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perforant pathway

Foteini Christidi, Efstratios Karavasilis, Ioannis Zalonis, Panagiotis Ferentinos, Zoi Giavri, Elisabeth A Wilde, Sophia Xirou, Michalis Rentzos, Vasiliki Zouvelou, George Velonakis, Panagiotis Toulas, Efstathios Efstathopoulos, Loukia Poulou, Georgios Argyropoulos, Athanasios Athanasakos, Thomas Zambelis, Harvey S Levin, Nikolaos Karandreas, Nikolaos Kelekis, Ioannis Evdokimidis
We aimed to investigate structural changes in vivo in memory-related white matter tracts (i.e., perforant pathway zone [PPZ]; uncinate fasciculus [UF]; fornix) using diffusion tensor tractography and evaluate possible associations with memory performance in nondemented patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Forty-two ALS patients and 25 healthy controls (HCs) underwent a 30-directional diffusion-weighted imaging on a 3T MR scanner, followed by tractography of PPZ, UF, and fornix and analysis of fractional anisotropy (FA), axial diffusivity and radial diffusivity (Dr)...
September 28, 2016: Neurobiology of Aging
Qiang Li, Yujie Chen, Xuan Zhang, Shilun Zuo, Hongfei Ge, Yanyan Chen, Xin Liu, John H Zhang, Huaizhen Ruan, Hua Feng
Angiographic vasospasm, especially in the early phases (<72h) of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), is one of the major complications after an aneurysm rupture and is often the cause of delayed neurological deterioration. Scutellarin (SCU), a flavonoid extracted from the traditional Chinese herb Erigeron breviscapus, has been widely accepted as an antioxidant, but the effect of SCU on vasospasm after SAH remains elusive. Endovascular perforation was conducted to induce SAH in Sprague-Dawley rats. Then, the underlying mechanism of the anti-vasospasm effect of SCU was investigated using a modified Garcia scale, India ink angiography, cross-sectional area analysis, immunohistochemistry staining and western blot...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Arnab Mukherjee, Kumar Ankit, Andreas Reiter, Michael Selzer, Britta Nestler
Symmetric block-copolymers, hitherto, are well known to evolve into parallel, perpendicular and mixed lamellar morphologies under the concomitant influence of an electric field and substrate affinity. In the present work, we show that an additional imposed confinement can effectuate a novel parallel lamellar to hexagonally perforated lamellar (HPL) transition in monolayer and bilayer films. Three dimensional numerical studies are performed using the Ohta-Kawasaki functional, complemented with an exact solution of Maxwell's equation...
September 14, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Daniel Guerreiro Diniz, Marcus Augusto de Oliveira, Camila Mendes de Lima, César Augusto Raiol Fôro, Marcia Consentino Kronka Sosthenes, João Bento-Torres, Pedro Fernando da Costa Vasconcelos, Daniel Clive Anthony, Cristovam Wanderley Picanço Diniz
BACKGROUND: Few studies have explored the glial response to a standard environment and how the response may be associated with age-related cognitive decline in learning and memory. Here we investigated aging and environmental influences on hippocampal-dependent tasks and on the morphology of an unbiased selected population of astrocytes from the molecular layer of dentate gyrus, which is the main target of perforant pathway. RESULTS: Six and twenty-month-old female, albino Swiss mice were housed, from weaning, in a standard or enriched environment, including running wheels for exercise and tested for object recognition and contextual memories...
October 10, 2016: Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF
Linqi Zong, Yan Jin, Chang Liu, Bin Zhu, Xiaozhen Hu, Zhenda Lu, Jia Zhu
Alloy anodes, particularly silicon has been intensively pursued as one of the most promising anode materials for next generation lithium-ion battery primarily because of high specific capacity (>4000 mAh/g) and elemental abundance. In the past decade, various nanostructures with porosity or void space designs have been demonstrated to be effective to accommodate large volume expansion (~300%) and to provide stable solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) during electrochemical cycling. However, how to produce these building blocks with precise morphology control at large scale and low cost remains a challenge...
October 5, 2016: Nano Letters
Xueliang Shang, Bo Xu, Qun Li, Baohui Zhai, Xiaxia Xu, Tao Zhang
This study aims to investigate if neural oscillations can play a role as a bridge between the alteration of glutamatergic system and emotional behaviors in simulated microgravity (SM) mice. Adult male C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into two groups: SM and control groups. The animal model was established by hindlimb unloading (HU). The mice were exposed to HU continued for 14days. Weight and sucrose consumption were measured. The degree of anxious and depressive was evaluated by Open field test and Elevated plus maze test...
September 28, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Maryam Radahmadi, Nasrin Hosseini, Hojjatallah Alaei
Exercise mediates beneficial effects on the brain function and neural health, particularly in the hippocampus as the main area of memory. The hippocampus is a structure involved in exercise, which can improve synaptic plasticity and long-term potentiation (LTP). The present study investigated the effect of exercise, exercise withdrawal, and continued regular exercise on excitability and long-term potentiation in the dentate gyrus (DG) of hippocampus. Fifty male Wistar rats were randomly allocated to the five control, sham, exercise, exercise withdrawal, and continued regular exercise treatments...
September 29, 2016: Brain Research
James H Park, Hester C Van Wyk, Donald C McMillan, Jean A Quinn, Dr Jennifer Clark, Campbell Sd Roxburgh, Paul G Horgan, Joanne Edwards
PURPOSE: In patients with colorectal cancer (CRC), a high-density local inflammatory infiltrate response is associated with improved survival, whereas elevated systemic inflammatory responses are associated with poor survival. One potential unifying mechanism is the IL-6/JAK/STAT3 pathway. The present study examines the relationship between tumour total STAT3 and phosphorylated STAT3Tyr705 (pSTAT3) expression, host inflammatory responses and survival in patients undergoing resection of stage I-III CRC...
September 27, 2016: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
L M Almond, K Patel, L Keast, J Hodson, R Nijjar, P G Wilson, M Richardson, R Singhal
BACKGROUND: Self-expanding metal stents (SEMSs) are the palliative treatment of choice for rapid symptomatic relief in patients with malignant dysphagia. Increasingly endoscopically guided insertion is performed as a day case and without the need for fluoroscopic guidance. This consecutive case series reports 11-year experience of endoscopically guided SEMS insertion in a large UK specialist oesophagogastric unit. METHODS: Patients undergoing stent insertion for malignant dysphagia between 2003 and 2014 were identified from a prospectively maintained database...
September 9, 2016: Surgical Endoscopy
Candi L LaSarge, Raymund Y K Pun, Michael B Muntifering, Steve C Danzer
Abnormal hippocampal granule cells are present in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy, and are a prominent feature of most animal models of the disease. These abnormal cells are hypothesized to contribute to epileptogenesis. Isolating the specific effects of abnormal granule cells on hippocampal physiology, however, has been difficult in traditional temporal lobe epilepsy models. While epilepsy induction in these models consistently produces abnormal granule cells, the causative insults also induce widespread cell death among hippocampal, cortical and subcortical structures...
September 3, 2016: Neurobiology of Disease
Go Yoshida, Koji Sato, Tokumi Kanemura, Toshiki Iwase, Daisuke Togawa, Yukihiro Matsuyama
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective. PURPOSE: This study aims to investigate the accuracy of the oblique fluoroscopic view, based on preoperative computed tomography (CT) images for accurate placement of lumbosacral percutaneous pedicle screws (PPS). OVERVIEW OF LITERATURE: Although PPS misplacement has been reported as one of the main complications in minimally invasive spine surgery, there is no comparative data on the misplacement rate among different fluoroscopic techniques, or comparing such techniques with open procedures...
August 2016: Asian Spine Journal
Nebojša Mujović, Milan Marinković, Nebojša Marković, Aleksandar Kocijančić, Vladan Kovačević, Dragan Simić, Arsen Ristić, Goran Stanković, Biljana Miličić, Svetozar Putnik, Bosiljka Vujisić-Tešić, Tatjana S Potpara
INTRODUCTION: Cardiac tamponade (CT) is a life-threatening complication of radiofrequency ablation (RFA). The course and outcome of CT in low-to-medium volume electrophysiology centers are underreported. METHODS: We analyzed the incidence, management and outcomes of CT in 1500 consecutive RFAs performed in our center during 2011-2016. RESULTS: Of 1500 RFAs performed in 1352 patients (age 55 years, interquartile range: 41-63), 569 were left-sided procedures (n = 406 with transseptal access)...
October 2016: Advances in Therapy
Weisheng Wang, Brian H Trieu, Linda C Palmer, Yousheng Jia, Danielle T Pham, Kwang-Mook Jung, Carley A Karsten, Collin B Merrill, Ken Mackie, Christine M Gall, Daniele Piomelli, Gary Lynch
The endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycerol (2-AG), a key modulator of synaptic transmission in mammalian brain, is produced in dendritic spines and then crosses the synaptic junction to depress neurotransmitter release. Here we report that 2-AG-dependent retrograde signaling also mediates an enduring enhancement of glutamate release, as assessed with independent tests, in the lateral perforant path (LPP), one of two cortical inputs to the granule cells of the dentate gyrus. Induction of this form of long-term potentiation (LTP) involved two types of glutamate receptors, changes in postsynaptic calcium, and the postsynaptic enzyme that synthesizes 2-AG...
July 2016: ENeuro
Todd L Landsman, Ruth L Bush, Alan Glowczwski, John Horn, Staci L Jessen, Ethan Ungchusri, Katelin Diguette, Harrison R Smith, Sayyeda M Hasan, Daniel Nash, Fred J Clubb, Duncan J Maitland
Shape memory polymer foams have been previously investigated for their safety and efficacy in treating a porcine aneurysm model. Their biocompatibility, rapid thrombus formation, and ability for endovascular catheter-based delivery to a variety of vascular beds makes these foams ideal candidates for use in numerous embolic applications, particularly within the peripheral vasculature. This study sought to investigate the material properties, safety, and efficacy of a shape memory polymer peripheral embolization device in vitro...
October 2016: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Ramamoorthy Rajkumar, Jigna Rajesh Kumar, Gavin S Dawe
Priming phenomenon, in which an earlier exposure to a stimulus or condition alters synaptic plasticity in response to a subsequent stimulus or condition, known as a challenge, is an example of metaplasticity. In this review, we make the case that the locus coeruleus noradrenergic system-medial perforant path-dentate gyrus pathway is a neural ensemble amenable to studying priming-challenge effects on synaptic plasticity. Accumulating evidence points to a tyrosine hydroxylase-dependent priming effect achieved by pharmacological (nicotine and antipsychotics) or physiological (septal theta driving) manipulations of the locus coeruleus noradrenergic system that can facilitate noradrenaline-induced synaptic plasticity in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus...
July 8, 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Daniel R Wyskiel, Rodrigo Andrade
The hippocampus receives robust serotonergic innervation that is thought to control the excitability of both pyramidal cells and GABAergic interneurons. Previous work has addressed serotonergic regulation of pyramidal cells but considerable gaps remain in our understanding of how serotonin regulates different interneuron subclasses. 5-HT2A receptors (5-HT2A Rs) appear to localize predominantly, if not solely, on interneurons in the hippocampus and have been implicated in the regulation of hippocampal function including mnemonic and novelty recognition processes...
September 2016: Hippocampus
Atsushi Takeda, Hanuna Tamano
Hippocampal Zn(2+) homeostasis is critical for cognitive activity and hippocampus-dependent memory. Extracellular Zn(2+) signaling is linked to extracellular glutamate signaling and leads to intracellular Zn(2+) signaling, which is involved in cognitive activity. On the other hand, excess intracellular Zn(2+) signaling that is induced by excess glutamate signaling is involved in cognitive decline. In the hippocampal formation, the dentate gyrus is the most vulnerable to aging and is thought to contribute to age-related cognitive decline...
May 24, 2016: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
Frederic Pastouret, David Beckwee, Sigrid Van Laere, Lucia Cardozo, Jan Lamote, Patricia Kranskens, Pierre Lievens
BACKGROUND: Axillary nodes dissection (AND) is an important risk factor for the appearance of breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL). The anatomy and pathophysiology leading to the development of BCRL after AND are not completely understood. Despite the existence of lymphedema models after AND, none of them were able to create lymphedemas without additional chemical inflammatory drugs or auxiliary physical techniques (radiotherapy). In this study, we aimed to describe the anatomical changes of AND on a rat's front leg before and after a new surgery technique...
September 2016: Lymphatic Research and Biology
Guang-Yu Ying, Chao-Hui Jing, Jian-Ru Li, Cheng Wu, Feng Yan, Jing-Yin Chen, Lin Wang, Brandon J Dixon, Gao Chen
BACKGROUND: Blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption and neural apoptosis are thought to promote early brain injury (EBI) after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Previous studies have demonstrated that valproic acid (VPA) decreased brain injury in a prechiasmatic injection model of SAH in mice. It should be noted that the beneficial effects of VPA and the underlying mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the effects of VPA on BBB disruption and neural apoptosis and to determine mechanisms involved in EBI after SAH...
August 2016: Neurosurgery
Hamid Gholami Pourbadie, Nima Naderi, Mahyar Janahmadi, Nasrin Mehranfard, Fereshteh Motamedi
Entorhinal-hippocampal network is one of the earliest circuits which is affected by Alzheimer's disease (AD). There are numerous data providing the evidence of synaptic deficit in the dentate gyrus (DG) of AD animal model. However, there is little known about how entorhinal cortex (EC) amyloidophaty affects each excitatory and/or inhibitory transmission in the early stage of AD. On the other hand, it is believed that calcium dyshomeostasis has a critical role in the etiology of AD. Here, the effect of the EC amyloid pathogenesis on excitatory or inhibitory post synaptic currents (EPSC and IPSC, respectively) in the DG granule cells and then the possible neuroprotective action of L-type calcium channel blockers (CCBs), nimodipine and isradipine, were examined...
October 2016: Synapse
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