factors for psychopathic traits. To better understand potential causal associations, we investigated whether within-individual changes in relationship characteristics were related to changes in psychopathic traits over time. Data were derived from ten repeated measurements of the Pathways to Desistance longitudinal study of 1354 offending adolescents (14.3% female; 40.1% Black). Analyses were adjusted for age, gender, ethnicity, self-reported offending and living facilities...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902572/unique-and-interactive-associations-between-maltreatment-and-complex-emotion-recognition-deficits-and-psychopathic-traits-in-an-undergraduate-sample
#7
Rebecca Waller, Hannah K McCabe, Hailey L Dotterer, Craig S Neumann, Luke W Hyde
Psychopathy is defined by affective and interpersonal deficits, deviant lifestyle, and antisocial behaviors. Poor recognition of emotions and childhood maltreatment are two risk factors implicated in psychopathy. The current study examined whether childhood maltreatment and complex emotion recognition deficits showed unique and interactive associations with psychopathic traits among 261 undergraduate students. Results indicate that maltreatment was related to higher general psychopathy scores within a bifactor model comprising a general psychopathy factor and four specific factors tapping underlying dimensions of psychopathy (i...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884724/-primary-basic-and-secondary-symptoms-of-schizophrenia-in-the-concept-of-e-bleuler
#8
N Yu Pyatnitskiy
Two first works of swiss psychiatrist E. Bleuler that revise the symptomatology of Kraepelinian dementia praecox leaning on some findings of the psychoanalysis of S. Freud, C. Jung, F. Riklin, K. Abraham and on the P. Janet's concept of psychasthenia are analyzed. The early concept of primary (testifying the direct organic lesion) and secondary (of psychogenic origin) symptoms of schizophrenia formulated by E. Bleuler is compared with his following concept of 'basic' and 'accessory' symptoms of schizophrenia...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856869/the-influence-of-gender-on-the-relationship-between-psychopathy-and-five-moral-foundations
#9
Leah Efferson, Andrea Glenn, Rheanna Remmel, Ravi Iyer
Previous research has demonstrated that individuals higher in psychopathy are less concerned about preventing harm and preserving fairness than individuals lower in psychopathy, yet it is unclear whether this is true for both genders. Females have been shown to be more concerned about moral issues related to preventing harm, being fair and maintaining purity, and males are more concerned about in-group loyalty and respecting authority. In addition, females on average are more empathic, less willing to cause harm and may be less sensitive to fairness...
August 30, 2017: Personality and Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836093/on-the-relation-between-general-intelligence-and-psychopathic-traits-an-examination-of-inpatient-adolescents
#10
Nicholas Kavish, Cassandra Bailey, Carla Sharp, Amanda Venta
A substantial literature has investigated relations between intelligence and psychopathic traits. At the construct level, findings have been mixed, with a small negative relation found. At the facet level however, a positive relation between verbal intelligence and the interpersonal facet of psychopathy, and a negative relation between verbal intelligence and the lifestyle factor of psychopathy emerge. To date, this research has largely neglected adolescents and prior research has focused on clinical and incarcerated populations, while failing to control for psychopathology...
August 23, 2017: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831948/social-and-psychological-consequences-of-not-crying-possible-associations-with-psychopathology-and-therapeutic-relevance
#11
Dale C Hesdorffer, Ad J J M Vingerhoets, Michael R Trimble
OBJECTIVE: Emotional crying is hypothesized to serve intra- and interpersonal functions. Intrapersonal functions are assumed to facilitate the capacity to recover from emotional distress, thus promoting well-being. Interpersonal functions are postulated to have a major impact on social functioning. We hypothesized that non-criers would have lower well-being and poorer social functioning than criers. METHODS: Study participants included 475 people who reportedly lost the capacity to cry and 179 "normal" control criers...
August 23, 2017: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826416/the-effects-of-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-on-empathy-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#12
C-C Yang, N Khalifa, B Völlm
Empathy is a multi-dimensional concept with affective and cognitive components, the latter often referred to as Theory of Mind (ToM). Impaired empathy is prevalent in people with neuropsychiatric disorders, such as personality disorder, psychopathy, and schizophrenia, highlighting the need to develop therapeutic interventions to address this. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), a non-invasive therapeutic technique that has been effective in treating various neuropsychiatric conditions, can be potentially used to modulate empathy...
August 22, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819649/prosocial-apathy-for-helping-others-when-effort-is-required
#13
Patricia L Lockwood, Mathilde Hamonet, Samuel H Zhang, Anya Ratnavel, Florentine U Salmony, Masud Husain, Matthew A J Apps
Prosocial acts - those that are costly to ourselves but benefit others - are a central component of human co-existence1-3. While the financial and moral costs of prosocial behaviours are well understood4-6, everyday prosocial acts do not typically come at such costs. Instead, they require effort. Here, using computational modelling of an effort-based task we show that people are prosocially apathetic. They are less willing to choose to initiate highly effortful acts that benefit others compared to benefitting themselves...
July 2017: Nature Human Behaviour
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816493/consequences-norms-and-generalized-inaction-in-moral-dilemmas-the-cni-model-of-moral-decision-making
#14
Bertram Gawronski, Joel Armstrong, Paul Conway, Rebecca Friesdorf, Mandy Hütter
Research on moral dilemma judgments has been fundamentally shaped by the distinction between utilitarianism and deontology. According to the principle of utilitarianism, the moral status of behavioral options depends on their consequences; the principle of deontology states that the moral status of behavioral options depends on their consistency with moral norms. To identify the processes underlying utilitarian and deontological judgments, researchers have investigated responses to moral dilemmas that pit one principle against the other (e...
September 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813114/dimensions-of-youth-psychopathy-differentially-predict-concurrent-pro-and-antisocial-behavior
#15
Guilherme W Wendt, Alice J Bartoli, Adriane Arteche
Objective: To investigate the unique contribution of narcissism and impulsivity, in addition to callous-unemotional (CU) traits, in explaining concurrent prosocial and antisocial behavior. Method: Two hundred and forty-nine schoolchildren (53% female; age 9-12 years) completed the self-report Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and the Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD). Two statistical models were tested, predicting conduct problems (CP) and prosocial behavior (PB)...
July 2017: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810074/preliminary-data-on-the-role-of-emotional-intelligence-in-moderating-the-link-between-psychopathy-and-aggression-in-a-nonforensic-sample
#16
Tiziana Lanciano, Antonietta Curci, Francesca Guglielmi, Emanuela Soleti, Ignazio Grattagliano
This short report presents preliminary data on the role of emotional intelligence (EI) in moderating the relationship between psychopathy and aggression in a nonforensic sample. A sample of 109 volunteer men was administered the Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Revised (PPI-R), the Reactive-Proactive Aggression Questionnaire, and the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso emotional intelligence Test in individual sessions. Correlation and moderation analyzes showed that, at low levels of EI (in terms of strategic ability to understand and manage one's own and others' emotions), people scoring high on the total PPI-R and impulsivity dimension seemed to be both reactively and proactively aggressive...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782966/a-cross-validation-of-the-violence-risk-appraisal-guide-revised-vrag-r-within-a-correctional-sample
#17
Anthony J J Glover, Frances P Churcher, Andrew L Gray, Jeremy F Mills, Diane E Nicholson
The Violence Risk Appraisal Guide-Revised (VRAG-R) was developed to replace the original VRAG based on an updated and larger sample with an extended follow-up period. Using a sample of 120 adult male correctional offenders, the current study examined the interrater reliability and predictive and comparative validity of the VRAG-R to the VRAG, the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised, the Statistical Information on Recidivism-Revised, and the Two-Tiered Violence Risk Estimate over a follow-up period of up to 22 years postrelease...
August 7, 2017: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772208/structural-brain-correlates-of-interpersonal-violence-systematic-review-and-voxel-based-meta-analysis-of-neuroimaging-studies
#18
REVIEW
Jelle Lamsma, Clare Mackay, Seena Fazel
Owing to inconsistent nomenclature and results, we have undertaken a label-based review and anatomical likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis of studies measuring the quantitative association between regional grey matter (GM) volume and interpersonal violence. Following PRISMA guidelines, we identified studies by searching 3 online databases (Embase, Medline, PsycInfo) and reference lists. Thirty-five studies were included in the label-based review, providing information for 1288 participants and 86 brain regions...
July 27, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769746/triarchic-psychopathy-dimensions-in-chimpanzees-pan-troglodytes-investigating-associations-with-genetic-variation-in-the-vasopressin-receptor-1a-gene
#19
Robert D Latzman, Steven J Schapiro, William D Hopkins
Vasopressin is a neuropeptide known to be associated with the development and evolution of complex socio-emotional behaviors including those relevant to psychopathic personality. In both humans and chimpanzees, recent research suggests a strong genetic contribution to individual variation in psychopathic traits. To date, however, little is known concerning specific genes that might explain the observed heritability of psychopathy. In a relatively large sample of captive chimpanzees (N = 164), the current study thus sought to investigate gene-environment associations between triarchic psychopathy dimensions (i...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766714/psychophysiological-responses-of-people-with-psychopathic-tendencies-to-the-concealed-information-test
#20
Hyeon-Gi Hong, Hee-Song Kim, Hyung-Ki Ji, Ki-Pyoung Kim, Jungeun Lee, Sue Hyun Jung, Myoung-Ho Hyun
This study was designed to investigate differences in psychophysiological responses among individuals with psychopathic tendencies. A total 40 students were participated and were divided into two groups based on Levenson Self-Report Psychopathy Scale (LSRP) scores: a high psychopathic tendency group selected from the top 5% of LSRP scores, and a low psychopathic tendency group selected from the bottom 5% of LSRP scores. All participants were instructed to perform a mock crime and complete the concealed information test (CIT)...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
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