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Akiyoshi Ishikawa, Keita Sakai, Takehiro Maki, Yuri Mizuno, Kimie Niimi, Yasuhiro Oda, Eiki Takahashi
To understand sleep mechanisms and develop treatments for sleep disorders, investigations using animal models are essential. The sleep architecture of rodents differs from that of diurnal mammals including humans and non-human primates. Sleep studies have been conducted in non-human primates; however, these sleep assessments were performed on animals placed in a restraint chair connected via the umbilical area to the recording apparatus. To avoid restraints, cables, and other stressful apparatuses and manipulations, telemetry systems have been developed...
October 18, 2016: Experimental Animals
Wei-Lun Lin, Li-Wei Lo, Hau-Ruey Chen, Chun-Ting Lai, Shinya Yamada, Shin-Huei Liu, Yu-Hui Chou, Shih-Ann Chen, Yun-Ching Fu, Terry B J Kuo
BACKGROUND: Autonomic imbalance with increased sympathetic and decreased parasympathetic activities is observed in patients after myocardial infarction (MI). We aimed to investigate sleep-related changed in autonomic regulation in left coronary artery (LCA) ligation rats. METHODS: Wireless transmission of polysomnographic recording was performed in sham and LCA ligation male rats during normal daytime sleep with and without atenolol treatment. Spectral analyses of the electroencephalogram (EEG) and electromyogram (EMG) were evaluated to define active waking (AW), quiet and paradoxical sleeps (QS, PS)...
September 30, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
Giuliano Avanzini, Hiroshi Shibasaki, Guido Rubboli, Laura Canafoglia, Ferruccio Panzica, Silvana Franceschetti, Mark Hallett
The high temporal resolution of neurophysiological recordings makes them particularly suited to faithfully describing the time course of rapid events such as myoclonus and to precisely measure its time relationship with other related activities. In progressive myoclonus epilepsies (PMEs) polygraphy with simultaneous EMG-EEG recordings is a crucial tool for defining the characteristic of myoclonic jerks their topography over different muscles (namely antagonists), their time course and relationship with vigilance muscle activation and stimulations...
September 1, 2016: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
Dylan DeLosAngeles, Graham Williams, John Burston, Sean P Fitzgibbon, Trent W Lewis, Tyler S Grummett, C Richard Clark, Kenneth J Pope, John O Willoughby
Meditative techniques aim for and meditators report states of mental alertness and focus, concurrent with physical and emotional calm. We aimed to determine the electroencephalographic (EEG) correlates of five states of Buddhist concentrative meditation, particularly addressing a correlation with meditative level. We studied 12 meditators and 12 pair-matched meditation-naïve participants using high-resolution scalp-recorded EEG. To maximise reduction of EMG, data were pre-processed using independent component analysis and surface Laplacian transformed data...
October 1, 2016: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Alexia M Thomas, Michael D Schwartz, Michael D Saxe, Thomas S Kilduff
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Although recent innovations have enabled modification of the rat genome, it is unclear whether enhanced utility of rodents as human disease models will result. We compared EEG and behavioral phenotypes of rats and mice with homozygous deletion of Cntnap2, a gene associated with cortical dysplasia-focal epilepsy (CDFE) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). METHODS: Male Cntnap2 knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) rats and male Cntnap2 KO and WT mice were implanted with telemeters to record EEG, EMG, body temperature and locomotor activity...
September 26, 2016: Sleep
Michael D Schwartz, Sarah W Black, Simon P Fisher, Jeremiah B Palmerston, Stephen R Morairty, Marius C Hoener, Thomas S Kilduff
Trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1) agonists have been shown to have pro-cognitive, antipsychotic-like, anxiolytic, weight-reducing, glucose-lowering and wake-promoting activities. We used Taar1 knockout (KO) and over-expressing (OE) mice and TAAR1 agonists to elucidate the role of TAAR1 in sleep/wake. EEG, EMG, body temperature (Tb) and locomotor activity (LMA) were recorded in Taar1 KO, OE and WT mice. Following a 24 h recording to characterize basal sleep/wake parameters, mice were sleep-deprived (SD) for 6 h...
September 23, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Ingmar E J de Vries, Andreas Daffertshofer, Dick F Stegeman, Tjeerd Willem Boonstra
Neural synchrony has been suggested as a mechanism for integrating distributed sensorimotor systems involved in coordinated movement. To test the role of corticomuscular and intermuscular coherence in bimanual coordination, we experimentally manipulated the degree of coordination between hand muscles by varying the sensitivity of the visual feedback to differences in bilateral force. In 16 healthy participants, cortical activity was measured using electroencephalography (EEG) and muscle activity of the flexor pollicis brevis of both hands using high-density electromyography (HDsEMG)...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
Nicole J Gervais, Shaun S Viechweg, Jessica A Mong, Agnès Lacreuse
Menopausal women often suffer from hot flashes and sleep disturbances that significantly impact their quality of life. Both human and animal studies suggest that loss of estrogens during menopause contribute to these symptoms. In the female rat, both core body temperature (CBT) and sleep are sensitive to 17β-estradiol (E2) levels, but important differences between the rat and the human patterns limit the interpretation of the results. The sleep and thermoregulation of the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) more closely resemble human patterns...
September 9, 2016: Neuroscience
L H Koens, A Kuiper, M A Coenen, J W J Elting, J J de Vries, M Engelen, J H T M Koelman, F J van Spronsen, J M Spikman, T J de Koning, M A J Tijssen
BACKGROUND: Niemann-Pick type C (NP-C) is a rare autosomal recessive progressive neurodegenerative disorder caused by mutations in the NP-C 1 or 2 gene. Besides visceral symptoms, presentation in adolescent and adult onset variants is often with neurological symptoms. The most frequently reported presenting symptoms of NP-C in adulthood are psychiatric symptoms (38 %), cognitive decline (23 %) and ataxia (20 %). Myoclonus can be present, but its value in early diagnosis and the evolving clinical phenotype in NP-C is unclear...
2016: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
Hyejin Yang, Junsung Woo, Ae Nim Pae, Min Young Um, Nam-Chul Cho, Ki Duk Park, Minseok Yoon, Jiyoung Kim, C Justin Lee, Suengmok Cho
α-Pinene is a major monoterpene of the pine tree essential oils. It has been reported that α-pinene shows anxiolytic and hypnotic effects upon inhaled administration. However, hypnotic effect by oral supplementation and the molecular mechanism of α-pinene have not been determined yet. By combining in vivo sleep behavior, ex vivo electrophysiological recording from brain slices, and in silico molecular modeling, we demonstrate that (-)-α-pinene shows sleep enhancing property through a direct binding to GABAA-benzodiazepine (BZD) receptors by acting as a partial modulator at the BZD binding site...
November 2016: Molecular Pharmacology
Allison J Brager, Tao Yang, J Christopher Ehlen, Roger P Simon, Robert Meller, Ketema N Paul
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Episodes of brief limb ischemia (remote preconditioning) in mice induces tolerance to modeled ischemic stroke (focal brain ischemia). Since stroke outcomes are in part dependent on sleep-wake history, we sought to determine if sleep is critical for the neuroprotective effect of limb ischemia. METHODS: EEG/EMG recording electrodes were implanted in mice. After a 24 h baseline recording, limb ischemia was induced by tightening an elastic band around the left quadriceps for 10 minutes followed by 10 minutes of release for two cycles...
August 19, 2016: Sleep
Stephen J Preece, Richard K Jones, Christopher A Brown, Timothy W Cacciatore, Anthony K P Jones
BACKGROUND: Both increased knee muscle co-contraction and alterations in central pain processing have been suggested to play a role in knee osteoarthritis pain. However, current interventions do not target either of these mechanisms. The Alexander Technique provides neuromuscular re-education and may also influence anticipation of pain. This study therefore sought to investigate the potential clinical effectiveness of the AT intervention in the management of knee osteoarthritis and also to identify a possible mechanism of action...
2016: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
Ana R C Donati, Solaiman Shokur, Edgard Morya, Debora S F Campos, Renan C Moioli, Claudia M Gitti, Patricia B Augusto, Sandra Tripodi, Cristhiane G Pires, Gislaine A Pereira, Fabricio L Brasil, Simone Gallo, Anthony A Lin, Angelo K Takigami, Maria A Aratanha, Sanjay Joshi, Hannes Bleuler, Gordon Cheng, Alan Rudolph, Miguel A L Nicolelis
Brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) provide a new assistive strategy aimed at restoring mobility in severely paralyzed patients. Yet, no study in animals or in human subjects has indicated that long-term BMI training could induce any type of clinical recovery. Eight chronic (3-13 years) spinal cord injury (SCI) paraplegics were subjected to long-term training (12 months) with a multi-stage BMI-based gait neurorehabilitation paradigm aimed at restoring locomotion. This paradigm combined intense immersive virtual reality training, enriched visual-tactile feedback, and walking with two EEG-controlled robotic actuators, including a custom-designed lower limb exoskeleton capable of delivering tactile feedback to subjects...
2016: Scientific Reports
Yohei Sagawa, Masatoshi Sato, Noriaki Sakai, Sachiko Chikahisa, Shintaro Chiba, Takashi Maruyama, Junki Yamamoto, Seiji Nishino
Prostaglandin (PG)D2 is an endogenous sleep substance, and a series of animal studies reported that PGD2 or PGD2 receptor (DP1) agonists promote sleep, while DP1 antagonists promote wakefulness. This suggests the possibility of use of PG DP1 antagonists as wake-promoting compounds. We therefore evaluated the wake-promoting effects of ONO-4127Na, a DP1 antagonist, in a mouse model of narcolepsy (i.e., orexin/ataxin-3 transgenic mice) and compared those to effects of modafinil. ONO-4127Na perfused in the basal forebrain (BF) area potently promoted wakefulness in both wild type and narcoleptic mice, and the wake-promoting effects of ONO-4127Na at 2...
November 2016: Neuropharmacology
Flávio O Pires, Carlos A S Dos Anjos, Roberto J M Covolan, Fabiano A Pinheiro, Alan St Clair Gibson, Timothy D Noakes, Fernando H Magalhães, Carlos Ugrinowitsch
We investigated cerebral responses, simultaneously with peripheral and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) responses, during different VO2MAX-matched aerobic exercise modes. Nine cyclists (VO2MAX of 57.5 ± 6.2 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)) performed a maximal, controlled-pace incremental test (MIT) and a self-paced 4 km time trial (TT4km). Measures of cerebral (COX) and muscular (MOX) oxygenation were assessed throughout the exercises by changes in oxy- (O2Hb) and deoxy-hemoglobin (HHb) concentrations over the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and vastus lateralis (VL) muscle, respectively...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Darren F Hight, Logan J Voss, Paul S García, Jamie W Sleigh
During emergence from anesthesia patients regain their muscle tone (EMG). In a typical population of surgical patients the actual volatile gas anesthetic concentrations in the brain (CeMAC) at which EMG activation occurs remains unknown, as is whether EMG activation at higher CeMACs is correlated with subsequent severe pain, or with cortical activation. Electroencephalographic (EEG) and EMG activity was recorded from the forehead of 273 patients emerging from general anesthesia following surgery. We determined CeMAC at time of EMG activation and at return of consciousness...
July 21, 2016: Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing
Ana Castro, Fernando Gomes de Almeida, Pedro Amorim, Catarina S Nunes
The assessment of the adequacy of general anesthesia for surgery, namely the nociception/anti-nociception balance, has received wide attention from the scientific community. Monitoring systems based on the frontal EEG/EMG, or autonomic state reactions (e.g. heart rate and blood pressure) have been developed aiming to objectively assess this balance. In this study a new multivariate indicator of patients' steady-state during anesthesia (STAN) is proposed, based on wavelet analysis of signals linked to noxious activation...
July 13, 2016: Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing
Mehdi Sadeghi, Saeed Talebian, Gholam Reza Olyaei, Behrouz Attarbashi Moghadam
OBJECTIVE: Cortical reorganization is one of the most plausible mechanisms underlying impairment of anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) in low back pain (LBP) patients. In order to clarify changes in corticomotor neurophysiology, APAs were assessed by using electromyography (EMG) and electroencephalography (EEG). METHODS: An equal number (29) of nonspecific LBP patients and healthy subjects performed unilateral rapid arm movements in response to auditory imperative stimulus preceded by warning stimulus within 2 s interstimulus interval...
2016: SpringerPlus
Julia A Boytsova, Sergey G Danko, Svyatoslav V Medvedev
The main aim of the present study was to investigate effects of partial reductions of electromyogram (EMG) on high-frequency scalp electroencephalogram (EEG) at rest and during performance of certain cognitive tasks. Nineteen healthy women performed the same cognitive tasks before and after cosmetic injections of Dysport in certain sites of facial muscles. Scalp EEG and EMG were recorded. Impact of Dysport injections on changes of spectral power in β2 and low γ frequency ranges (18-40 Hz) in EEG and EMG derivations was investigated...
June 27, 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Anna Świerczyńska, Renata Kłusek, Marek Kaciński
The authors reviewed neurophysiological methods, which are used in the evaluation of children referred for neurorehabilitation. Rehabilitation techniques which may stimulate or provoke pathological changes in EEG must be ruled out. Electrophysiological and clinical improvement allow for the extension and intensification of rehabilitation. Normal EEG pattern ensures the safe use of techniques consisting of neuromuscular re-education or passive verticalisation, electrotherapy and thermotherapy. Quantitative and qualitative assessment of cognitive impairment is based on neuropsychological tests and endogenous evoked potentials (most often P300)...
2016: Przegla̧d Lekarski
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