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Fabien Dal Maso, Bennet Desormeau, Marie-Hélène Boudrias, Marc Roig
A single bout of cardiovascular exercise performed immediately after practicing a visuo-motor tracking task has been shown to improve the long-term retention of this motor skill through an optimization of the memory consolidation process. The mechanisms underlying the time-dependent effects of acute cardiovascular exercise on motor memory consolidation, however, remain poorly understood. In this study, we sought to determine the impact of a single bout of cardiovascular exercise performed immediately after motor skill practice on those mechanisms using electroencephalography (EEG) and electromyography (EMG)...
March 16, 2018: NeuroImage
Federico Gennaro, Eling D de Bruin
Assessment of the cortical role during bipedalism has been a methodological challenge. While surface electroencephalography (EEG) is capable of non-invasively measuring cortical activity during human locomotion, it is associated with movement artifacts obscuring cerebral sources of activity. Recently, statistical methods based on blind source separation revealed potential for resolving this issue, by segregating non-cerebral/artifactual from cerebral sources of activity. This step marked a new opportunity for the investigation of the brains' role while moving and was tagged mobile brain/body imaging (MoBI)...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
Ali Abdollahi Gharbali, Shirin Najdi, José Manuel Fonseca
OBJECTIVE: In this paper, the contribution of distance-based features to automatic sleep stage classification is investigated. The potency of these features is analyzed individually and in combination with 48 conventionally used features. METHODS: The distance-based set consists of 32 features extracted by calculating Itakura, Itakura-Saito and COSH distances of autoregressive and spectral coefficients of Electrocardiography (EEG) (C3 -A2 ), Left EOG, Chin EMG and ECG signals...
March 7, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Tobias Vogt, Kouki Kato, Nils Flüthmann, Oliver Bloch, Hiroki Nakata, Kazuyuki Kanosue
OBJECTIVE: Motor-related cortical potentials (MRCP) often compared separated muscle activations; however, MRCP preceding combined contraction onsets and relaxation offsets of one consecutive motor task sequence remain to be elucidated. METHODS: Twelve healthy males (27.92±4.33 years, 181.83±7.15 cm, 84.58±7.15 kg) performed 40 submaximal isometric right-limb wrist flexions (i.e. motor task sequences). Each motor task sequence combined timed contractions to and relaxations from distinct torque levels, i...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Musculoskeletal & Neuronal Interactions
Laurie L Wellman, Mairen E Fitzpatrick, Amy M Sutton, Brook L Williams, Mayumi Machida, Larry D Sanford
The basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA) plays a significant role in mediating individual differences in the effects of fear memory on sleep. Here, we assessed the effects of antagonizing corticotropin releasing factor receptor 1 (CRFR1) after shock training (ST) on fear-conditioned behaviors and sleep. Outbred Wistar rats were surgically implanted with electrodes for recording EEG and EMG and with bilateral guide cannulae directed at BLA. Data loggers were placed intraperitoneally to record core body temperature...
March 1, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
Stavros I Dimitriadis, Christos Salis, David Linden
OBJECTIVE: Limitations of the manual scoring of polysomnograms, which include data from electroencephalogram (EEG), electro-oculogram (EOG), electrocardiogram (ECG) and electromyogram (EMG) channels have long been recognized. Manual staging is resource intensive and time consuming, and thus considerable effort must be spent to ensure inter-rater reliability. As a result, there is a great interest in techniques based on signal processing and machine learning for a completely Automatic Sleep Stage Classification (ASSC)...
January 31, 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Lisbeth Hoejkjaer Larsen, Ivan Chrilles Zibrandtsen, Troels Wienecke, Troels Wesenberg Kjaer, Henning Langberg, Jens Bo Nielsen, Mark Schram Christensen
The functional relevance of cortical reorganisation post-stroke is still not well understood. In this study we investigated task-specific modulation of cortical connectivity between neural oscillations in key motor regions during the early phase after stroke. EEG and EMG recordings were examined from 15 patients and 18 controls during a precision grip task using the affected hand. Each patient attended two sessions in the acute and subacute phase (median of 3 & 34 days) post-stroke. Dynamic causal modeling (DCM) for induced responses was used to investigate task-specific modulations of oscillatory couplings in a bilateral network comprising supplementary motor area (SMA), dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) and primary motor cortex (M1)...
February 21, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Michael D Schwartz, Jeremiah B Palmerston, Diana L Lee, Marius C Hoener, Thomas S Kilduff
Trace amines (TAs), endogenous amino acid metabolites that are structurally similar to the biogenic amines, are endogenous ligands for trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1), a GPCR that modulates dopaminergic, serotonergic, and glutamatergic activity. Selective TAAR1 full and partial agonists exhibit similar pro-cognitive, antidepressant- and antipsychotic-like properties in rodents and non-human primates, suggesting TAAR1 as a novel target for the treatment of neurological and psychiatric disorders. We previously reported that TAAR1 partial agonists are wake-promoting in rats and mice, and that TAAR1 knockout (KO) and overexpressing mice exhibit altered sleep-wake and EEG spectral composition...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Kyoung Jin Hwang, Dae Won Seo, Seong Bong Hong, Eun Yeon Joo
Somatosensory reflex epilepsy is induced by repetitive cutaneous contact of a circumscribed body area with a tight time-lock between somatosensory stimulation and seizure. We describe the case of a 27-year-old man with seizures induced by repetitive tapping on the sole of the right foot. Simultaneous video-EEG monitoring and surface electromyography was performed during a seizure triggered by repetitive tapping on the right sole aspect using a hammer. Stimulation produced a tingling sensation on the right sole that extended to the right lower leg...
February 14, 2018: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
Young Sung Kim, Dongik Chung, Seok Kyeong Oh, Young Ju Won, Il Ok Lee
BACKGROUND: EEG monitoring is useful for determining an adequate level of anesthesia. However it is sometimes interfered by various reasons. We describe a case in which we successfully confirmed the adequate depth of anesthesia by monitoring the patient state index (PSI), which was computed from the SedLine monitor data in Root (Masimo) during general anesthesia. Our case showed unusual elevations in entropy, but not in PSI. CASE PRESENTATION: A 34-year-old woman was scheduled for emergency surgery for a left tibial open fracture and a right femoral closed fracture, which were sustained during a traffic accident...
February 14, 2018: BMC Anesthesiology
Vikas Mishra, Nicole M Gautier, Edward Glasscock
In epilepsy, seizures can evoke cardiac rhythm disturbances such as heart rate changes, conduction blocks, asystoles, and arrhythmias, which can potentially increase risk of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP). Electroencephalography (EEG) and electrocardiography (ECG) are widely used clinical diagnostic tools to monitor for abnormal brain and cardiac rhythms in patients. Here, a technique to simultaneously record video, EEG, and ECG in mice to measure behavior, brain, and cardiac activities, respectively, is described...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Andrés Úbeda, José M Azorín, Dario Farina, Massimo Sartori
One of the current challenges in human motor rehabilitation is the robust application of Brain-Machine Interfaces to assistive technologies such as powered lower limb exoskeletons. Reliable decoding of motor intentions and accurate timing of the robotic device actuation is fundamental to optimally enhance the patient's functional improvement. Several studies show that it may be possible to extract motor intentions from electroencephalographic (EEG) signals. These findings, although notable, suggests that current techniques are still far from being systematically applied to an accurate real-time control of rehabilitation or assistive devices...
2018: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
Fructuoso Ayala Guerrero, Graciela Mexicano Medina
INTRODUCTION: Extracts of the plant Passiflora incarnata L. (Passifloraceae) were administered intraperitoneally in order to test its effects on sleep. METHOD: Experiments were carried out on chronically implanted male adult wistar rats to obtain cerebral (EEG), ocular (EOG) and muscular (EMG) activities throughout their states of vigilance. Polygraphic recordings were taken during 9 continuous hours before and after the extract administration (500 mg/kg). RESULTS: Passiflora incarnata induced a significant increment in the total sleep time (p<0...
July 2017: Sleep Science
Jonathan C Erickson, James A Hayes, Mauricio Bustamante, Rajwol Joshi, Alfred Rwagaju, Niranchan Paskaranandavadivel, Timothy R Angeli
OBJECTIVE: Multi-channel electrical recordings of physiologically generated signals are common to a wide range of biomedical fields. The aim of this work was to develop, validate, and demonstrate the practical utility of a high-quality, low-cost 32/64-channel bioamplifier system with real-time wireless data streaming capability. APPROACH: The new "Intsy" system integrates 3 main off-the-shelf hardware components: 1) Intan RHD2132 bioamplifier; 2) Teensy 3.2 microcontroller; and 3) RN-42 Bluetooth 2...
February 6, 2018: Physiological Measurement
Peter Jensen, Nicole Jacqueline Jensen, Cecilie Ulbaek Terkildsen, Julia T Choi, Jens Bo Nielsen, Svend Sparre Geertsen
When we walk in a challenging environment, we use visual information to modify our gait and place our feet carefully on the ground. Here, we explored how central common drive to ankle muscles changes in relation to visually guided foot placement. Sixteen healthy adults aged 23 ± 5 years participated in the study. Electromyography (EMG) from the Soleus (Sol), medial Gastrocnemius (MG), and the distal and proximal ends of the Tibialis anterior (TA) muscles and electroencephalography (EEG) from Cz were recorded while subjects walked on a motorized treadmill...
February 2018: Physiological Reports
Gizem Yilmaz, Pekcan Ungan, Kemal S Türker
Electrodes for recording electroencephalogram (EEG) are placed on or around cranial muscles; hence, their electrical activity may contaminate the EEG signal even at rest conditions. Due to its role in maintaining mandibular posture, tonic activity of temporalis muscle interferes with the EEG signal particularly at fronto-temporal locations at single motor unit (SMU) level. By obtaining surface representation of a motor unit, we can evaluate its interference in EEG and if we could sum surface representations of several tonically active motor units, we could estimate the overall myogenic contamination in EEG...
February 5, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Olga M Bazanova, Tibor Auer, Elena A Sapina
Background: Neurofeedback training (NFT) to decrease the theta/beta ratio (TBR) has been used for treating hyperactivity and impulsivity in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); however, often with low efficiency. Individual variance in EEG profile can confound NFT, because it may lead to influencing non-relevant activity, if ignored. More importantly, it may lead to influencing ADHD-related activities adversely, which may even result in worsening ADHD symptoms. Electromyogenic (EMG) signal resulted from forehead muscles can also explain the low efficiency of the NFT in ADHD from both practical and psychological point-of-view...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Jeong Hun Kim, Ji-Young Hwang, Ha Ryeon Hwang, Han Seop Kim, Joong Hoon Lee, Jae-Won Seo, Ueon Sang Shin, Sang-Hoon Lee
The development of various flexible and stretchable materials has attracted interest for promising applications in biomedical engineering and electronics industries. This interest in wearable electronics, stretchable circuits, and flexible displays has created a demand for stable, easily manufactured, and cheap materials. However, the construction of flexible and elastic electronics, on which commercial electronic components can be mounted through simple and cost-effective processing, remains challenging. We have developed a nanocomposite of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer...
January 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
Sándor Beniczky, Isa Conradsen, Oliver Henning, Martin Fabricius, Peter Wolf
OBJECTIVE: To determine the accuracy of automated detection of generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS) using a wearable surface EMG device. METHODS: We prospectively tested the technical performance and diagnostic accuracy of real-time seizure detection using a wearable surface EMG device. The seizure detection algorithm and the cutoff values were prespecified. A total of 71 patients, referred to long-term video-EEG monitoring, on suspicion of GTCS, were recruited in 3 centers...
January 30, 2018: Neurology
Leonel Perez-Atencio, Nicolas Garcia-Aracil, Eduardo Fernandez, Luis C Barrio, Juan A Barios
Behavioral states alternate between wakefulness (wk), rapid eye movement (rem) and non-rem (nrem) sleep at time scale of hours i.e., light and dark cycle rhythms and from several tens of minutes to seconds (i.e., brief awakenings during sleep). Using statistical analysis of bout duration, Markov chains of sleep-wk dynamics and quantitative EEG analysis, we evaluated the influence of light/dark (ld) changes on brain function along the sleep-wk cycle. Bout duration (bd) histograms and Kaplan-Meier (km) survival curves of wk showed a bimodal statistical distribution, suggesting that two types of wk do exist: brief-wk (wkb) and long-wk (wkl)...
2018: PloS One
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