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Dimitris Theofilatos, Panagiotis Fotakis, Efi Valanti, Despina Sanoudou, Vassilis Zannis, Dimitris Kardassis
BACKGROUND: High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) and its main protein component, apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) have numerous atheroprotective functions on various tissues including the endothelium. Therapies based on reconstituted HDL containing apoA-I (rHDL-apoA-I) have been used successfully in patients with acute coronary syndrome, peripheral vascular disease or diabetes but very little is known about the genomic effects of rHDL-apoA-I and how they could contribute to atheroprotection. OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to understand the endothelial signaling pathways and the genes that may contribute to rHDL-apoA-I-mediated atheroprotection...
June 18, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Gagandeep Kaur, Caiyun Grace Li, Andrew Chantry, Cherie Stayner, Julia Horsfield, Michael R Eccles
Canonical TGF-β1 signalling promotes tumor progression by facilitating invasion and metastasis, whereby release of TGF-β1, by (for example) infiltrating immune cells, induces epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). PAX2, a member of the Paired box family of transcriptional regulators, is normally expressed during embryonic development, including in the kidney, where it promotes mesenchymal to epithelial transition (MET). PAX2 expression is silenced in many normal adult tissues. However, in contrast, PAX2 is expressed in several cancer types, including kidney, prostate, breast, and ovarian cancer...
June 1, 2018: Oncotarget
Mona S Abdellateif, Sabry M Shaarawy, Eman Z Kandeel, Ahmed H El-Habashy, Mohamed L Salem, Motawa E El-Houseini
Dendritic cells (DCs) have been used in a number of clinical trials for cancer immunotherapy; however, they have achieved limited success in solid tumors. Consequently the aim of the present study was to identify a novel potential immunotherapeutic target for breast cancer patients through in vitro optimization of a viable DC-based vaccine. Immature DCs were primed by viable MCF-7 breast cancer cells and the activity and maturation of DCs were assessed through measuring CD83, CD86 and major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-II expression, in addition to different T cell subpopulations, namely CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, and CD4+ CD25+ forkhead box protein 3 (Foxp3)+ regulatory T cells (Tregs), by flow cytometric analysis...
July 2018: Oncology Letters
Min-Ke He, Yong Le, Yong-Fa Zhang, Han-Yue Ouyang, Pei-En Jian, Zi-Shan Yu, Li-Juan Wang, Ming Shi
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is among the most fatal types of cancer worldwide due to its high rates of recurrence and metastasis. The molecular processes involved in HCC progression require further investigation to identify biomarkers for use in diagnosis and treatment. In the present study, the significance and prognostic value of matrix metallopeptidase 12 (MMP12) expression in human HCC was investigated. MMP12 mRNA expression was investigated using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis of 42 pairs of tumor and non-tumor liver tissues obtained from patients with HCC following surgical treatment...
July 2018: Oncology Letters
Sida Liu, Han Dong, Hui Dai, Danwei Liu, Zhihao Wang
Micro (mi)RNAs are small, evolutionarily conserved and endogenous noncoding RNA molecules between 19 and 24 nucleotides in length. The potential roles of miRNAs in the carcinogenesis and progression of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have been studied previously. In the present study, it was revealed that miRNA-216b (miR-216b) expression was lower in NSCLC tissue and cell lines compared with that in adjacent healthy lung tissue samples and the normal bronchial epithelial 16HBE cell line, respectively. The ectopic expression of miR-216b inhibited the proliferation and invasion of NSCLC cells in vitro ...
June 2018: Oncology Letters
Qiyan Hu, Ke Du, Xiaogang Mao, Siqing Ning
Cervical cancer is the second most common type of cancer in females worldwide. It has been demonstrated that microRNAs (miRs) serve important roles in the occurrence and development of various types of cancer, including cervical cancer. The results of the present study revealed that miR-197 was downregulated in cervical cancer tissues and cell lines. Restoration of miR-197 expression significantly inhibited cell viability and invasion of cervical cancer. Additionally, forkhead box M1 (FOXM1) was identified as a direct target gene of miR-197...
June 2018: Oncology Letters
See-Hyoung Park, Jongsung Lee, Mi-Ae Kang, Kyu Yun Jang, Jung Ryul Kim
The outcome of chemotherapy for osteosarcoma have improved during the past decade and more patients have access to combination chemotherapy, but there has been no significant clinical progress in the patient survival rate. Recently, forkhead-box O3 (FOXO3) was identified as a pivotal transcription factor responsible for the transcriptional regulation of genes associated with suppression of cancer. The purpose of the present study was to screen small chemicals activating FOXO3 and elucidate their underlying mechanism...
June 2018: Oncology Letters
Changlong Li, Hezhen Wu, Yanfang Yang, Jianwen Liu, Zhenwen Chen
Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a major obstacle to cancer chemotherapy efficacy. In the present study, 6-O-angeloylplenolin repressed the overexpression of ATP binding cassette subfamily B member 1 ( MDR1 ) and increasing the intracellular concentration of anticancer drugs. A reduction in P-glycoprotein expression (encoded by MDR1 ) was observed in parallel with a decline in mRNA expression in vincristine-resistant HCT (HCT-8/VCR) cells treated with 6-O-angeloylplenolin. In addition, 6-O-angeloylplenolin suppressed the activity of the MDR1 gene promoter...
June 2018: Oncology Letters
Aïda M Valevicius, Quinn A Boser, Ewen B Lavoie, Glyn S Murgatroyd, Patrick M Pilarski, Craig S Chapman, Albert H Vette, Jacqueline S Hebert
BACKGROUND: Dexterous hand function is crucial for completing activities of daily living (ADLs), which typically require precise hand-object interactions. Kinematic analyses of hand trajectory, hand velocity, and grip aperture provide valuable mechanistic insights into task performance, but there is a need for standardized tasks representative of ADLs that are amenable to motion capture and show consistent performance in non-disabled individuals. Our objective was to develop two standardized functional upper limb tasks and to quantitatively characterize the kinematics of normative hand movement...
2018: PloS One
Chunhua Zhang, Ruijuan Ma, Jianlan Xu, Juan Yan, Lei Guo, Juan Song, Ruchao Feng, Mingliang Yu
The MYB transcription factor superfamily is one of the largest superfamilies modulating various biological processes in plants. Over the past few decades, many MYB superfamily genes have been identified and characterized in some plant species. However, genes belonging to the MYB superfamily in peach (Prunus persica) have not been comprehensively identified and characterized although the genome sequences of peach were released several years ago. In total, this study yielded a set of 256 MYB superfamily genes that was divided into five subfamilies: the R2R3-MYB (2R-MYB), R1R2R3-MYB (3R-MYB), MYB-related (1R-MYB), 4R-MYB, and Atypical-MYB subfamilies...
2018: PloS One
Kowsar Bavarsad, Mousa-Al-Reza Hadjzadeh, Mahmoud Hosseini, Roghayeh Pakdel, Farimah Beheshti, Soleyman Bafadam, Zeinab Ashaari
The effect of levothyroxine (L-T4) on the learning and memory impairment induced by streptozotocin (STZ) and brain tissue oxidative damage in rats was evaluated. An animal model of the Alzheimer's disease (AD) was established by intracerebroventricular injection of STZ (3 mg/kg) in male Wistar rats (250 ± 50 g). After that, the rats were treated for 3 weeks with L-T4 (10, 100 μg/kg) or normal saline. Passive avoidance (PA) learning and spatial memory were evaluated using shuttle box and Morris water maze (MWM), respectively...
June 21, 2018: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Monika Raab, Mourad Sanhaji, Larissa Pietsch, Isabelle Béquignon, Amanda K Herbrand, Evelyn Süß, Santosh L Gande, Birgit Caspar, Denis Kudlinzki, Krishna Saxena, Sridhar Sreeramulu, Harald Schwalbe, Klaus Strebhardt, Ricardo M Biondi
The Polo-like kinases (Plks) are an evolutionary conserved family of Ser/Thr protein kinases that possess, in addition to the classical kinase domain at the N-terminus, a C-terminal polo-box domain (PBD) that binds to phosphorylated proteins, modulates the kinase activity and its localization. Plk1, which regulates the formation of the mitotic spindle, has emerged as a validated drug target for the treatment of cancer, because it is required for numerous types of cancer cells but not for the cell division in non-cancer cells...
June 21, 2018: ACS Chemical Biology
Mamitaro Ohtsuki, Hiroshi Morimoto, Hidemi Nakagawa
Atopic dermatitis (AD) requires long-term management, mainly with topical anti-inflammatory agents. Topical corticosteroids (TCS) and tacrolimus ointment (TAC-O) are recommended as first-line treatments for AD. However, the long-term use of TCS is limited by cutaneous adverse events such as skin atrophy. For TAC-O, Japanese and US labelings were updated in 2003 and 2006, respectively, to include a boxed warning about a theoretical risk of skin cancer and lymphoma in patients treated with topical calcineurin inhibitors...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Dermatology
Alexandra Pârvan
The paper proposes that frameworks typical to metaphysics and art could be used in clinical treatment in somatic and psychiatric contexts to ensure improved care. The concept of the "body electric" of somatic patients which I introduced in previous work is developed further and paired with the "mind electric" of psychiatric patients. Both are defined as a patient's personally generated metaphysical possibility of being healthy-within-illness which is experientially actualized. Both concepts are used here to explore the alternative and the serious challenges to treatment approaches focused on clinical categories, disease, provision, and promotion of standardized or "black-box" therapies...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
Guowei Shu, Xiaoyu Shi, Li Chen, Jianbo Kou, Jiangpeng Meng, He Chen
Antioxidant peptides are currently the focus of many studies, since they eliminate free radicals in the human body without harmful effects. In the present study, Lactobacillus casei L61 was used as a starter culture to ferment goat milk because of its high capacity to produce antioxidant peptides. An optimal nutrients formula (casein, casein peptone, glucose, soybean peptone, inulin, calcium lactate, and cysteine) was investigated by Plackett⁻Burman (P⁻B) and Box⁻Behnken (B⁻B) designs for response surface methodology (RSM)...
June 20, 2018: Nutrients
Jiangtong Peng, Yutian Li, Xiaohong Wang, Shan Deng, Jenna Holland, Emily Yates, Jing Chen, Haitao Gu, Kobina Essandoh, Xingjiang Mu, Boyu Wang, Robert K McNamara, Tianqing Peng, Anil G Jegga, Tiemin Liu, Takahisa Nakamura, Kai Huang, Diego Perez-Tilve, Guo-Chang Fan
Exposure to cold temperature is well known to upregulate heat shock protein (Hsp) expression and recruit and/or activate brown adipose tissue and beige adipocytes in humans and animals. However, whether and how Hsps regulate adipocyte function for energy homeostatic responses is poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate a critical role of Hsp20 as a negative regulator of adipocyte function. Deletion of Hsp20 enhances non-shivering thermogenesis and suppresses inflammatory responses, leading to improvement of glucose and lipid metabolism under both chow diet and high-fat diet conditions...
June 19, 2018: Cell Reports
Sena Kim, Yeonsoo Joe, Se-Ung Park, Sun Oh Jeong, Jin-Kyung Kim, Seong Hoon Park, Hyun-Ock Pae, Young-Joon Surh, Jaekyoon Shin, Hun Taeg Chung
Endotoxin tolerance develops in the late phase of sepsis to protect cells from an early hyperinflammatory response. Nonetheless, because it induces an immunosuppressive environment, patients with sepsis in its late phase are affected by secondary infections, particularly bacterial pneumonia. Here, we showed that induction of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress leads to activation of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β) and X-box-binding protein 1 (XBP-1) in an inositol-requiring enzyme 1α (IRE1α)-mediated manner, which in turn restores the inflammatory response in endotoxin-tolerant macrophages...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Kim Maree O'Sullivan, Sharon Lee Ford, Anthony Longano, A Richard Kitching, Stephen R Holdsworth
In anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody associated vasculitis (AAV), toll like receptors (TLRs) may be engaged by infection associated patterns and by endogenous danger signals, linking infection and innate inflammation with this autoimmune disease. This study examined intrarenal TLR2, TLR4 and TLR9 expression and renal injury in AAV, testing the hypothesis that increased TLR expression correlates with renal injury. Patients with AAV exhibited both glomerular and tubulointerstitial expression of TLR2, TLR4 and TLR9, with TLR4 being the most prominent in both compartments...
June 20, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
A Macerollo, C Palmer, T Foltynie, P Korlipara, P Limousin, M Edwards, J M Kilner
A recent theoretical account of motor control proposes that modulation of afferent information plays a role in affecting how readily we can move. Increasing the estimate of uncertainty surrounding the afferent input is a necessary step in being able to move. It has been proposed that an inability to modulate the gain of this sensory information underlies the cardinal symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). We aimed to test this theory by modulating the uncertainty of the proprioceptive signal using high frequency peripheral vibration, to determine the subsequent effect on motor performance...
June 20, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Ming Chu, Mingya Zhou, Caihong Jiang, Xi Chen, Likai Guo, Mingbo Zhang, Zhengyun Chu, Yuedan Wang
Phenol-soluble modulins (PSMs) have recently emerged as key virulence determinants, particularly in highly aggressive Staphylococcus aureus isolates. These peptides contribute to the pathogenesis of S. aureus infections, participating in multiple inflammatory responses. Here, we report a new role for S. aureus PSMs in high mobility group box-1 protein (HMGB1) induced inflammation by modulating toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 pathway. Direct ligation of TLR4 with S. aureus PSMα1-α3 and PSMβ1-β2 was identified by surface plasmon resonance...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
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