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Jocelyn Lippey, Andrew Spillane, Christobel Saunders
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: ANZ Journal of Surgery
Cyrill Wehling, Oliver Amon, Martin Bommer, Bernd Hoppe, Karim Kentouche, Gesa Schalk, Rolf Weimer, Michael Wiesener, Bernd Hohenstein, Burkhard Tönshoff, Rainer Büscher, Henry Fehrenbach, Ömer-Necmi Gök, Michael Kirschfink
Various complement-mediated renal disorders are currently treated with the complement inhibitor eculizumab. By blocking the cleavage of C5 this monoclonal antibody prevents cell damage caused by complement-mediated inflammation. We included 23 patients with atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS, n=12), C3 glomerulopathies (C3G, n=9) and acute antibody-mediated renal graft rejection (AMR, n=2), treated with eculizumab in 12 hospitals in Germany. We explored the course of complement activation biomarkers and the benefit of therapeutic drug monitoring of eculizumab...
October 26, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
Renfeng Xu, Daniel Gil, Mohammed Dibas, William Hare, Arthur Bradley
Purpose: To examine the impact of small pupils and light levels on reading performance of distance-corrected presbyopes. To determine whether small pupils would enable presbyopes to read at near even at low light levels. Methods: To establish the lower range of text luminances, we quantified the space-averaged luminance of text in nine different artificially lit interior environments, and examined the impact of the text characters on space-averaged luminance of electronic and printed displays...
October 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Stuart K Gardiner, Steven L Mansberger
Purpose: We have previously shown that sensitivities obtained at severely damaged visual field locations (<15-19 dB) are unreliable and highly variable. This study evaluates a testing algorithm that does not present very high contrast stimuli in damaged locations above approximately 1000% contrast, but instead concentrates on more precise estimation at remaining locations. Methods: A trained ophthalmic technician tested 36 eyes of 36 participants twice with each of two different testing algorithms: ZEST0, which allowed sensitivities within the range 0 to 35 dB, and ZEST15, which allowed sensitivities between 15 and 35 dB but was otherwise identical...
October 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Paolo Fusar-Poli, Grazia Rutigliano, Daniel Stahl, André Schmidt, Valentina Ramella-Cravaro, Shetty Hitesh, Philip McGuire
Importance: Pretest risk estimation is routinely used in clinical medicine to inform further diagnostic testing in individuals with suspected diseases. To our knowledge, the overall characteristics and specific determinants of pretest risk of psychosis onset in individuals undergoing clinical high risk (CHR) assessment are unknown. Objectives: To investigate the characteristics and determinants of pretest risk of psychosis onset in individuals undergoing CHR assessment and to develop and externally validate a pretest risk stratification model...
October 26, 2016: JAMA Psychiatry
Cherif Akladios, Jean-Jacques Baldauf, Frederic Marchal, Michel Hummel, Laure-Emilie Rebstock, Jean-Emmanuel Kurtz, Thierry Petit, Karolina Afors, Carole Mathelin, Lise Lecointre, Stéphanie Schrot-Sanyan
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the overall survival (OS) of patients with initially inoperable advanced ovarian cancer, tubal carcinoma, or primary peritoneal carcinoma of stages III or IV undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) followed by cytoreductive surgery, according to the number of cycles performed. METHODS: This retrospective study was conducted in three main oncology centres in the east of France, reviewing the charts of all patients who underwent NAC between January 1, 1998 and October 31, 2012...
October 27, 2016: Oncology
Jacques Klein, Arachk de Górski, Daniel Benamran, Jean-Paul Vallee, Thomas De Perrot, Gregory J Wirth, Christophe E Iselin
INTRODUCTION: The study aimed to evaluate 3 different modalities of transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided prostate biopsies (PBs; 2D-, 3D- and targeted 3D-TRUS with fusion to MRI - T3D). Primary end point was the detection rate of prostate cancer (PC). Secondary end point was the detection rate of insignificant PC according to the Epstein criteria. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Inclusion of 284 subsequent patients who underwent 2D-, 3D- or T3D PB from 2011 to 2015. All patients having PB for initial PC detection with a serum prostate-specific antigen value ≤20 ng/ml were included...
October 27, 2016: Urologia Internationalis
Raquel Matoso Silva, Filomena Adega, Helena J Kjöllerström, Kim Labuschagne, Antoinette Kotze, Carlos Fernandes, Raquel Chaves, Maria do Mar Oom
Genets (Genetta) are a genus of African mammalian carnivorans with 14 currently recognized species, although taxonomic uncertainties remain, particularly regarding the number of species within the large-spotted genet complex. This study presents the first banded karyotype and molecular cytogenetic analysis of a genetically identified panther genet, Genetta maculata, the most common and widespread taxon of the large-spotted genet complex, with a wide distribution in sub-Saharan Africa. Sampled in Gauteng Province, South Africa, it could be assigned to the subspecies G...
October 27, 2016: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
Peter Sandner, Peter Berger, Christoph Zenzmaier
Fibrotic diseases cause high rates of morbidity and mortality, and their incidence increases with age. Despite intense research and development efforts, effective and well-tolerated antifibrotic treatments are scarce. Transforming growth factor-β signaling, which is widely considered the most important profibrotic factor, causes a pro-oxidant shift in redox homeostasis and a concomitant decrease in nitric oxide (NO) signaling. The NO/cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) signaling cascade plays a pivotal role in the regulation of cell and organ function in whole-body hemostasis...
October 27, 2016: Gerontology
Michael K Yeung, Sophia L Sze, Jean Woo, Timothy Kwok, David H K Shum, Ruby Yu, Agnes S Chan
BACKGROUND: Some functional magnetic resonance imaging studies have reported altered activations in the frontal cortex during working memory (WM) performance in individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), but the findings have been mixed. The objective of the present study was to utilize near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), an alternative imaging technique, to examine neural processing during WM performance in individuals with MCI. METHODS: Twenty-six older adults with MCI (7 males; mean age 69...
October 27, 2016: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
Jonatan Leffler, Zoltán Prohászka, Bálint Mikes, György Sinkovits, Katarzyna Ciacma, Péter Farkas, Marienn Réti, Kata Kelen, György S Reusz, Attila J Szabó, Myriam Martin, Anna M Blom
BACKGROUND: Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) can stimulate thrombosis, and their degradation is decreased in several autoimmune disorders. It was recently reported that some patients with haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS) also fail to degrade NETs and that neutrophils from Shiga toxin-associated HUS are primed to form NETs. METHOD: We used a well-characterized cohort of 74 thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) patients, with a subset also providing follow-up samples, and 112 age-matched controls to investigate NET degradation and serum nuclease activity in TMA before, during and after treatment...
October 27, 2016: Journal of Innate Immunity
Tsung-Yan Chen, Ting-Tse Lin, Mu-Yang Hsieh, Lin Lin, Chung-Wei Yang, Shao-Yuan Chuang, Po-Hsun Huang, Chih-Cheng Wu
BACKGROUND: Arteriovenous fistula (AVF) thrombosis is a relevant cause of morbidity in hemodialysis (HD) patients. The number of circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) has been identified as a surrogate marker for vascular repair and health. Deficiency of EPCs has been demonstrated in dialysis patients to be associated with vascular events. Nonetheless, their role in thrombosis of AVFs remains unknown. METHODS: From January 2010 to May 2013, 147 HD patients with dysfunctional AVFs were enrolled...
October 27, 2016: American Journal of Nephrology
Ying Xiong, Li Liu, Jiajun Wang, Wei Xi, Yu Xia, Qi Bai, Yang Qu, Qilai Long, Jiejie Xu, Jianming Guo
BACKGROUND: Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 21 (CCL21), a ligand of the chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 7, has recently been identified as an immuno-based anti-cancer molecule for its dendritic cells and T lymphocytes chemoattractant function. The aim of this study was to investigate prognostic values of CCL21 expression in metastatic renal cell carcinoma patients treated with targeted therapy. METHODS: This study included 111 patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma receiving targeted therapy...
October 23, 2016: Oncotarget
Jian Xie, Yan Feng, Ting Lin, Xiao-Yu Huang, Rui-Huan Gan, Yong Zhao, Bo-Hua Su, Lin-Can Ding, Lin She, Jiang Chen, Li-Song Lin, Xu Lin, Da-Li Zheng, You-Guang Lu
The cadherin-4 gene (CDH4) of the cadherin family encodes non-epithelial R-cadherin (R-cad); however, the function of this gene in different types of cancer remains controversial. In this study, we found higher expression of CDH4 mRNA in a salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma (SACC) cell line with low metastatic potential (SACC-83) than in a cell line with high metastatic potential (SACC-LM). By analyzing 67 samples of SACC tissues and 40 samples of paraneoplastic normal tissues, we found R-cad highly expressed in 100% of normal paraneoplastic tissue but only expressed in 64% of SACC tumor tissues (P<0...
October 22, 2016: Oncotarget
Savino Occhionorelli, Lucia Morganti, Lorenzo Cappellari, Rocco Stano, Dario Andreotti, Giorgio Vasquez
INTRODUCTION: Arterial pseudoaneurysm is a rare and life-threatening complication of pancreatitis, seen more often in chronic than in acute pancreatitis. It involves mostly the splenic artery, while only in 10% of the case it appears in pancreaticoduodenal and gastric artery. This case report described an asymptomatic pseudoaneurysm of the posterior superior pancreaticoduodenal artery and of the right gastric artery, which occurred after 13days from the episode of acute pancreatitis and, then it was treated with vascular angioembolization...
October 18, 2016: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Maruška Budič, Blaž Cigić, Maja Šoštarič, Jerica Sabotič, Vladimir Meglič, Janko Kos, Marjetka Kidrič
Aminopeptidases, together with other proteases, execute and regulate the total and specifically limited protein breakdown involved in plant physiology, raising the possibility of their involvement in response to drought. We have identified, in leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris L., five aminopeptidases (E.C.3.4.11) whose levels of activity changed when three week old plants were subjected to drought. First, second and third trifoliate leaves were investigated separately. The aminopeptidases were first identified then isolated using ion exchange chromatography of leaf extracts...
October 13, 2016: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Shanshan Li, Wenda Zhang, Yanwei Yang, Ting Ma, Jianpeng Guo, Shanshan Wang, Wenying Yu, Lingyi Kong
Constitutive activation of STAT3 has been found in a wide variety of cancers and demonstrated as a very attractive therapeutic target. Disrupting both acetylation and phosphorylation of STAT3 protein was hypothesized to greatly deactivate STAT3, therefore, treating cancers. To demonstrate the hypothesis, two series of novel resveratrol-caffeic acid hybrids were designed aiming to regulate both acetylation and phosphorylation of STAT3 protein, which is also the first report of the synthetic inhibitors simultaneously regulating two biological reactions of STAT3 to our knowledge...
October 15, 2016: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Min Ma, Fuwei Pi, Jiasheng Wang, Jian Ji, Xiulan Sun
Humans are most likely to be exposed to microcystins (MCs) combined with other water pollutants rather than to individual compounds through the consumption of contaminated drinking water or through recreational activities, such as swimming. However, the combined effects of MC-LR, estradiol (EST), and ractopamine (RAC) have not been extensively researched. The goal of this study was to investigate the combined effects of these compounds. For this purpose, cytotoxicity was evaluated in HepG2 cells treated with single or combined doses of MC-LR, EST, and RAC based on concentration addition (CA), independent action (IA), and Chou-Talalay's combination-index (CI) methods...
October 23, 2016: Chemosphere
Ling Fu, Tao Huang, Shuo Wang, Xiaohong Wang, Limin Su, Chao Li, Yuanhui Zhao
Although modes of action (MOAs) play a key role in the understanding of the toxic mechanism of chemicals, the MOAs have not been investigated for antibiotics to green algae. This paper is to discriminate excess toxicity from baseline level and investigate the MOAs of 13 different antibiotics to algae by using the determined toxicity values. Comparison of the toxicities shows that the inhibitors of protein synthesis to bacteria, such as azithromycin, doxycycline, florfenicol and oxytetracycline, exhibit significantly toxic effects to algae...
October 23, 2016: Chemosphere
Joseph O Okeme, Eva M Webster, J Mark Parnis, Miriam L Diamond
Partition coefficients between polyurethane foam (PUF) and air (KPUF-Air) are important when using PUF as a passive air sampler for semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) and when considering the fate of SVOCs indoors where PUF is a common material. Here, KPUF-Air for selected SVOCs was estimated using published methods, since measured data are unavailable for most of these compounds. Estimates of KPUF-Air were within one order of magnitude for SVOCs having values of log octanol-air partition coefficient (KOA) of 5, but differed by nearly three orders of magnitude for SVOCs with log KOA of 12...
October 23, 2016: Chemosphere
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