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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630160/listeriolysin-o-from-bazooka-to-swiss-army-knife
#1
REVIEW
Suzanne E Osborne, John H Brumell
Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) is a Gram-positive facultative intracellular pathogen. Infections in humans can lead to listeriosis, a systemic disease with a high mortality rate. One important mechanism of Lm dissemination involves cell-to-cell spread after bacteria have entered the cytosol of host cells. Listeriolysin O (LLO; encoded by the hly gene) is a virulence factor present in Lm that plays a central role in the cell-to-cell spread process. LLO is a member of the cholesterol-dependent cytolysin (CDC) family of toxins that were initially thought to promote disease largely by inducing cell death and tissue destruction-essentially acting like a 'bazooka'...
August 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629607/post-operative-management-of-perforated-appendicitis-can-clinical-pathways-improve-outcomes
#2
Robert R Gerard, Barrett A Kielhorn, Laurence E McCahill, Brent Petersen, Andrew J Mullard
BACKGROUND: We sought to decrease organ space infection (OSI) following appendectomy for perforated acute appendicitis (PAA) by minimizing variation in clinical management. OBJECTIVE: A postoperative treatment pathway was developed and four recommendations were implemented: 1) clear documentation of post-operative diagnosis, 2) patients with unknown perforation status to be treated as perforated pending definitive diagnosis, 3) antibiotic therapy to be continued post operatively for 4-7 days after SIRS resolution, and 4) judicious use of abdominal computed tomography (CT) scanning prior to post-operative day 5...
June 10, 2017: American Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600325/hira-deficiency-in-muscle-fibers-causes-hypertrophy-and-susceptibility-to-oxidative-stress
#3
Nicolas Valenzuela, Benjamin Soibam, Lerong Li, Jing Wang, Lauren A Byers, Yu Liu, Robert J Schwartz, M David Stewart
Nucleosome assembly proceeds through DNA replication-coupled or replication-independent mechanisms. For skeletal myocytes, whose nuclei have permanently exited the cell cycle, replication-independent assembly is the only mode available for chromatin remodeling. For this reason, any nucleosome composition alterations accompanying transcriptional responses to physiological signals must occur through a DNA replication-independent pathway. HIRA is the histone chaperone primarily responsible for replication-independent incorporation of histone variant H3...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579326/rip1-rip3-drp1-pathway-regulates-nlrp3-inflammasome-activation-following-subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#4
Keren Zhou, Ligen Shi, Zhen Wang, Jingyi Zhou, Anatol Manaenko, Cesar Reis, Sheng Chen, Jianmin Zhang
The NLRP3 inflammasome functions as a crucial component of the inflammatory response in early brain injury (EBI) after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). However, the mechanisms underlying the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome has not been well elucidated. In this study, we hypothesized the RIP1-RIP3-DRP1 pathway was involved in the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome following SAH. SAH was induced by endovascular perforation in rats. Necrostatin-1 (Nec-1) or mitochondrial division inhibitor (Mdivi-1) was administered 1h after SAH by intraperitoneal injection...
June 2, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547527/weakened-intracellular-zn-2-buffering-in-the-aged-dentate-gyrus-and-its-involvement-in-erasure-of-maintained-ltp
#5
Atsushi Takeda, Haruna Tamano, Taku Murakami, Hiroyuki Nakada, Tatsuya Minamino, Yuta Koike
Memory is lost by the increased influx of extracellular Zn(2+) into neurons. It is possible that intracellular Zn(2+) dynamics is modified even at non-zincergic medial perforant pathway-dentate granule cell synapses along with aging and that vulnerability to the modification is linked to age-related cognitive decline. To examine these possibilities, vulnerability of long-term potentiation (LTP) maintenance, which underlies memory retention, to modification of synaptic Zn(2+) dynamics was compared between young and aged rats...
May 25, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538438/differential-regulation-of-the-autophagy-and-proteasome-pathways-in-skeletal-muscles-in-sepsis
#6
Flavia Stana, Marija Vujovic, Dominique Mayaki, Jean-Philippe Leduc-Gaudet, Philippe Leblanc, Laurent Huck, Sabah N A Hussain
OBJECTIVES: Skeletal muscle fiber atrophy develops in response to severe sepsis, but it is unclear as to how the proteolytic pathways that are involved in its development are differentially regulated. We investigated the link between sepsis-induced fiber atrophy and activation of the proteasome and autophagy pathways and whether the degree of activation is more severe and sustained in limb muscles than it is in the diaphragm. DESIGN: Randomized controlled experiment...
May 22, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534197/pcmt1-ameliorates-neuronal-apoptosis-by-inhibiting-the-activation-of-mst1-after-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-in-rats
#7
Ligen Shi, Ammar Al-Baadani, Keren Zhou, Anwen Shao, Shenbin Xu, Sheng Chen, Jianmin Zhang
Mammalian sterile 20-like kinase 1 (MST1) is found to promote neuronal apoptosis. Protein-L-isoaspartate (D-aspartate) O-methyltransferase (PCMT1), an anti-apoptosis factor, was recently identified as an MST1-interacting protein. This study aims to explore the potential role of PCMT1 in reducing MST1-induced neuronal apoptosis after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in rats. One hundred ninety-eight male Sprague-Dawley rats were used. An exogenous PCMT1 agonist, CGP 3466B, was injected subcutaneously 1 h after the SAH induced by endovascular perforation...
May 22, 2017: Translational Stroke Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526701/netrin-1-preserves-blood-brain-barrier-integrity-through-deleted-in-colorectal-cancer-focal-adhesion-kinase-rhoa-signaling-pathway-following-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-in-rats
#8
Zongyi Xie, Budbazar Enkhjargal, Cesar Reis, Lei Huang, Weifeng Wan, Jiping Tang, Yuan Cheng, John H Zhang
BACKGROUND: Netrin-1 (NTN-1) has been established to be a novel intrinsic regulator of blood-brain barrier (BBB) maintenance. This study was carried out to investigate the potential roles of exogenous NTN-1 in preserving BBB integrity after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) as well as the underlying mechanisms of its protective effects. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 309 male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to an endovascular perforation model of SAH...
May 19, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499377/calculating-hospital-length-of-stay-using-the-hospital-episode-statistics-a-comparison-of-methodologies
#9
John Busby, Sarah Purdy, William Hollingworth
BACKGROUND: Accurate calculation of hospital length of stay (LOS) from the English Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) is important for a wide range of audit and research purposes. The two methodologies which are commonly used to achieve this differ in their accuracy and complexity. We compare these methods and make recommendations on when each is most appropriate. METHODS: We calculated LOS using continuous inpatient spells (CIPS), which link care spanning across multiple hospitals, and spells, which do not, for six conditions with short (dyspepsia or other stomach function, ENT infection), medium (dehydration and gastroenteritis, perforated or bleeding ulcer), and long (stroke, fractured proximal femur) average LOS...
May 12, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488626/surgery-for-superior-hypophyseal-artery-aneurysms-a-new-classification-and-surgical-considerations
#10
Chaitanya Godbole, Sanjay Behari, Kamlesh K Bhaisora, Jayesh Sardhara, Arun Srivastava, Anant Mehrotra, Kuntal Kanti Das, Raj Kumar, Awadhesh K Jaiswal
BACKGROUND: Superior hypophyseal artery (SHA) aneurysms form a unique subgroup of paraclinoid aneurysms having a propensity to grow to a large size in the suprasellar region resulting in compression of the optic nerve, chiasma, and/or tract. AIM: A new classification of SHA aneurysms is proposed that helps in identifying the surgical issues encountered during surgical clipping of these medially directed aneurysms located at different segments of the medial surface of the internal carotid artery (ICA)...
May 2017: Neurology India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485406/inducing-a-long-term-potentiation-in-the-dentate-gyrus-is-sufficient-to-produce-rapid-antidepressant-like-effects
#11
A Kanzari, C Bourcier-Lucas, A Freyssin, D N Abrous, N Haddjeri, G Lucas
Recent hypotheses propose that one prerequisite to obtain a rapid antidepressant (AD) effect would reside in processes of synaptic reinforcement occurring within the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus independently from neurogenesis. However, to date no relationship has been established between an increased DG synaptic plasticity, and rapid AD-like action. To the best of our knowledge, this study shows for the first time that inducing a long-term potentiation (LTP) within the DG by stimulating the perforant pathway (PP) is sufficient to induce such effects...
May 9, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457811/methylene-blue-attenuates-neuroinflammation-after-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-in-rats-through-the-akt-gsk-3%C3%AE-mef2d-signaling-pathway
#12
Hangzhe Xu, Jianru Li, Zhijiang Wang, Majing Feng, Yongfeng Shen, Shenglong Cao, Tao Li, Yucong Peng, Linfeng Fan, Jingyin Chen, Chi Gu, Feng Yan, Lin Wang, Gao Chen
Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a serious medical problem with few effective pharmacotherapies available, and neuroinflammation has been identified as an important pathological process in early brain injury (EBI) after SAH. Methylene blue (MB) is an older drug that has been recently proven to exert extraordinary neuroprotective effects in several brain insults. However, no study has reported the beneficial effects of MB in SAH. In the current investigation, we studied the neuroprotective effects of MB in EBI after SAH and focused on its anti-inflammatory role...
April 27, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442324/the-interactive-role-of-cb1-receptors-and-l-type-calcium-channels-in-hippocampal-long-term-potentiation-in-rats
#13
Hamidreza Komaki, Fargol Saadat, Siamak Shahidi, Abdolrahman Sarihi, Parisa Hasanein, Alireza Komaki
Long-term potentiation (LTP) of synaptic responses is a widely researched model of synaptic plasticity that occurs during learning and memory. The cannabinoid system is an endogenous system that modulate this kind of synaptic plasticity. In addition, voltage dependent calcium channels is essential for induction of LTP at some synapses in the hippocampus. However, there is currently debate over the interaction between L-type calcium channels and cannabinoid system on the synaptic plasticity. In this study, we examined the effects of an acute administration of the cannabinoid antagonist AM251 following a chronic administration of the Ca(2+) channel blocker verapamil on LTP induction in the hippocampal dentate gyrus(DG) of rats...
April 23, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407743/new-drugs-new-toxicities-severe-side-effects-of-modern-targeted-and-immunotherapy-of-cancer-and-their-management
#14
REVIEW
Frank Kroschinsky, Friedrich Stölzel, Simone von Bonin, Gernot Beutel, Matthias Kochanek, Michael Kiehl, Peter Schellongowski
Pharmacological and cellular treatment of cancer is changing dramatically with benefits for patient outcome and comfort, but also with new toxicity profiles. The majority of adverse events can be classified as mild or moderate, but severe and life-threatening complications requiring ICU admission also occur. This review will focus on pathophysiology, symptoms, and management of these events based on the available literature.While standard antineoplastic therapy is associated with immunosuppression and infections, some of the recent approaches induce overwhelming inflammation and autoimmunity...
April 14, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396258/dlk-silencing-attenuated-neuron-apoptosis-through-jip3-ma2k7-jnk-pathway-in-early-brain-injury-after-sah-in-rats
#15
Cheng Yin, Guang-Fu Huang, Xiao-Chuan Sun, Zongduo Guo, John H Zhang
OBJECTIVE: Dual leucine zipper kinase (DLK/MA3K12) has been reported involved in apoptosis and neuronal degeneration during neural development and traumatic brain injury. This study was designed to investigate the role of DLK with its adaptor protein JNK interacting protein-3 (JIP3), and its downstream MA2K7/JNK signaling pathway in early brain injury (EBI) after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in a rat model. DESIGN: Controlled in vivo laboratory study. SETTING: Animal research laboratory...
April 8, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389868/remodelling-of-lace-plant-leaves-antioxidants-and-ros-are-key-regulators-of-programmed-cell-death
#16
Adrian N Dauphinee, Jacob I Fletcher, Georgia L Denbigh, Christian R Lacroix, Arunika H L A N Gunawardena
Antioxidants and reactive oxygen species are integral for programmed cell death signaling during perforation formation in the lace plant ( Aponogeton madagascariensis ). The lace plant is an excellent model system for studying developmentally regulated programmed cell death (PCD). During early lace plant leaf development, PCD systematically deletes cells resulting in a perforated leaf morphology that is unique in planta. A distinct feature in young lace plant leaves is an abundance of anthocyanins, which have antioxidant properties...
July 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381988/increased-excitatory-synaptic-transmission-of-dentate-granule-neurons-in-mice-lacking-psd-95-interacting-adhesion-molecule-neph2-kirrel3-during-the-early-postnatal-period
#17
Junyeop D Roh, Su-Yeon Choi, Yi Sul Cho, Tae-Yong Choi, Jong-Sil Park, Tyler Cutforth, Woosuk Chung, Hanwool Park, Dongsoo Lee, Myeong-Heui Kim, Yeunkum Lee, Seojung Mo, Jeong-Seop Rhee, Hyun Kim, Jaewon Ko, Se-Young Choi, Yong Chul Bae, Kang Shen, Eunjoon Kim, Kihoon Han
Copy number variants and point mutations of NEPH2 (also called KIRREL3) gene encoding an immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily adhesion molecule have been linked to autism spectrum disorders, intellectual disability and neurocognitive delay associated with Jacobsen syndrome, but the physiological roles of Neph2 in the mammalian brain remain largely unknown. Neph2 is highly expressed in the dentate granule (DG) neurons of the hippocampus and is localized in both dendrites and axons. It was recently shown that Neph2 is required for the formation of mossy fiber filopodia, the axon terminal structure of DG neurons forming synapses with GABAergic neurons of CA3...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380662/involvement-of-intracellular-zn-2-signaling-in-ltp-at-perforant-pathway-ca1-pyramidal-cell-synapse
#18
Haruna Tamano, Ryusuke Nishio, Atsushi Takeda
Physiological significance of synaptic Zn(2+) signaling was examined at perforant pathway-CA1 pyramidal cell synapses. In vivo long-term potentiation (LTP) at perforant pathway-CA1 pyramidal cell synapses was induced using a recording electrode attached to a microdialysis probe and the recording region was locally perfused with artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF) via the microdialysis probe. Perforant pathway LTP was not attenuated under perfusion with CaEDTA (10 mM), an extracellular Zn(2+) chelator, but attenuated under perfusion with ZnAF-2DA (50 μM), an intracellular Zn(2+) chelator, suggesting that intracellular Zn(2+) signaling is required for perforant pathway LTP...
July 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359679/activation-of-wnt-signaling-increases-numbers-of-enteric-neurons-derived-from-neonatal-mouse-and-human-progenitor%C3%A2-cells
#19
Ying Zhang, Karin Seid, Florian Obermayr, Lothar Just, Peter H Neckel
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Neural stem and progenitor cells from the enteric nervous system (ENS) might serve as a source of cells for treatment of neurogastrointestinal disorders. Before we can use these cells, we must increase our understanding of the signaling mechanisms that regulate proliferation and differentiation. We systematically evaluated the effects of canonical Wnt signaling on proliferation and differentiation of cultured ENS progenitor cells from neonatal mice and humans. METHODS: We isolated ENS progenitors from tunica muscularis of the small intestine of newborn (postnatal day 0) wild-type C57BL/6 mice as well as from Wnt1-Cre2 reporter mice...
March 27, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350198/subarachnoid-hemorrhage-induced-block-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-flow-role-of-brain-coagulation-factor-iii-tissue-factor
#20
Eugene V Golanov, Evgeniy I Bovshik, Kelvin K Wong, Robia G Pautler, Chase H Foster, Richard G Federley, Jonathan Y Zhang, James Mancuso, Stephen Tc Wong, Gavin W Britz
Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in 95% of cases results in long-term disabilities due to brain damage, pathogenesis of which remains uncertain. Hindrance of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) circulation along glymphatic pathways is a possible mechanism interrupting drainage of damaging substances from subarachnoid space and parenchyma. We explored changes in CSF circulation at different time following SAH and possible role of brain tissue factor (TF). Fluorescent solute and fluorescent microspheres injected into cisterna magna were used to track CSF flow in mice...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
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