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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058284/glycemic-index-glycemic-load-and-glycemic-response-to-pomelo-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#1
Shi-Ying Shao, Wei-Jie Xu, Jing Tao, Jian-Hua Zhang, Xin-Rong Zhou, Gang Yuan, Yan Yang, Jing Zhang, Hong-Yan Zhang, Qiang Xu, Xiu-Xin Deng, Shu-Hong Hu, Mu-Xun Zhang, Zhe-Long Liu, Xue-Feng Yu
Food intake has a great influence on blood glucose in patients with diabetes. This study was to determine the glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) of a particular pomelo named Majia pomelo and its effects on postprandial glucose (PPG) in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Twenty healthy subjects and 20 T2D patients (controlled on lifestyle measures and/or metformin) were tested on 2 separate days with 50 g of glucose and 50 g equivalent of carbohydrates from Majia pomelo for GI measurement. To test effects of Majia pomelo on PPG, 19 hospitalized T2D patients (controlled on insulin therapy) were selected for a 9-day study...
October 2017: Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058235/risk-of-metformin-associated-lactic-acidosis-mala-in-patients-after-gastric-bypass-surgery
#2
Laura N Deden, Edo O Aarts, Stephanie C W Aelfers, Marcel M G J van Borren, Ignace M C Janssen, Frits J Berends, Hans de Boer
BACKGROUND: Pharmacokinetic data suggest that the risk of metformin-associated lactic acidosis (MALA) may be increased after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of metformin on plasma lactate levels before and after RYGB surgery. METHODS: Retrospective study of plasma lactate levels before and 3 months after RYGB surgery in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) not using metformin (MET-0, N = 58), on a stable dose (MET-S, N = 138), or on a decreasing dose (MET-D, N = 85) of metformin...
October 23, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057561/pre-clinical-results-in-pig-to-non-human-primate-islet-xenotransplantation-using-anti-cd40-antibody-2c10r4-based-immunosuppression
#3
Jun-Seop Shin, Jong-Min Kim, Byoung-Hoon Min, Il Hee Yoon, Hyun Je Kim, Jung-Sik Kim, Yong-Hee Kim, Seong-Jun Kang, Jiyeon Kim, Hee-Jung Kang, Dong-Gyun Lim, Eung-Soo Hwang, Jongwon Ha, Sang-Joon Kim, Wan Beom Park, Chung-Gyu Park
BACKGROUND: Islet transplantation is an effective therapy for selected patients with type 1 diabetes with labile glycemic control and hypoglycemic unawareness, but donor organs are limited. Islet xenotransplantation using porcine islets will potentially solve this problem. Although successful proof of concept studies using clinically inapplicable anti-CD154 monoclonal antibody (mAb) in pig-to-non-human primate (NHP) islet xenotransplantation has been demonstrated by several groups worldwide, potentially clinically applicable anti-CD40 (2C10R4) mAb-based studies have not been reported...
October 22, 2017: Xenotransplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057545/modelling-incremental-benefits-on-complications-rates-when-targeting-lower-hba1c-levels-in-people-with-type-2-diabetes-and-cardiovascular-disease
#4
S A Mostafa, R L Coleman, O F Agbaje, A M Gray, R R Holman, M A Bethel
AIM: Glucose-lowering interventions in Type 2 diabetes mellitus have demonstrated reductions in microvascular complications and modest reductions in macrovascular complications. However, the degree to which targeting different HbA1c reductions might reduce risk is unclear. METHODS: Participant-level data for Trial Evaluating Cardiovascular Outcomes with Sitagliptin (TECOS) participants with established cardiovascular disease were used in a Type 2 diabetes-specific simulation model to quantify the likely impact of different HbA1c decrements on complication rates...
October 23, 2017: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057052/new-scaffold-for-angiogenesis-inhibitors-discovered-by-targeted-chemical-transformations-of-wondonin-natural-products
#5
Shuai Yu, Jedo Oh, Feng Li, Yongseok Kwon, Hyunkyung Cho, Jongheon Shin, Sang Kook Lee, Sanghee Kim
The structure of wondonin marine natural products was renovated to attain new drug-like scaffolds. Wondonins have novel antiangiogenic properties without overt cytotoxicity. However, the chemical instability and synthetic complexity of wondonins have hindered their development as a new type of antiangiogenesis agent. Using a structure-based bioisosterism, the benzodioxole moiety was changed to benzothiazole, and the imidazole moiety was replaced by 1,2,3-triazole. Our efforts resulted in a new scaffold with enhanced antiangiogenic activity and minimized cytotoxicity...
October 12, 2017: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056888/effect-of-garlic-supplement-in-the-management-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-t2dm-a-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#6
Juan Wang, Xiuming Zhang, Haili Lan, Weijia Wang
The present study was designed to systematically evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of garlic supplement in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, and China National Knowledge Internet (CNKI) were searched for relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) by using the terms garlic and T2DM up to April 2017. The quality of included RCTs was assessed by the Cochrane tool of risk of bias, and data of outcomes were pooled by REVMAN 5.3. Clinical factors were handled by meta-regression and subgroup analysis, and risk of publication bias was explored by inverted funnel plots...
2017: Food & Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056852/analysis-of-safety-related-regulatory-actions-for-new-drugs-in-japan-by-nature-of-identified-risks
#7
Makoto Fujikawa, Shunsuke Ono
BACKGROUND: Mechanisms underlying safety events may be heterogeneous and depend on conditions of development and marketing, including the populations studied in clinical trials and the amount of data required for approval, especially under pathways for accelerated access. OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to investigate possible factors affecting the first post-marketing safety-related regulatory actions (SRRAs) after launch of new drugs in Japan. METHODS: We studied 338 new molecular entities (NMEs) approved in Japan between 2004 and 2014...
2017: Pharmaceutical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056257/eating-behaviours-and-prevalence-of-gastroesophageal-reflux-disease-in-japanese-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-the-dogo-study
#8
Eiji Takeshita, Shinya Furukawa, Takenori Sakai, Tetsuji Niiya, Hiroaki Miyaoka, Teruki Miyake, Shin Yamamoto, Hidenori Senba, Yasunori Yamamoto, Eiji Arimitsu, Sen Yagi, Hiroki Utsunomiya, Keiko Tanaka, Yoshio Ikeda, Bunzo Matsuura, Yoshihiro Miyake, Yoichi Hiasa
OBJECTIVES: In the general population, late-night dinner is positively associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). No evidence exists regarding the relationship between eating behaviours and GERD in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, though the prevalence of GERD in patients with type 2 diabetes is higher than in those without diabetes. We conducted this study to investigate the association between eating behaviours and GERD in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: The study's subjects were 817 Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes...
October 19, 2017: Canadian Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056082/relationship-of-glucose-variability-with-glycated-hemoglobin-and-daily-mean-glucose-a-post-hoc-analysis-of-data-from-5-phase-3-studies
#9
Junxiang Luo, Yongming Qu, Qianyi Zhang, Annette M Chang, Scott J Jacober
BACKGROUND: The association of glucose variability (GV) with other glycemic measures is emerging as a topic of interest. The aim of this analysis is to study the correlation between GV and measures of glycemic control, such as glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and daily mean glucose (DMG). METHODS: Data from 5 phase 3 trials were pooled into 3 analysis groups: type 2 diabetes (T2D) treated with basal insulin only, T2D treated with basal-bolus therapy, and type 1 diabetes (T1D)...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055500/long-term-systemic-corticosteroid-exposure-a-systematic-literature-review
#10
REVIEW
J Bradford Rice, Alan G White, Lauren M Scarpati, George Wan, Winnie W Nelson
PURPOSE: While corticosteroids are relatively inexpensive and commonly used as treatment for a variety of conditions, long-term use is known to be associated with certain toxicities. Prior systematic reviews have revealed an increased risk for costly adverse events (AEs), including bone fracture, infection, and gastrointestinal bleeding. The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic literature review of recent publications on the burden of long-term corticosteroid exposure, specifically, to summarize the AEs and economic impact of long-term corticosteroid use and to reveal data gaps for additional research...
October 18, 2017: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055156/type-2-diabetes-remission-2-years-post-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass-and-sleeve-gastrectomy-the-role-of-the-weight-loss-and-comparison-of-diarem-and-diabetter-scores
#11
A Pucci, U Tymoszuk, W H Cheung, J M Makaronidis, S Scholes, G Tharakan, M Elkalaawy, M Guimaraes, M Nora, M Hashemi, A Jenkinson, M Adamo, M Monteiro, N Finer, R L Batterham
AIMS: The comparative efficacy of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and sleeve gastrectomy on Type 2 diabetes remission and the role of weight loss are unclear. The DiaRem Type 2 diabetes remission prediction score uses HbA1c , age and Type 2 diabetes medications but not Type 2 diabetes duration. The aim of this study was to compare the predictive value of the DiaRem score with the DiaBetter score that includes Type 2 diabetes duration, upon combined (complete plus partial) 2-year post-surgery Type 2 diabetes remission in people following RYGB and sleeve gastrectomy, and to investigate the relationship between weight loss and Type 2 diabetes remission...
October 21, 2017: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054482/the-effectiveness-of-an-obstructive-sleep-apnea-screening-and-treatment-program-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#12
Lucas M Donovan, Michael Rueschman, Jia Weng, Nisha Basu, Katherine A Dudley, Jessie P Bakker, Rui Wang, Suzanne M Bertisch, Sanjay R Patel
AIMS: As recommended by current guidelines, we tested the acceptability and impact of screening patients with type 2 diabetes for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). METHODS: In a large urban primary care practice, we instituted a telephone-based OSA screening program using a validated tool (STOP-BANG) in patients with type 2 diabetes. Patients identified as high risk were referred for diagnostic sleep testing, and those diagnosed with OSA were offered positive airway pressure (PAP) therapy...
October 17, 2017: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053861/physical-function-following-a-long-term-lifestyle-intervention-among-middle-aged-and-older-adults-with-type-2-diabetes-the-look-ahead-study
#13
Denise K Houston, Rebecca H Neiberg, Michael E Miller, James O Hill, John M Jakicic, Karen C Johnson, Edward W Gregg, Van S Hubbard, Xavier Pi-Sunyer, W Jack Rejeski, Rena R Wing, John P Bantle, Elizabeth Beale, Robert I Berkowitz, Maria Cassidy-Begay, Jeanne M Clark, Mace Coday, Linda M Delahanty, Gareth Dutton, Caitlin Egan, John P Foreyt, Frank L Greenway, Helen P Hazuda, Andrea Hergenroeder, Edward S Horton, Robert W Jeffery, Steven E Kahn, Anne Kure, William C Knowler, Cora E Lewis, Corby K Martin, Sara Michaels, Maria G Montez, David M Nathan, Jennifer Patricio, Anne Peters, Henry Pownall, Judith Regensteiner, Helmut Steinburg, Thomas A Wadden, Karen White, Susan Z Yanovski, Ping Zhang, Stephen B Kritchevsky
Background: Lifestyle interventions have been shown to improve physical function over the short term; however, whether these benefits are sustainable is unknown. The long-term effects of an intensive lifestyle intervention on physical function were assessed using a randomized post-test design in the Look AHEAD trial. Methods: Overweight and obese (BMI ≥25 kg/m 2) middle-aged and older adults (aged 45-76 years at enrollment) with type 2 diabetes enrolled in Look AHEAD, a trial evaluating an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) designed to achieve weight loss through caloric restriction and increased physical activity compared to diabetes support and education (DSE), underwent standardized assessments of performance-based physical function including a 4- and 400-m walk, lower extremity physical performance (expanded Short Physical Performance Battery, SPPBexp), and grip strength approximately 11 years post-randomization and 1...
October 19, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053202/treatment-satisfaction-with-itca-650-a-novel-drug-device-delivering-continuous-exenatide-versus-twice-daily-injections-of-exenatide-in-type-2-diabetics-on-metformin
#14
Robert Henry, Julio Rosenstock, John F McCarthy, Ginger Carls, Tom Alessi, John Yee, Michelle Baron
AIMS: To evaluate treatment satisfaction in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D), not adequately controlled by metformin, randomized to ITCA 650 (continuous exenatide in osmotic mini-pump) versus twice-daily exenatide injections (Ex-BID). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Diabetes Medication Satisfaction Tool (DM-SAT) was administered and assessments made at baseline, week 8, and week 20 in a 24 week open-label phase 2 trial. In Stage I (weeks 1-12), 155 patients, comprising the ITT population, were randomized to three groups: ITCA 650 20 μg/day, ITCA 650 40 μg/day and Ex-BID 10 μg BID...
October 20, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052687/association-between-early-life-antibiotic-use-and-the-risk-of-islet-or-celiac-disease-autoimmunity
#15
Kaisa M Kemppainen, Kendra Vehik, Kristian F Lynch, Helena Elding Larsson, Ronald J Canepa, Ville Simell, Sibylle Koletzko, Edwin Liu, Olli G Simell, Jorma Toppari, Anette G Ziegler, Marian J Rewers, Åke Lernmark, William A Hagopian, Jin-Xiong She, Beena Akolkar, Desmond A Schatz, Mark A Atkinson, Martin J Blaser, Jeffrey P Krischer, Heikki Hyöty, Daniel Agardh, Eric W Triplett
Importance: Evidence is lacking regarding the consequences of antibiotic use in early life and the risk of certain autoimmune diseases. Objective: To test the association between early-life antibiotic use and islet or celiac disease (CD) autoimmunity in genetically at-risk children prospectively followed up for type 1 diabetes (T1D) or CD. Design, Setting, and Participants: HLA-genotyped newborns from Finland, Germany, Sweden, and the United States were enrolled in the prospective birth cohort of The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY) study between November 20, 2004, and July 8, 2010...
October 9, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051569/the-additive-effects-of-atorvastatin-and-insulin-on-renal-function-and-renal-organic-anion-transporter-3-function-in-diabetic-rats
#16
Laongdao Thongnak, Anchalee Pongchaidecha, Krit Jaikumkao, Varanuj Chatsudthipong, Nipon Chattipakorn, Anusorn Lungkaphin
Hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress is usually found in diabetic condition. 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme-A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors, statins, are widely used as cholesterol-lowering medication with several "pleiotropic" effects in diabetic patients. This study aims to evaluate whether the protective effects of atorvastatin and insulin on renal function and renal organic anion transporter 3 (Oat3) function involve the modulation of oxidative stress and pancreatic function in type 1 diabetic rats...
October 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051035/stability-of-proinsulin-in-whole-blood
#17
Dominic J Bright, Gareth J Dunseath, Rajesh Peter, Stephen Luzio
Proinsulin, the precursor for insulin, is secreted in higher concentrations when β-cells are under stress and previous studies have shown that elevated proinsulin could be used as a marker for individuals in a pre-diabetic state. The aim of this study was to assess the stability of proinsulin across a wide concentration range (3-882 and 2-187pmol/L; total and intact proinsulin respectively) in whole blood to determine whether it could be used in routine clinical care. 51 subjects (26 normal glucose tolerance, 17 impaired glucose tolerance and 8 type 2 diabetes) had blood taken into EDTA tubes at 0, 60 & 120min following a glucose load...
October 16, 2017: Clinical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051014/furan-fatty-acids-beneficial-or-harmful-to-health
#18
REVIEW
Long Xu, Andrew J Sinclair, Muniba Faiza, Daoming Li, Xianlin Han, Huiyong Yin, Yonghua Wang
Furan fatty acids are found in plants, algae, and fish, and reported to have some positive health benefits, including anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, and inhibition of non-enzymatic lipid peroxidation. A major metabolite of furan fatty acids, 3-carboxy-4-methyl-5-propyl-2-furanpropanoic acid (CMPF), has been reported to be increased in patients who progress from prediabetes to type 2 diabetes, although CMPF is not necessarily associated with impaired glucose metabolism. Other studies report that CMPF levels are lower in subjects with diabetes than control subjects...
October 16, 2017: Progress in Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050941/mahanine-enhances-the-glucose-lowering-mechanisms-in-skeletal-muscle-and-adipocyte-cells
#19
Nattakarn Nooron, Anan Athipornchai, Apichart Suksamrarn, Anchalee Chiabchalard
Insulin resistance is a major defect underlying type 2 diabetes development. Skeletal muscle tissue and adipocyte tissue are the major sites of postprandial glucose disposal, and enhancing glucose uptake into this tissue may decrease insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes patients. Mahanine (3,11-dihydro-3,5-dimethyl-3-(4-methyl-3-pentenyl)pyrano[3,2-a]carbazol-9-ol) has been reported to be a major bioactive carbazole alkaloid that has many biological activities including antitumor, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-diabetic activities...
October 16, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050650/glycaemic-response-after-intake-of-a-high-energy-high-protein-diabetes-specific-formula-in-older-malnourished-or-at-risk-of-malnutrition-type-2-diabetes-patients
#20
Hamid Laksir, Mirian Lansink, Sophie C Regueme, Johan de Vogel-van den Bosch, Andreas F H Pfeiffer, Isabelle Bourdel-Marchasson
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Several studies with diabetes-specific formulas (DSFs) for hyperglycaemic patients in need of nutritional support have been conducted in non-malnourished patients, mainly comparing products with varying macronutrient compositions. Here, the effect of a high energy, high protein DSF on postprandial responses was compared to a product with a similar macronutrient composition in malnourished or at risk of malnutrition patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: In this randomised, double-blind cross-over study, 20 patients were included...
October 6, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
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