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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812292/effect-of-low-selenium-high-fat-diet-on-pig-peripheral-blood-lymphocytes-perspectives-from-selenoproteins-heat-shock-proteins-and-cytokines
#1
Tianqi Liu, Tianshu Yang, Tingru Pan, Ci Liu, Shu Li
The aim of the present study was to clarify the effect of low selenium (Se)/high fat on the mRNA expression of selenoproteins, heat shock proteins (HSPs) and cytokines in pig peripheral blood lymphocytes. Forty crossbred boar piglets with healthy lean body weights of 10 kg were randomly divided into four treatment groups (group C, group L-Se, group H-fat, and group L-Se-H-fat) (n = 10/group) and fed with the corresponding diet for 16 weeks. The pig peripheral blood lymphocytes were extracted, and the mRNA expression of selenoproteins, HSPs, and cytokines was measured...
August 15, 2017: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802571/omega-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-improve-endothelial-function-in-humans-at-risk-for-atherosclerosis-a-review
#2
REVIEW
Kayla R Zehr, Mary K Walker
Epidemiology studies and clinical trials show that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) can prevent atherosclerotic morbidity and evidence suggests this may be mediated by improving endothelial dysfunction. Endothelial dysfunction is characterized by reduced vasodilation and a pro-inflammatory, pro-thrombotic state, and is an early pathological event in the development of atherosclerosis. Flow-mediated dilation (FMD), a gold standard for assessing endothelial dysfunction, is a predictor of future cardiovascular events and coronary heart disease risk...
August 9, 2017: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802226/taraxerol-a-pentacyclic-triterpenoid-from-abroma-augusta-leaf-attenuates-diabetic-nephropathy-in-type-2-diabetic-rats
#3
Ritu Khanra, Niloy Bhattacharjee, Tarun K Dua, Ashis Nandy, Achintya Saha, Jatin Kalita, Prasenjit Manna, Saikat Dewanjee
Persistent hyperglycaemia coupled with inflammation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Present study examined the therapeutic potential of taraxerol isolated from the methanol extract of Abroma augusta leaf against DN using rodent model of type 2 diabetes (T2D). T2D was experimentally induced by high fat diet and a single low-single dose of streptozotocin (35mg/kg, i.p.). Accumulation of serum creatinine, urea, and uric acid, activation of lactate dehydrogenase and creatinin kinase, and release of urinary albumin represented the glomerular damage and the progression of nephropathy in T2D rats...
August 9, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801262/the-physiological-and-pathophysiological-roles-of-taurine-in-adipose-tissue-in-relation-to-obesity
#4
REVIEW
Shigeru Murakami
Obesity is caused by an imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure. It is established that obesity is a state of low-grade chronic inflammation, which is characterized by enlarged hypertrophied adipocytes, increased infiltration by macrophages and marked changes in the secretion of adipokines and free fatty acids. The effects of taurine on the pathogenesis of obesity have been reported in animals and humans. Although the mechanisms underlying the anti-obesity action of taurine remain to be defined, taurine seems to ameliorate obesity through stimulation of energy expenditure, modulation of lipid metabolism, anorexic effect, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects...
August 8, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782205/microbiota-derived-tryptophan-indoles-increase-after-gastric-bypass-surgery-and-reduce-intestinal-permeability-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#5
M Jennis, C R Cavanaugh, G C Leo, J R Mabus, J Lenhard, P J Hornby
BACKGROUND: The diet and microbiome contribute to metabolic disease in part due to increased intestinal inflammation and permeability. Dietary tryptophan is metabolized by both mammalian and bacterial enzymes. Using in vitro, in vivo models, and clinical data, we tested whether bacterial tryptophan indole derivatives underlie the positive benefits of microbiota on inflammation that is associated with metabolic disease. METHODS: In high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice intestinal permeability and plasma endotoxin levels were measured after indole-3-propionic acid (IPA; 20 mg kg(-1) p...
August 7, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775243/p62-plasmid-can-alleviate-diet-induced-obesity-and-metabolic-dysfunctions
#6
Tatiana Halenova, Oleksii Savchuk, Ludmila Ostapchenko, Andrey Chursov, Nathan Fridlyand, Andrey B Komissarov, Franco Venanzi, Sergey I Kolesnikov, Albert A Sufianov, Michael Y Sherman, Vladimir L Gabai, Alexander M Shneider
A high-calorie diet (HCD) induces two mutually exacerbating effects contributing to diet-induced obesity (DIO): impaired glucose metabolism and increased food consumption. A link between the metabolic and behavioral manifestations is not well understood yet. We hypothesized that chronic inflammation induced by HCD plays a key role in linking together the two components of diet-induced pathology. Based on this hypothesis, we tested if a plasmid (DNA vaccine) encoding p62 (SQSTM1) would alleviate DIO including its metabolic and/or food consumption abnormalities...
August 3, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774846/inhibited-fatty-acid-%C3%AE-oxidation-impairs-stress-resistance-ability-in-nile-tilapia-oreochromis-niloticus
#7
Han Pan, Ling-Yu Li, Jia-Min Li, Wei-Li Wang, Samwel Mchele Limbu, Pascal Degrace, Dong-Liang Li, Zhen-Yu Du
Energy metabolism plays important roles in stress resistance and immunity in mammals, however, such functions have not been established in fish. In the present study, Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) was fed with mildronate, an inhibitor of mitochondrial fatty acid (FA) β-oxidation, for six weeks subsequently challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila and ammonia nitrogen exposure. Mildronate treatment reduced significantly l-carnitine concentration and mitochondrial FA β-oxidation efficiency, while it increased lipid accumulation in liver...
July 31, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772285/the-inflammatory-potential-of-diet-and-ovarian-cancer-risk-results-from-two-prospective-cohort-studies
#8
Fred K Tabung, Tianyi Huang, Edward L Giovannucci, Stephanie A Smith-Warner, Shelley S Tworoger, Elizabeth M Poole
BACKGROUND: We used a food-based empirical dietary inflammatory pattern (EDIP) score to investigate whether diets with higher inflammatory potential are associated with increased ovarian cancer risk. METHODS: We followed 186 314 women in the Nurses' Health Study and Nurses' Health Study-II, from 1984 to 2013, to examine associations between EDIP scores and ovarian cancer risk, using Cox regression analyses. RESULTS: During 3 454 514 person-years of follow-up, 989 ovarian cancer cases were identified...
August 3, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771483/myeloid-specific-deletion-of-nox2-prevents-the-metabolic-and-neurologic-consequences-of-high-fat-diet
#9
Jennifer K Pepping, Bolormaa Vandanmagsar, Sun-Ok Fernandez-Kim, Jingying Zhang, Randall L Mynatt, Annadora J Bruce-Keller
High fat diet-induced obesity is associated with inflammatory and oxidative signaling in macrophages that likely participates in metabolic and physiologic impairment. One key factor that could drive pathologic changes in macrophages is the pro-inflammatory, pro-oxidant enzyme NADPH oxidase. However, NADPH oxidase is a pleiotropic enzyme with both pathologic and physiologic functions, ruling out indiscriminant NADPH oxidase inhibition as a viable therapy. To determine if targeted inhibition of monocyte/macrophage NADPH oxidase could mitigate obesity pathology, we generated mice that lack the NADPH oxidase catalytic subunit NOX2 in myeloid lineage cells...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767204/blockade-of-myeloid-differentiation-protein-2-prevents-obesity-induced-inflammation-and-nephropathy
#10
Qilu Fang, Lintao Wang, Daona Yang, Xiong Chen, Xiaoou Shan, Yali Zhang, Hazel Lum, Jingying Wang, Peng Zhong, Guang Liang, Yi Wang
Obesity is a major and independent risk factor of kidney diseases. The pathogenic mechanisms of obesity-associated renal injury are recognized to at least involve a lipid-rich and pro-inflammatory state of the renal tissues, but specific mechanisms establishing causal relation remain unknown. Saturated fatty acids are elevated in obesity, and known to induce chronic inflammation in kidneys. Myeloid differentiation protein 2 (MD2) is an important protein in lipopolysaccharide-induced innate immunity response and inflammation...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764846/uric-acid-promotes-vascular-stiffness-maladaptive-inflammatory-responses-and-proteinuria-in-western-diet-fed-mice
#11
Annayya R Aroor, Guanghong Jia, Javad Habibi, Zhe Sun, Francisco I Ramirez-Perez, Barron Brady, Dongqing Chen, Luis A Martinez-Lemus, Camila Manrique, Ravi Nistala, Adam T Whaley-Connell, Vincent G Demarco, Gerald A Meininger, James R Sowers
OBJECTIVE: Aortic vascular stiffness has been implicated in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) in obese individuals. However, the mechanism promoting these adverse effects are unclear. In this context, promotion of obesity through consumption of a western diet (WD) high in fat and fructose leads to excess circulating uric acid. There is accumulating data implicating elevated uric acid in the promotion of CVD and CKD. Accordingly, we hypothesized that xanthine oxidase(XO) inhibition with allopurinol would prevent a rise in vascular stiffness and proteinuria in a translationally relevant model of WD-induced obesity...
September 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762561/diet-induced-obesity-causes-visceral-but-not-subcutaneous-lymph-node-hyperplasia-via-increases-in-specific-immune-cell-populations
#12
A M Magnuson, D P Regan, J K Fouts, A D Booth, S W Dow, M T Foster
OBJECTIVES: The spatial proximity of adipose depots to secondary lymph nodes allows a unique relation between the two systems. Obesity, predominately visceral adiposity, links to numerous diseases; hence, we postulate that secondary lymphatics within this region contributes to disease risk. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Male C57BL/6 mice were fed standard CHOW (18% kcal fat) or Western diet (45% kcal fat) for 7 weeks. Visceral and subcutaneous lymph nodes and associated adipose depots they occupy were excised...
August 1, 2017: Cell Proliferation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757363/poly-i-c-alleviates-obesity-related-pro-inflammatory-status-and-promotes-glucose-homeostasis
#13
Ying-Hui Wang, Yu-Gen Zhang
Obesity associated insulin resistance (IR) is implicated in chronic inflammation that mediated by the immune system. Imbalance between anti-inflammatory and pro-inflammatory response contributes to the origins and drivers of IR. However, cells of innate and adaptive immune system participate in the pathogenesis of IR, while glucose homeostasis related immune tolerance could be compromised high fat diet (HFD) reduced metabolic disorder. Although previous studies have demonstrated that anti-inflammatory therapy has a protective role in alleviating the pro-inflammatory status in HFD induced IR, the precise mechanism is still unclear...
July 27, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756577/omega-3-fatty-acids-revert-high-fat-diet-induced-neuroinflammation-but-not-recognition-memory-impairment-in-rats
#14
Aline Marcelino de Andrade, Marilda da Cruz Fernandes, Luciano Stürmer de Fraga, Marilene Porawski, Márcia Giovenardi, Renata Padilha Guedes
Neuroinflammation is a consequence of overeating and may predispose to the development of cognitive decline and neurological disorders. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of omega-3 supplementation on memory and neuroinflammatory markers in rats fed a high-fat diet. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: standard diet (SD); standard diet + omega-3 (SD + O); high fat diet (HFD); and high fat diet + omega-3 (HFD + O). Diet administration was performed for 20 weeks and omega-3 supplementation started at the 16th week...
July 29, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756250/vaspin-suppresses-cytokine-induced-inflammation-in-3t3-l1-adipocytes-via-inhibition-of-nf%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway
#15
Konstanze Zieger, Juliane Weiner, Kerstin Krause, Maximilian Schwarz, Martin Kohn, Michael Stumvoll, Matthias Blüher, John T Heiker
Vaspin expression is increased in white adipose tissue (WAT) of diet-induced obese mice and rats and is supposed to compensate HFD-induced inflammatory processes and insulin resistance in adipose tissue by counteracting pro-inflammatory gene expression in obesity. Multiple studies have also demonstrated strong anti-inflammatory effects in vascular and skin cells. Here, we used vaspin treated 3T3-L1 murine adipocytes as well as 3T3-L1 cells with stable vaspin expression to investigate the effect of exogenous and endogenous vaspin on inflammatory processes and insulin signaling in adipocytes...
July 26, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755749/increased-expression-of-m1-and-m2-phenotypic-markers-in-isolated-microglia-after-four-day-binge-alcohol-exposure-in-male-rats
#16
Hui Peng, Chelsea R Geil Nickell, Kevin Y Chen, Justin A McClain, Kimberly Nixon
Microglia activation and neuroinflammation are common features of neurodegenerative conditions, including alcohol use disorders (AUDs). When activated, microglia span a continuum of diverse phenotypes ranging from classically activated, pro-inflammatory (M1) microglia/macrophages to alternatively activated, growth-promoting (M2) microglia/macrophages. Identifying microglia phenotypes is critical for understanding the role of microglia in the pathogenesis of AUDs. Therefore, male rats were gavaged with 25% (w/v) ethanol or isocaloric control diet every 8 h for 4 days and sacrificed at 0, 2, 4, and 7 days after alcohol exposure (e...
August 2017: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752050/nrg4-promotes-fuel-oxidation-and-a-healthy-adipokine-profile-to-ameliorate-diet-induced-metabolic-disorders
#17
Zhimin Chen, Guo-Xiao Wang, Sara L Ma, Dae Young Jung, Hyekyung Ha, Tariq Altamimi, Xu-Yun Zhao, Liang Guo, Peng Zhang, Chun-Rui Hu, Ji-Xin Cheng, Gary D Lopaschuk, Jason K Kim, Jiandie D Lin
OBJECTIVE: Brown and white adipose tissue exerts pleiotropic effects on systemic energy metabolism in part by releasing endocrine factors. Neuregulin 4 (Nrg4) was recently identified as a brown fat-enriched secreted factor that ameliorates diet-induced metabolic disorders, including insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis. However, the physiological mechanisms through which Nrg4 regulates energy balance and glucose and lipid metabolism remain incompletely understood. The aims of the current study were: i) to investigate the regulation of adipose Nrg4 expression during obesity and the physiological signals involved, ii) to elucidate the mechanisms underlying Nrg4 regulation of energy balance and glucose and lipid metabolism, and iii) to explore whether Nrg4 regulates adipose tissue secretome gene expression and adipokine secretion...
August 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752048/myeloid-protein-tyrosine-phosphatase-1b-ptp1b-deficiency-protects-against-atherosclerotic-plaque-formation-in-the-apoe-mouse-model-of-atherosclerosis-with-alterations-in-il10-ampk%C3%AE-pathway
#18
D Thompson, N Morrice, L Grant, S Le Sommer, K Ziegler, P Whitfield, N Mody, H M Wilson, M Delibegović
OBJECTIVE: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the most prevalent cause of mortality among patients with Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes, due to accelerated atherosclerosis. Recent evidence suggests a strong link between atherosclerosis and insulin resistance due to impaired insulin receptor (IR) signaling. Moreover, inflammatory cells, in particular macrophages, play a key role in pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and insulin resistance in humans. We hypothesized that inhibiting the activity of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), the major negative regulator of the IR, specifically in macrophages, would have beneficial anti-inflammatory effects and lead to protection against atherosclerosis and CVD...
August 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750066/cross-modulation-of-pathogen-specific-pathways-enhances-malnutrition-during-enteric-co-infection-with-giardia-lamblia-and-enteroaggregative-escherichia-coli
#19
Luther A Bartelt, David T Bolick, Jordi Mayneris-Perxachs, Glynis L Kolling, Gregory L Medlock, Edna I Zaenker, Jeffery Donowitz, Rose Viguna Thomas-Beckett, Allison Rogala, Ian M Carroll, Steven M Singer, Jason Papin, Jonathan R Swann, Richard L Guerrant
Diverse enteropathogen exposures associate with childhood malnutrition. To elucidate mechanistic pathways whereby enteric microbes interact during malnutrition, we used protein deficiency in mice to develop a new model of co-enteropathogen enteropathy. Focusing on common enteropathogens in malnourished children, Giardia lamblia and enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC), we provide new insights into intersecting pathogen-specific mechanisms that enhance malnutrition. We show for the first time that during protein malnutrition, the intestinal microbiota permits persistent Giardia colonization and simultaneously contributes to growth impairment...
July 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748997/-role-of-mediterranean-diet-on-the-prevention-of-alzheimer-disease
#20
Arnoldo Miranda, Carolina Gómez-Gaete, Sigrid Mennickent
Type 2 diabetes and obesity are possible risk factors for Alzheimer’s disease and these can be modified by physical activity and changes in dietary patterns, such as switching to a Mediterranean diet. This diet includes fruits, vegetables, olive oil, fish and moderate wine intake. These foods provide vitamins, polyphenols and unsaturated fatty acids. This diet should be able to reduce oxidative stress. The inflammatory response is also reduced by unsaturated fatty acids, resulting in a lower expression and a lower production of pro-inflammatory cytokines...
April 2017: Revista Médica de Chile
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