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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407743/new-drugs-new-toxicities-severe-side-effects-of-modern-targeted-and-immunotherapy-of-cancer-and-their-management
#1
REVIEW
Frank Kroschinsky, Friedrich Stölzel, Simone von Bonin, Gernot Beutel, Matthias Kochanek, Michael Kiehl, Peter Schellongowski
Pharmacological and cellular treatment of cancer is changing dramatically with benefits for patient outcome and comfort, but also with new toxicity profiles. The majority of adverse events can be classified as mild or moderate, but severe and life-threatening complications requiring ICU admission also occur. This review will focus on pathophysiology, symptoms, and management of these events based on the available literature.While standard antineoplastic therapy is associated with immunosuppression and infections, some of the recent approaches induce overwhelming inflammation and autoimmunity...
April 14, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396258/dlk-silencing-attenuated-neuron-apoptosis-through-jip3-ma2k7-jnk-pathway-in-early-brain-injury-after-sah-in-rats
#2
Cheng Yin, Guang-Fu Huang, Xiao-Chuan Sun, Zongduo Guo, John H Zhang
OBJECTIVE: Dual leucine zipper kinase (DLK/MA3K12) has been reported involved in apoptosis and neuronal degeneration during neural development and traumatic brain injury. This study was designed to investigate the role of DLK with its adaptor protein JNK interacting protein-3 (JIP3), and its downstream MA2K7/JNK signaling pathway in early brain injury (EBI) after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in a rat model. DESIGN: Controlled in vivo laboratory study. SETTING: Animal research laboratory...
April 8, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389868/remodelling-of-lace-plant-leaves-antioxidants-and-ros-are-key-regulators-of-programmed-cell-death
#3
Adrian N Dauphinee, Jacob I Fletcher, Georgia L Denbigh, Christian R Lacroix, Arunika H L A N Gunawardena
Antioxidants and reactive oxygen species are integral for programmed cell death signaling during perforation formation in the lace plant ( Aponogeton madagascariensis ). The lace plant is an excellent model system for studying developmentally regulated programmed cell death (PCD). During early lace plant leaf development, PCD systematically deletes cells resulting in a perforated leaf morphology that is unique in planta. A distinct feature in young lace plant leaves is an abundance of anthocyanins, which have antioxidant properties...
April 7, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381988/increased-excitatory-synaptic-transmission-of-dentate-granule-neurons-in-mice-lacking-psd-95-interacting-adhesion-molecule-neph2-kirrel3-during-the-early-postnatal-period
#4
Junyeop D Roh, Su-Yeon Choi, Yi Sul Cho, Tae-Yong Choi, Jong-Sil Park, Tyler Cutforth, Woosuk Chung, Hanwool Park, Dongsoo Lee, Myeong-Heui Kim, Yeunkum Lee, Seojung Mo, Jeong-Seop Rhee, Hyun Kim, Jaewon Ko, Se-Young Choi, Yong Chul Bae, Kang Shen, Eunjoon Kim, Kihoon Han
Copy number variants and point mutations of NEPH2 (also called KIRREL3) gene encoding an immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily adhesion molecule have been linked to autism spectrum disorders, intellectual disability and neurocognitive delay associated with Jacobsen syndrome, but the physiological roles of Neph2 in the mammalian brain remain largely unknown. Neph2 is highly expressed in the dentate granule (DG) neurons of the hippocampus and is localized in both dendrites and axons. It was recently shown that Neph2 is required for the formation of mossy fiber filopodia, the axon terminal structure of DG neurons forming synapses with GABAergic neurons of CA3...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380662/involvement-of-intracellular-zn-2-signaling-in-ltp-at-perforant-pathway-ca1-pyramidal-cell-synapse
#5
Haruna Tamano, Ryusuke Nishio, Atsushi Takeda
Physiological significance of synaptic Zn(2+) signaling was examined at perforant pathway-CA1 pyramidal cell synapses. In vivo long-term potentiation (LTP) at perforant pathway-CA1 pyramidal cell synapses was induced using a recording electrode attached to a microdialysis probe and the recording region was locally perfused with artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF) via the microdialysis probe. Perforant pathway LTP was not attenuated under perfusion with CaEDTA (10 mM), an extracellular Zn(2+) chelator, but attenuated under perfusion with ZnAF-2DA (50 μM), an intracellular Zn(2+) chelator, suggesting that intracellular Zn(2+) signaling is required for perforant pathway LTP...
April 5, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359679/activation-of-wnt-signaling-increases-numbers-of-enteric-neurons-derived-from-neonatal-mouse-and-human-progenitors-cells
#6
Ying Zhang, Karin Seid, Florian Obermayr, Lothar Just, Peter H Neckel
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Neural stem and progenitor cells from the enteric nervous system (ENS) might serve as a source of cells for treatment of neurogastrointestinal disorders. Before we can use these cells, we must increase our understanding of the signaling mechanisms that regulate proliferation and differentiation. We systematically evaluated the effects of canonical Wnt signaling on proliferation and differentiation of cultured ENS progenitor cells from neonatal mice and humans. METHODS: We isolated ENS progenitors from tunica muscularis of the small intestine of new-born (P0) wild-type C57BL/6 mice as well as from Wnt1-Cre2 reporter mice...
March 27, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350198/subarachnoid-hemorrhage-induced-block-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-flow-role-of-brain-coagulation-factor-iii-tissue-factor
#7
Eugene V Golanov, Evgeniy I Bovshik, Kelvin K Wong, Robia G Pautler, Chase H Foster, Richard G Federley, Jonathan Y Zhang, James Mancuso, Stephen Tc Wong, Gavin W Britz
Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in 95% of cases results in long-term disabilities due to brain damage, pathogenesis of which remains uncertain. Hindrance of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) circulation along glymphatic pathways is a possible mechanism interrupting drainage of damaging substances from subarachnoid space and parenchyma. We explored changes in CSF circulation at different time following SAH and possible role of brain tissue factor (TF). Fluorescent solute and fluorescent microspheres injected into cisterna magna were used to track CSF flow in mice...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347836/intranasal-administration-of-recombinant-netrin-1-attenuates-neuronal-apoptosis-by-activating-dcc-appl-1-akt-signaling-pathway-after-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-in-rats
#8
Zongyi Xie, Lei Huang, Budbazar Enkhjargal, Cesar Reis, Weifeng Wan, Jiping Tang, Yuan Cheng, John H Zhang
Neuronal apoptosis is a crucial pathological process in early brain injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The effective therapeutic strategies to ameliorate neuronal apoptosis are still absent. We intended to determine whether intranasal administration of exogenous Netrin-1 (NTN-1) could attenuate neuronal apoptosis after experimental SAH, specifically via activating DCC-dependent APPL-1/AKT signaling cascade. Two hundred twenty-five male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to the endovascular perforation model of SAH...
March 24, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325299/potent-anti-seizure-effects-of-locked-nucleic-acid-antagomirs-targeting-mir-134-in-multiple-mouse-and-rat-models-of-epilepsy
#9
Cristina R Reschke, Luiz F Almeida Silva, Braxton A Norwood, Ketharini Senthilkumar, Gareth Morris, Amaya Sanz-Rodriguez, Ronán M Conroy, Lara Costard, Valentin Neubert, Sebastian Bauer, Michael A Farrell, Donncha F O'Brien, Norman Delanty, Stephanie Schorge, R Jeroen Pasterkamp, Felix Rosenow, David C Henshall
Current anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) act on a limited set of neuronal targets, are ineffective in a third of patients with epilepsy, and do not show disease-modifying properties. MicroRNAs are small noncoding RNAs that regulate levels of proteins by post-transcriptional control of mRNA stability and translation. MicroRNA-134 is involved in controlling neuronal microstructure and brain excitability and previous studies showed that intracerebroventricular injections of locked nucleic acid (LNA), cholesterol-tagged antagomirs targeting microRNA-134 (Ant-134) reduced evoked and spontaneous seizures in mouse models of status epilepticus...
March 17, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320185/the-antiepileptogenic-effect-of-low-frequency-stimulation-on-perforant-path-kindling-involves-changes-in-regulators-of-g-protein-signaling-in-rat
#10
Simin Namvar, Yaghoub Fathollahi, Mohammad Javan, Maryam Zeraati, Mohammad Mohammad-Zadeh, Amir Shojaei, Javad Mirnajafi-Zadeh
G-protein coupled receptors may have a role in mediating the antiepileptogenic effect of low-frequency stimulation (LFS) on kindling acquisition. This effect is accompanied by changes at the intracellular level of cAMP. In the present study, the effect of rolipram as a phosphodiesterase inhibitor on the antiepileptogenic effect of LFS was investigated. Meanwhile, the expression of αs- and αi-subunit of G proteins and regulators of G-protein signaling (RGS) proteins following LFS application was measured. Male Wistar rats were kindled by perforant path stimulation in a semi-rapid kindling manner (12 stimulations per day) during a period of 6days...
April 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303554/imaging-of-the-oesophagus-beyond-cancer
#11
REVIEW
Thomas Marini, Amit Desai, Katherine Kaproth-Joslin, John Wandtke, Susan K Hobbs
Non-malignant oesophageal diseases are critical to recognize, but can be easily overlooked or misdiagnosed radiologically. In this paper, we cover the salient clinical features and imaging findings of non-malignant pathology of the oesophagus. We organize the many non-malignant diseases of the oesophagus into two major categories: luminal disorders and wall disorders. Luminal disorders include dilatation/narrowing (e.g. achalasia, scleroderma, and stricture) and foreign body impaction. Wall disorders include wall thickening (e...
March 17, 2017: Insights Into Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297771/-advances-in-basic-and-clinical-research-on-liver-cirrhosis-in-2016
#12
C Gu, M Y Song, W J Sun, X Y Xu, C Q Yang, D F Chen
Esophageal and gastric varices are common complications of liver cirrhosis and are seen in 50% of patients with liver cirrhosis. The annual incidence rate of esophagogastric variceal bleeding is 5%-15%, and even if the recommended treatment is used, the 6-week mortality rate is still as high as 15%-20%. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is a common complication of end-stage liver disease and has an incidence rate of 10%-30% in patients with severe liver damage. SBP refers to the bacterial infection of the peritoneum and/or ascites that occurs in the absence of any inflammation in adjacent tissues (e...
January 20, 2017: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292569/indocyanine-green-applications-in-plastic-surgery-a-review-of-the-literature
#13
Pierre Burnier, Jérémy Niddam, Romain Bosc, Barbara Hersant, Jean-Paul Meningaud
INTRODUCTION: Use of indocyanine green (ICG) near-infrared fluorescence as a dye to assess tissue vascularization is now well standardized. The aim of this literature review was to review and resume the most recent recommendations for ICG use in its plastic surgery applications. METHODS: A systematic literature review was performed using Medline, EMBASE, and PubMed databases to obtain the latest recommendations for ICG in plastic surgery. Inclusion criteria were all articles written in English language that evaluated pre-, intra-, or postoperative ICG applications in surgical procedures usually performed by plastic surgeons...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery: JPRAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273524/altered-bone-microarchitecture-and-gene-expression-profile-due-to-calcium-deficiency-in-a-mouse-model-of-myeloma
#14
Hélène Libouban, Daniel Chappard
It is not clear why patients with an indolent form of multiple myeloma (MM) develop into an aggressive form with poor prognostic. We investigated the effect of a dietary calcium deficiency on tumor growth, osteolysis and gene expression in the 5T2MM murine model. Two groups of C57BL/KaLwRij mice received 5T2MM cells and started a diet with normal (0.8%; "normal-Ca-MM") or low calcium content (0.05%; "low-Ca-MM"). Two control groups (without 5T2MM cells) received either a normal or low calcium diet (normal-Ca and low-Ca groups)...
May 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259782/late-effect-of-dopamine-d1-5-receptor-activation-on-stimulus-induced-bold-responses-in-the-hippocampus-and-its-target-regions-depends-on-the-history-of-previous-stimulations
#15
Cornelia Helbing, Wolfgang Tischmeyer, Frank Angenstein
fMRI was used to study late effects of dopamine D1/5 receptor activation on hippocampal signal processing and signal propagation to several target regions. The dopamine D1/5 receptor agonists SKF83959 and SKF38393 were intraperitoneally applied without, immediately before or 7 days after electrical stimulation of the right perforant pathway with bursts of high-frequency pulses. Control animals received a 0.9% NaCl solution. One day after D1/5 receptor activation, the perforant pathway was stimulated and the induced BOLD responses in the right hippocampus and its target regions, left hippocampus (l-HC) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), were measured...
March 1, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252463/colorectal-cancer-diagnosed-during-pregnancy-systematic-review-and-treatment-pathways
#16
Gianluca Pellino, Constantinos Simillis, Christos Kontovounisios, Daniel L Baird, Stella Nikolaou, Oliver Warren, Paris P Tekkis, Shahnawaz Rasheed
The aim of this study was to identify the mode of presentation and incidence of colorectal cancer in pregnancy (CRC-p), assess the outcomes of the mother and foetus according to gestational age, treatment delivered and cancer features and location. A systematic review of the literature was carried out to identify studies reporting on CRC-p and pooled analysis of the reported data. Seventy-nine papers reporting on 119 patients with unequivocal CRC-p were included. The calculated pooled risk is 0.002% and age at diagnosis has decreased over time...
March 1, 2017: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248727/interleukin-il-1-4-6-7-8-10-appearance-in-congenital-intra-abdominal-adhesions-in-children-under-1-year-of-age
#17
Anna Junga, Māra Pilmane, Zane Ābola, Olafs Volrāts
Several cytokines have been studied for their potential role in adhesion formation. Regulatory role between the cytokine pathways has not yet to be defined. This study was designed to investigate the relation between proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines in congenital intra-abdominal adhesions. Tissue samples used for research were obtained from abdominal surgery due to obstructive gut malrotation and several additional pathologies (rectal atresia without perforation, omphalocele). All tissue specimens were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and by immunohistochemistry for interleukin-1 (IL-1), IL-4, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, and IL-10...
February 28, 2017: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242775/role-of-periostin-in-early-brain-injury-after-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-in-mice
#18
Lei Liu, Fumihiro Kawakita, Masashi Fujimoto, Fumi Nakano, Kyoko Imanaka-Yoshida, Toshimichi Yoshida, Hidenori Suzuki
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: A matricellular protein tenascin-C is implicated in early brain injury after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). This study first evaluated the role of another matricellular protein periostin and the relationships with tenascin-C in post-SAH early brain injury. METHODS: Wild-type (n=226) and tenascin-C knockout (n=9) C57BL/6 male adult mice underwent sham or filament perforation SAH modeling. Vehicle, anti-periostin antibody, or recombinant periostin was randomly administrated by an intracerebroventricular injection at 30 minutes post-modeling...
February 27, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236213/ethyl-pyruvate-attenuates-early-brain-injury-following-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-in-the-endovascular-perforation-rabbit-model-possibly-via-anti-inflammation-and-inhibition-of-jnk-signaling-pathway
#19
Tao Lv, Yi-Feng Miao, Yi-Chao Jin, Shao-Feng Yang, Hui Wu, Jiong Dai, Xiao-Hua Zhang
Early brain injury (EBI) following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is the main cause to poor outcomes of SAH patients, and early inflammation plays an important role in the acute pathophysiological events. It has been demonstrated that ethyl pyruvate (EP) has anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects in various critical diseases, however, the role of EP on EBI following SAH remains to be elucidated. Our study aimed to evaluate the effects of EP on EBI following SAH in the endovascular perforation rabbit model...
February 25, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151720/biomarker-and-tumor-responses-of-oral-cavity-squamous-cell-carcinoma-to-trametinib-a-phase-ii-neoadjuvant-window-of-opportunity-clinical-trial
#20
Ravindra Uppaluri, Ashley E Winkler, Tianxiang Lin, Jonathan H Law, Bruce H Haughey, Brian Nussenbaum, Randal C Paniello, Jason T Rich, Jason A Diaz, Loren P Michel, Tanya Wildes, Gavin P Dunn, Paul Zolkind, Dorina Kallogjeri, Jay F Piccirillo, Farrokh Dehdashti, Barry A Siegel, Rebecca D Chernock, James S Lewis, Douglas R Adkins
Purpose: Ras/MEK/ERK pathway activation is common in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OCSCC). We performed a neoadjuvant (preoperative) trial to determine the biomarker and tumor response of OCSCC to MEK inhibition with trametinib.Experimental Design: Patients with stage II-IV OCSCC received trametinib (2 mg/day, minimum 7 days) prior to surgery. Primary tumor specimens were obtained before and after trametinib to evaluate immunohistochemical staining for p-ERK1/2 and CD44, the primary endpoint. Secondary endpoints included changes in clinical tumor measurements and metabolic activity [maximum standardized uptake values (SUVmax) by F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/CT), and in tumor downstaging...
November 9, 2016: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
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