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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910972/a-liver-microphysiological-system-of-tumor-cell-dormancy-and-inflammatory-responsiveness-is-affected-by-scaffold-properties
#1
A M Clark, S E Wheeler, C L Young, L Stockdale, J Shepard Neiman, W Zhao, D B Stolz, R Venkataramanan, D Lauffenburger, L Griffith, A Wells
Distant metastasis is the major cause of breast cancer-related mortality, commonly emerging clinically after 5 or more years of seeming 'cure' of the primary tumor, indicating a quiescent dormancy. The lack of relevant accessible model systems for metastasis that recreate this latent stage has hindered our understanding of the molecular basis and the development of therapies against these lethal outgrowths. We previously reported on the development of an all-human 3D ex vivo hepatic microphysiological system that reproduces several features of liver physiology and enables spontaneous dormancy in a subpopulation of breast cancer cells...
December 2, 2016: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896660/ayahuasca-exposure-descriptive-analysis-of-calls-to-us-poison-control-centers-from-2005-to-2015
#2
C William Heise, Daniel E Brooks
BACKGROUND: Ayahuasca is a hallucinogenic plant preparation which usually contains the vine Banisteriopsis caapi and the shrub Psychotria viridis. This tea originates from the Amazon Basin where it is used in religious ceremonies. Because interest in these religious groups spreading as well as awareness of use of ayahuasca for therapeutic and recreational purposes, its use is increasing. Banisteriopsis caapi is rich in β-carbolines, especially harmine, tetrahydroharmine and harmaline, which have monoamine oxidase inhibiting (MAOI) activity...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Medical Toxicology: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888525/breaking-sad-unleashing-the-breakthrough-potential-of-ketamine-s-rapid-antidepressant-effects
#3
David Feifel
Preclinical Research The surprising results of a small clinical trial on the effects of low dose ketamine, a 65-year old anesthetic drug that is also used off-label for chronic pain and recreationally as a club drug, in eight depressed subjects unleashed the most significant advance in antidepressant drug development in decades. That study and subsequent ones have demonstrated that low dose, infused ketamine is able to induce a remission of depression in patients who have failed conventional medications, within 24 h...
November 26, 2016: Drug Development Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884725/endocannabinoid-system-in-sexual-motivational-processes-is-it-a-novel-therapeutic-horizon
#4
REVIEW
Renata Androvicova, Jiri Horacek, Tibor Stark, Filippo Drago, Vincenzo Micale
The endocannabinoid system (ECS), which is composed of the cannabinoid receptors types 1 and 2 (CB1 and CB2) for marijuana's psychoactive ingredient Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC), the endogenous ligands (AEA and 2-AG) and the enzymatic systems involved in their biosynthesis and degradation, recently emerged as important modulator of emotional and non-emotional behaviors. For centuries, in addition to its recreational actions, several contradictory claims regarding the effects of Cannabis use in sexual functioning and behavior (e...
November 21, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880891/a-novel-3d-in%C3%A2-vitro-metastasis-model-elucidates-differential-invasive-strategies-during-and-after-breaching-basement-membrane
#5
Asja Guzman, Víctor Sánchez Alemany, Yen Nguyen, Catherine Ruiqi Zhang, Laura J Kaufman
Invasive breast cancer and other tumors of epithelial origin must breach a layer of basement membrane (BM) that surrounds the primary tumor before invading into the adjacent extracellular matrix. To analyze invasive strategies of breast cancer cells during BM breaching and subsequent invasion into a collagen I-rich extracellular matrix (ECM), we developed a physiologically relevant 3D in vitro model that recreates the architecture of a solid tumor with an intact, degradable, cell-assembled BM layer embedded in a collagen I environment...
November 15, 2016: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808005/how-do-patients-with-anorexia-nervosa-process-psychotherapy-between-sessions-a-comparison-of-cognitive-behavioral-and-psychodynamic-interventions
#6
A Zeeck, A Hartmann, B Wild, M De Zwaan, S Herpertz, M Burgmer, J Von Wietersheim, G Resmark, H-C Friederich, S Tagay, A Dinkel, B Loewe, M Teufel, D Orlinsky, W Herzog, S Zipfel
OBJECTIVE: Patients' processing of psychotherapy between sessions ("inter-session process" (ISP)) has been repeatedly shown to be related to outcome. The aim of this study was to compare ISP characteristics of cognitive-behavioral vs. psychodynamic psychotherapy in the treatment of anorexia nervosa (AN) and their relation to outcome. METHODS: Data of 106 patients participating in a randomized-controlled trial who received either 40 sessions of enhanced cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT-E) or focal psychodynamic therapy (FPT) were analyzed...
November 3, 2016: Psychotherapy Research: Journal of the Society for Psychotherapy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798285/endocannabinoid-system-and-pregnancy
#7
REVIEW
Fernando Correa, Manuel L Wolfson, Paula Valchi, Julieta Aisemberg, Ana María Franchi
The endocannabinoid system (eCS), is a complex system, comprising the main endogenous ligands anandamide and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol, the cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2 and the biosynthetic and degrading enzymes. Cumulative evidence shows that the eCS plays an important role in reproduction, from egg fertilization to parturition. Therefore, alterations in this system, either by recreation/therapeutic use of cannabis or deregulation of the endogenous cannabinoids, might lead to adverse pregnancy outcomes, including retardation in embryo development, poor blastocyst implantation, inhibition of decidualization, miscarriage and compromised placentation...
December 2016: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768894/crystal-structure-of-the-human-cannabinoid-receptor-cb1
#8
Tian Hua, Kiran Vemuri, Mengchen Pu, Lu Qu, Gye Won Han, Yiran Wu, Suwen Zhao, Wenqing Shui, Shanshan Li, Anisha Korde, Robert B Laprairie, Edward L Stahl, Jo-Hao Ho, Nikolai Zvonok, Han Zhou, Irina Kufareva, Beili Wu, Qiang Zhao, Michael A Hanson, Laura M Bohn, Alexandros Makriyannis, Raymond C Stevens, Zhi-Jie Liu
Cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) is the principal target of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), a psychoactive chemical from Cannabis sativa with a wide range of therapeutic applications and a long history of recreational use. CB1 is activated by endocannabinoids and is a promising therapeutic target for pain management, inflammation, obesity, and substance abuse disorders. Here, we present the 2.8 Å crystal structure of human CB1 in complex with AM6538, a stabilizing antagonist, synthesized and characterized for this structural study...
October 20, 2016: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27714429/alterations-of-consciousness-and-mystical-type-experiences-after-acute-lsd-in-humans
#9
Matthias E Liechti, Patrick C Dolder, Yasmin Schmid
RATIONALE: Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is used recreationally and in clinical research. Acute mystical-type experiences that are acutely induced by hallucinogens are thought to contribute to their potential therapeutic effects. However, no data have been reported on LSD-induced mystical experiences and their relationship to alterations of consciousness. Additionally, LSD dose- and concentration-response functions with regard to alterations of consciousness are lacking. METHODS: We conducted two placebo-controlled, double-blind, cross-over studies using oral administration of 100 and 200 μg LSD in 24 and 16 subjects, respectively...
October 7, 2016: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27683558/current-therapeutic-cannabis-controversies-and-clinical-trial-design-issues
#10
REVIEW
Ethan B Russo
This overview covers a wide range of cannabis topics, initially examining issues in dispensaries and self-administration, plus regulatory requirements for production of cannabis-based medicines, particularly the Food and Drug Administration "Botanical Guidance." The remainder pertains to various cannabis controversies that certainly require closer examination if the scientific, consumer, and governmental stakeholders are ever to reach consensus on safety issues, specifically: whether botanical cannabis displays herbal synergy of its components, pharmacokinetics of cannabis and dose titration, whether cannabis medicines produce cyclo-oxygenase inhibition, cannabis-drug interactions, and cytochrome P450 issues, whether cannabis randomized clinical trials are properly blinded, combatting the placebo effect in those trials via new approaches, the drug abuse liability (DAL) of cannabis-based medicines and their regulatory scheduling, their effects on cognitive function and psychiatric sequelae, immunological effects, cannabis and driving safety, youth usage, issues related to cannabis smoking and vaporization, cannabis concentrates and vape-pens, and laboratory analysis for contamination with bacteria and heavy metals...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27663806/gaming-as-a-therapeutic-tool-in-adolescence-experience-of-institutional-therapy-of-ctha-ucl-brussels-belgium
#11
Guillaume Descamps, Ann d'Alcantara
BACKGROUND: This work presents the experience of an Emancipatory action research led at the Therapeutic Center for Adolescents (CThA) at Saint Luc's Clinics (UCL). SUBJECT AND METHODS: This research focuses on the practice effects of "Pixels" and "Passerelle" workshops at CThA. It is about the use of video games as a therapeutic tool, mobilizing of the symptomatology of the teenager. RESULTS: "Pixels" workshops use playing according to three specific forms: the paper role-play game, the video game, and the cards playing game...
September 2016: Psychiatria Danubina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27649760/conservative-management-of-a-femoral-neck-stress-fracture-in-a-female-athlete-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#12
Ilias Katsougrakis, Alexandros P Apostolopoulos, Samantha Z Tross
UNLABELLED: Femoral-neck stress fractures are relatively rare and may present as sports-related injuries. The presentation is variable, and prompt diagnosis facilitates the earliest return to pre-morbid functional activity levels. Delayed detection may precipitate femoral non-union or avascular necrosis, resulting in long-term functional deficit. AIMS: We describe the clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic approach of a femoral-neck stress fracture that occurred in a 28-year-old female recreational runner...
2016: Journal of Long-term Effects of Medical Implants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27639448/seeing-through-the-smoke-human-and-animal-studies-of-cannabis-use-and-endocannabinoid-signalling-in-corticolimbic-networks
#13
Mason M Silveira, Jonathon C Arnold, Steven R Laviolette, Cecilia J Hillard, Marta Celorrio, María S Aymerich, Wendy K Adams
Public opinion surrounding the recreational use and therapeutic potential of cannabis is shifting. This review describes new work examining the behavioural and neural effects of cannabis and the endocannabinoid system, highlighting key regions within corticolimbic brain circuits. First, we consider the role of human genetic factors and cannabis strain chemotypic differences in contributing to interindividual variation in the response to cannabinoids, such as THC, and review studies demonstrating that THC-induced impairments in decision-making processes are mediated by actions at prefrontal CB1 receptors...
September 14, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27631743/leading-brand-advertisement-of-quitting-smoking-benefits-for-e-cigarettes
#14
Divya Ramamurthi, Phillip A Gall, Noel Ayoub, Robert K Jackler
OBJECTIVES: To provide regulators and the US Food and Drug Administration with a description of cessation-themed advertising among electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) brands. METHODS: We performed a content analysis of 6 months (January through June 2015) of advertising by e-cigarette brands on their company-sponsored social media channels and blogs as well as user-generated content (testimonials) appearing within brand-sponsored Web sites. An explicit claim of cessation efficacy unambiguously states that e-cigarettes help in quitting smoking, and implicit claims use euphemisms such as "It works...
November 2016: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27630566/preparation-and-distribution-of-cannabis-and-cannabis-derived-dosage-formulations-for-investigational-and-therapeutic-use-in-the-united-states
#15
Brian F Thomas, Gerald T Pollard
Cannabis is classified as a schedule I controlled substance by the US Drug Enforcement Agency, meaning that it has no medicinal value. Production is legally restricted to a single supplier at the University of Mississippi, and distribution to researchers is tightly controlled. However, a majority of the population is estimated to believe that cannabis has legitimate medical or recreational value, numerous states have legalized or decriminalized possession to some degree, and the federal government does not strictly enforce its law and is considering rescheduling...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27618739/don-t-worry-be-happy-endocannabinoids-and-cannabis-at-the-intersection-of-stress-and-reward
#16
Nora D Volkow, Aidan J Hampson, Ruben Baler
Cannabis enables and enhances the subjective sense of well-being by stimulating the endocannabinoid system (ECS), which plays a key role in modulating the response to stress, reward, and their interactions. However, over time, repeated activation of the ECS by cannabis can trigger neuroadaptations that may impair the sensitivity to stress and reward. This effect, in vulnerable individuals, can lead to addiction and other adverse consequences. The recent shift toward legalization of medical or recreational cannabis has renewed interest in investigating the physiological role of the ECS as well as the potential health effects, both adverse and beneficial, of cannabis...
September 2, 2016: Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27614671/impact-of-olecranon-fracture-malunion-study-on-the-importance-of-puda-proximal-ulna-dorsal-angulation
#17
Julien Chapleau, Frédéric Balg, Edward J Harvey, Jérémie Ménard, Frédéric Vauclair, G-Yves Laflamme, Jonah Hebert-Davies, Dominique M Rouleau
PURPOSE: The Proximal Ulna Dorsal Angulation (PUDA) is part of the proximal ulna's normal anatomy. The importance of restoring ulnar anatomy characteristics precisely after olecranon fracture is not known, however, failure to recreate the PUDA after surgery may result in poorer functional outcomes. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of minimal proximal ulna malunion on elbow ROM and function at least one year after olecranon ORIF. METHOD: A retrospective comparative cohort study took place in three level-1 trauma centers...
August 30, 2016: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27610482/assessing-the-experience-of-social-support-for-parents-who-attended-camp-trillium-s-pediatric-oncology-family-program
#18
Sarah Körver, April Kinghorn, Joel Negin, Marci Shea-Perry, Alexandra L C Martiniuk
OBJECTIVE: When a child is diagnosed with cancer, the entire family is affected by the demands of the illness and its treatment. This study aimed to provide a more nuanced understanding of the experience of parents of children with cancer when participating in therapeutic recreation programs (such as summer camp), and address the specific knowledge gap of the role that camp may play in providing social support for these families. In particular this study aimed to enroll mothers and fathers as the voice of fathers have previously been missing in research about cancer camps...
September 9, 2016: Journal of Psychosocial Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27604733/experimental-models-combining-tbi-hemorrhagic-shock-and-hypoxemia
#19
Lai Yee Leung, Ying Deng-Bryant, Deborah Shear, Frank Tortella
Animal models of traumatic brain injury (TBI) provide important tools for studying the pathobiology of brain trauma and for evaluating therapeutic or diagnostic targets. Incorporation of additional insults such as hemorrhagic shock (HS) and/or hypoxemia (HX) into these models more closely recreates clinical scenarios as TBI often occurs in conjunction with these systemic insults (i.e., polytrauma). We have developed a rat model of polytrauma that combines penetrating TBI, HS and HX. Following brain trauma, HX was induced by reducing the inspired oxygen while HS was induced by withdrawing blood to lower the mean arterial pressure...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27590036/analysis-of-novel-synthetic-opioids-u-47700-u-50488-and-furanyl-fentanyl-by-lc-ms-ms-in-postmortem-casework
#20
Amanda L A Mohr, Melissa Friscia, Donna Papsun, Sherri L Kacinko, David Buzby, Barry K Logan
Following series of synthetic cannabinoid and synthetic cathinone derivatives, the illicit drug market has begun to see increased incidence of synthetic opioids including fentanyl and its derivatives, and other chemically unrelated opioid agonists including AH-7921 and MT-45. Among the most frequently encountered compounds in postmortem casework have been furanyl fentanyl (N-(1-(2-phenylethyl)-4-piperidinyl)-N-phenylfuran-2-carboxamide, Fu-F) and U-47700 (trans-3,4-dichloro-N-(2-(dimethylamino)cyclohexyl)-N-methylbenzamide)...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
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