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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092334/is-enhanced-recovery-the-new-standard-of-care-in-microsurgical-breast-reconstruction
#1
Anoushka Afonso, Sabine Oskar, Kay See Tan, Joseph J Disa, Babak J Mehrara, Jihan Ceyhan, Joseph H Dayan
BACKGROUND: Enhanced recovery pathways (ERPs) have been shown to aid in patient recovery and improve outcomes in many surgical settings. At present, there is limited data available regarding the use and feasibility of ERPs for patients undergoing microsurgical breast reconstruction. We sought to assess patient outcomes before and after the introduction of an ERP that was adopted by multiple surgeons at a single cancer center. METHODS: A multidisciplinary ERP was developed for patients undergoing deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) or muscle-sparing free transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous (TRAM) flap breast reconstruction...
January 12, 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058672/neuroprotective-effects-of-intravenous-immunoglobulin-are-mediated-through-inhibition-of-complement-activation-and-apoptosis-in-a-rat-model-of-sepsis
#2
Figen Esen, Gunseli Orhun, Perihan Ergin Ozcan, Evren Senturk, Melike Kucukerden, Murat Giris, Ugur Akcan, Canan Ugur Yilmaz, Nurcan Orhan, Nadir Arican, Mehmet Kaya, Sema Bilgic Gazioglu, Erdem Tuzun
BACKGROUND: Intravenous (IV) immunoglobulin (Ig) treatment is known to alleviate behavioral deficits and increase survival in the experimentally induced model of sepsis. To delineate the mechanisms by which IVIg treatment prevents neuronal dysfunction, an array of immunological and apoptosis markers was investigated. METHODS: Sepsis was induced by cecal ligation perforation (CLP) in rats. The animals were divided into five groups: sham, control, CLP + saline, CLP + immunoglobulin G (IgG) (250 mg/kg, iv), and CLP + immunoglobulins enriched with immunoglobulin M (IgGAM) (250 mg/kg, iv)...
December 2017: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032116/synaptic-inhibition-in-avian-interaural-level-difference-sound-localizing-neurons
#3
Rebecca J Curry, Yong Lu
Synaptic inhibition plays a fundamental role in the neural computation of the interaural level difference (ILD), an important cue for the localization of high-frequency sound. Here, we studied the inhibitory synaptic currents in the chicken posterior portion of the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (LLDp), the first binaural level difference encoder of the avian auditory pathway. Using whole-cell recordings in brain slices, we provide the first evidence confirming a monosynaptic inhibition driven by direct electrical and chemical stimulation of the contralateral LLDp, establishing the reciprocal inhibitory connection between the two LLDps, a long-standing assumption in the field...
November 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006741/evaluating-differences-in-forest-fragmentation-and-restoration-between-western-natural-forests-and-southeastern-plantation-forests-in-the-united-states
#4
Xinyu Ren, Yingying Lv, Mingshi Li
Changes in forest ecosystem structure and functions are considered some of the research issues in landscape ecology. In this study, advancing Forman's theory, we considered five spatially explicit processes associated with fragmentation, including perforation, dissection, subdivision, shrinkage, and attrition, and two processes associated with restoration, i.e., increment and expansion processes. Following this theory, a forest fragmentation and restoration process model that can detect the spatially explicit processes and ecological consequences of forest landscape change was developed and tested in the current analysis...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001371/intracellular-delivery-of-luminescent-quantum-dots-mediated-by-a-virus-derived-lytic-peptide
#5
Malak Safi, Tatiana Domitrovic, Anshika Kapur, Naiqian Zhan, Fadi Aldeek, John E Johnson, Hedi Mattoussi
We describe a new quantum dot (QD)-conjugate prepared with a lytic peptide, derived from a nonenveloped virus capsid protein, capable of bypassing the endocytotic pathways and delivering large amounts of QDs to living cells. The polypeptide, derived from the Nudaurelia capensis Omega virus, was fused onto the C-terminus of maltose binding protein that contained a hexa-HIS tag at its N-terminus, allowing spontaneous self-assembly of controlled numbers of the fusion protein per QD via metal-HIS interactions. We found that the efficacy of uptake by several mammalian cell lines was substantial even for small concentrations (10-100 nM)...
January 18, 2017: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986808/activation-of-transient-receptor-potential-vanilloid-1-by-lipoxygenase-metabolites-depends-on-pkc-phosphorylation
#6
Rakesh Kumar, Adina Hazan, Matan Geron, Rebbeca Steinberg, Lital Livni, Henry Matzner, Avi Priel
Peripheral neuronal activation by inflammatory mediators is a multifaceted physiological response that involves a multitude of regulated cellular functions. One key pathway that has been shown to be involved in inflammatory pain is Gq/GPCR, whose activation by inflammatory mediators is followed by the regulated response of the cation channel transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1). However, the mechanism that underlies TRPV1 activation downstream of the Gq/GPCR pathway has yet to be fully defined. In this study, we employ pharmacological and molecular biology tools to dissect this activation mechanism via perforated-patch recordings and calcium imaging of both neurons and a heterologous system...
December 16, 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909001/synaptic-phospholipid-signaling-modulates-axon-outgrowth-via-glutamate-dependent-ca2-mediated-molecular-pathways
#7
Johannes Vogt, Sergei Kirischuk, Petr Unichenko, Leslie Schlüter, Assunta Pelosi, Heiko Endle, Jenq-Wei Yang, Nikolai Schmarowski, Jin Cheng, Carine Thalman, Ulf Strauss, Alexey Prokudin, B Suman Bharati, Junken Aoki, Jerold Chun, Beat Lutz, Heiko J Luhmann, Robert Nitsch
Altered synaptic bioactive lipid signaling has been recently shown to augment neuronal excitation in the hippocampus of adult animals by activation of presynaptic LPA2-receptors leading to increased presynaptic glutamate release. Here, we show that this results in higher postsynaptic Ca(2+) levels and in premature onset of spontaneous neuronal activity in the developing entorhinal cortex. Interestingly, increased synchronized neuronal activity led to reduced axon growth velocity of entorhinal neurons which project via the perforant path to the hippocampus...
November 30, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896839/dopamine-elevates-and-lowers-astroglial-ca-2-through-distinct-pathways-depending-on-local-synaptic-circuitry
#8
Alistair Jennings, Olga Tyurikova, Lucie Bard, Kaiyu Zheng, Alexey Semyanov, Christian Henneberger, Dmitri A Rusakov
Whilst astrocytes in culture invariably respond to dopamine with cytosolic Ca(2+) rises, the dopamine sensitivity of astroglia in situ and its physiological roles remain unknown. To minimize effects of experimental manipulations on astroglial physiology, here we monitored Ca(2+) in cells connected via gap junctions to astrocytes loaded whole-cell with cytosolic indicators in area CA1 of acute hippocampal slices. Aiming at high sensitivity of [Ca(2+) ] measurements, we also employed life-time imaging of the Ca(2+) indicator Oregon Green BAPTA-1...
November 29, 2016: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894435/pediatric-appendicitis
#9
REVIEW
Rebecca M Rentea, Shawn D St Peter
Appendicitis is one of the most common surgical pathologies in children. It can present with right lower quadrant pain. Scoring systems in combination with selective imaging and surgical examination will diagnose most children with appendicitis. Clinical pathways should be used. Most surgical interventions for appendicitis are now almost exclusively laparoscopic, with trials demonstrating better outcomes for children who undergo index hospitalization appendectomies when perforated. Nonoperative management has a role in the treatment of both uncomplicated and complicated appendicitis...
February 2017: Surgical Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893633/the-study-of-medial-superficial-perforator-of-the-superficial-circumflex-iliac-artery-perforator-flap-using-ct-angiography-and-surgical-anatomy-in-142-patients
#10
Hyun Suk Suh, Hyung Hwa Jeong, Joon Pio Hong
BACKGROUND: The two major perforators supplying the superficial circumflex iliac artery perforator (SCIP) flap are the medial (superficial) and lateral (deep) perforators but lacks detailed description. The purpose of this study was to clarify the anatomy. MATERIAL AND METHOD: In a prospective analysis of 142 patients, CT angiograms of 284 SCIP regions were evaluated and 142 SCIP flaps were surgically correlated. The origin of the SCIA, the origin of the medial perforator, the location where it penetrates the deep fascia, and its pattern of pathway after penetration of the superficial fascia were evaluated...
November 21, 2016: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869181/functional-states-of-rat-cortical-circuits-during-the-unpredictable-availability-of-a-reward-related-cue
#11
Iván Fernández-Lamo, Raudel Sánchez-Campusano, Agnès Gruart, José M Delgado-García M
Proper performance of acquired abilities can be disturbed by the unexpected occurrence of external changes. Rats trained with an operant conditioning task (to press a lever in order to obtain a food pellet) using a fixed-ratio (1:1) schedule were subsequently placed in a Skinner box in which the lever could be removed randomly. Field postsynaptic potentials (fPSPs) were chronically evoked in perforant pathway-hippocampal CA1 (PP-CA1), CA1-subiculum (CA1-SUB), CA1-medial prefrontal cortex (CA1-mPFC), mPFC-nucleus accumbens (mPFC-NAc), and mPFC-basolateral amygdala (mPFC-BLA) synapses during lever IN and lever OUT situations...
November 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867034/the-effects-of-nbm-lesion-on-synaptic-plasticity-in-rats
#12
Nasrin Hosseini, Hojjatollah Alaei, Parham Reisi, Maryam Radahmadi
The nucleus basalis magnocellularis (NBM) is a major source of cholinergic projections to the neocortex that is vulnerable to degeneration in Alzheimer's disease. Despite numerous anatomical, pharmacological, behavioral, and physiological investigations of NBM, there is no in vivo study of its effects on short- or long-term synaptic plasticity. Hence, this study was devoted to the assessment of the effects of bilateral lesion of the NBM on synaptic plasticity in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus using electrophysiological techniques...
January 15, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863822/surgical-site-infection-reporting-more-than-meets-the-agar
#13
Luke R Putnam, Tiffany G Ostovar-Kermani, Andrea Le Blanc, Kathryn T Anderson, Galit Holzmann-Pazgal, Kevin P Lally, KuoJen Tsao
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Surgical site infection (SSI) rate in pediatric appendicitis is a commonly used hospital quality metric. We hypothesized that surveillance of organ-space SSI (OSI) using cultures alone would fail to capture many clinically-important events. METHODS: A prospective, multidisciplinary surveillance program recorded 30-day SSI and hospital length of stay (LOS) for patients <18years undergoing appendectomy for perforated appendicitis from 2012 to 2015...
January 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845194/human-albumin-attenuates-excessive-innate-immunity-via-inhibition-of-microglial-mincle-syk-signaling-in-subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#14
Yi Xie, Hongquan Guo, Liumin Wang, Lili Xu, Xiaohao Zhang, Linjie Yu, Qian Liu, Yunzi Li, Nana Zhao, Nan Zhao, Ruidong Ye, Xinfeng Liu
Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a devastating subtype of stroke. Microglial macrophage-inducible C-type lectin (Mincle) receptor launches microglial innate immunity after SAH, and thereby achieves a key step of early cerebral injury in SAH. We previously revealed albumin could improve long-term neurological outcomes after SAH. In this study, we examined the role of microglia-mediated innate immunity in the salutary effects of albumin. SAH was induced by endovascular perforation in rats. We found that albumin can significantly mitigate early neurovascular dysfunction of SAH rats...
February 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822782/advantages-of-abdominal-ultrasound-in-the-management-of-infants-with-necrotizing-enterocolitis
#15
M M Aliev, A A Dekhqonboev, R Z Yuldashev
: The purpose of this study was to assess the prognostic value of abdominal color Doppler ultrasound (US) in determining predictors of early complications of NEC. METHODS: Fifty-one consecutive infants with stage Ia to IIIa NEC were prospectively included in the study between 2013 and July 2016. At least one abdominal US examination was performed in each patient. RESULTS: According to abdominal color Doppler US, neonates with NEC Ia stage in most cases (80%) found increased bowel wall perfusion...
November 7, 2016: Pediatric Surgery International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816201/fast-track-pathway-for-perforated-appendicitis
#16
Richard Frazee, Stephen Abernathy, Matthew Davis, Travis Isbell, Justin Regner, Randall Smith
BACKGROUND: Perforated appendicitis is associated with an increased morbidity and length of stay. "Fast track" protocols have demonstrated success in shortening hospitalization without increasing morbidity for a variety of surgical processes. This study evaluates a fast track pathway for perforated appendicitis. METHODS: In 2013, a treatment pathway for perforated appendicitis was adopted by the Acute Care Surgery Service for patients having surgical management of perforated appendicitis...
October 20, 2016: American Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815365/xanthohumol-modulates-calcium-signaling-in-rat-ventricular-myocytes-possible-antiarrhythmic-properties
#17
Juan Jose Arnaiz-Cot, Lars Cleemann, Martin Morad
Cardiac arrhythmia is a major cause of mortality in cardiovascular pathologies. A host of drugs targeted to sarcolemmal Na(+), Ca(2+), and K(+) channels has had limited success clinically. Recently, Ca(2+) signaling has been target of pharmacotherapy based on finding that leaky ryanodine receptors elevate local Ca(2+) concentrations causing membrane depolarizations that trigger arrhythmias. In this study, we report that xanthohumol, an antioxidant extracted from hops showing therapeutic effects in other pathologies, suppresses aberrant ryanodine receptor Ca(2+) release...
January 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810148/introduction-of-a-novel-ultrasound-guided-extrathoracic-sub-paraspinal-block-for-control-of-perioperative-pain-in-nuss-procedure-patients
#18
Robert B Bryskin, Daniel K Robie, Frederick M Mansfield, Eugene B Freid, Siam Sukumvanich
BACKGROUND: A safe and effective method of multilevel thoracic pain control remains an elusive goal in patients undergoing the Nuss procedure. The aim of our study was to develop a nonopioid centered approach using a novel regional technique as part of a quality improvement initiative. METHODS: The proposed ultrasound-guided technique positions multi-perforated soaker catheter deep to the paraspinal muscles from T2 to T11. The project was conducted in two phases...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802838/chronic-early-life-lead-pb-2-exposure-alters-presynaptic-vesicle-pools-in-hippocampal-synapses
#19
Sara Rose Guariglia, Kirstie H Stansfield, Jennifer McGlothan, Tomas R Guilarte
BACKGROUND: Lead (Pb(2+)) exposure has been shown to impair presynaptic neurotransmitter release in both in vivo and in vitro model systems. The mechanism by which Pb(2+) impairs neurotransmitter release has not been fully elucidated. In previous work, we have shown that Pb(2+) exposure inhibits vesicular release and reduces the number of fast-releasing sites in cultured hippocampal neurons. We have also shown that Pb(2+) exposure inhibits vesicular release and alters the distribution of presynaptic vesicles in Shaffer Collateral - CA1 synapses of rodents chronically exposed to Pb(2+) during development...
November 2, 2016: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776264/memory-related-white-matter-tract-integrity-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-an-advanced-neuroimaging-and-neuropsychological-study
#20
Foteini Christidi, Efstratios Karavasilis, Ioannis Zalonis, Panagiotis Ferentinos, Zoi Giavri, Elisabeth A Wilde, Sophia Xirou, Michalis Rentzos, Vasiliki Zouvelou, George Velonakis, Panagiotis Toulas, Efstathios Efstathopoulos, Loukia Poulou, Georgios Argyropoulos, Athanasios Athanasakos, Thomas Zambelis, Harvey S Levin, Nikolaos Karandreas, Nikolaos Kelekis, Ioannis Evdokimidis
We aimed to investigate structural changes in vivo in memory-related white matter tracts (i.e., perforant pathway zone [PPZ]; uncinate fasciculus [UF]; fornix) using diffusion tensor tractography and evaluate possible associations with memory performance in nondemented patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Forty-two ALS patients and 25 healthy controls (HCs) underwent a 30-directional diffusion-weighted imaging on a 3T MR scanner, followed by tractography of PPZ, UF, and fornix and analysis of fractional anisotropy (FA), axial diffusivity and radial diffusivity (Dr)...
January 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
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