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perforant pathway

Michael Willis, Irmgard Leitner, Klaus Seppi, Maria Trieb, Georg Wietzorrek, Josef Marksteiner, Hans-Günther Knaus
In this study, we investigated the tissue expression levels, alpha subunit composition and distribution of Shaker-related voltage-dependent potassium Kv1 channels in human hippocampus by combining western blotting experiments, toxin autoradiography, in vivo radioligand binding studies, immunoprecipitation and immunohistochemistry. Tissue expression of Kv1.1 and Kv1.2 α-subunits in human post-mortem brain tissue was confirmed in immunoblot analysis using a panel of specific monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies...
March 21, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Abril Ortiz-Matamoros, Clorinda Arias
Wnt signaling plays an important role in the adult brain function and its dysregulation has been implicated in some neurodegenerative pathways. Despite the functional role of the Wnt signaling in adult neural circuits, there is currently no evidence regarding the relationships between exogenously Wnt signaling activation or inhibition and hippocampal structural changes in vivo. Thus, we analyzed the effect of the chronic infusion of Wnt agonists, Wnt7a and Wnt5a, and antagonist, Dkk-1, on different markers of plasticity such as neuronal MAP-2, Tau, synapse number and morphology, and behavioral changes...
March 13, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Lei Liu, Masashi Fujimoto, Fumi Nakano, Hirofumi Nishikawa, Takeshi Okada, Fumihiro Kawakita, Kyoko Imanaka-Yoshida, Toshimichi Yoshida, Hidenori Suzuki
Tenascin-C (TNC), a matricellular protein, is upregulated in brain parenchyma after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Recent studies emphasize that early brain injury (EBI) should be overcome to improve post-SAH outcomes. The aim of this study was to investigate effects of TNC knockout (TNKO) on neuronal apoptosis and neuroinflammation, both of which are important constituents of EBI after SAH. C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) mice or TNKO mice underwent sham or filament perforation SAH modeling. Twenty-five WT mice and 25 TNKO mice were randomly divided into sham+WT (n = 10), sham+TNKO (n = 8), SAH+WT (n = 15), and SAH+TNKO (n = 17) groups...
March 15, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Deborah J Bird, William J Murphy, Lester Fox-Rosales, Iman Hamid, Robert A Eagle, Blaire Van Valkenburgh
The evolution of mammalian olfaction is manifested in a remarkable diversity of gene repertoires, neuroanatomy and skull morphology across living species. Olfactory receptor genes (ORGs), which initiate the conversion of odorant molecules into odour perceptions and help an animal resolve the olfactory world, range in number from a mere handful to several thousand genes across species. Within the snout, each of these ORGs is exclusively expressed by a discrete population of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs), suggesting that newly evolved ORGs may be coupled with new OSN populations in the nasal epithelium...
March 14, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Reuban Toby D'cruz, Cheryl Chien-Li Lau, Thomas Paulraj Thamboo
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) typically causes gastrointestinal infections in immunocompetent patients. Colonic perforations secondary to CMV are exceeding rare. We describe a 88-year-old male presenting with a week-long history of intractable abdominal discomfort, bloating, nausea and diarrhea. Flexible sigmoidoscopy revealed significant ulceration with yellowish slough. Emergency surgery was performed subsequently in view of multiple perforations in the rectosigmoid junction. CMV gastrointestinal infections demonstrated an ischemic process secondary to vasculitis, which accelerated the pathway to colonic perforation...
March 12, 2018: Archives of Virology
Lina A Matschke, Susanne Rinné, Terrance P Snutch, Wolfgang H Oertel, Amalia M Dolga, Niels Decher
The physiological, intrinsic activity of noradrenergic locus coeruleus (LC) neurons is important for the control of sleep/wakefulness, cognition and autonomous body functions. Dysregulations of the LC-noradrenergic network contribute to the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders and are key findings in early stages of neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, identifying ion channels mediating the intrinsic pacemaking mechanism of LC neurons, which is in turn directly coupled to Ca2+ homeostasis and cell survival signaling pathways, can help to foster our understanding of the vulnerability of these neurons in neurodegenerative diseases...
March 7, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
Anthony B El-Khoueiry, Robert O'Donnell, Thomas J Semrad, Philip Mack, Suzette Blanchard, Nathan Bahary, Yixing Jiang, Yun Yen, John Wright, Helen Chen, Heinz-Josef Lenz, David R Gandara
PURPOSE: The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) pathway is activated in hepatocarcinogenesis. Cixutumumab is a monoclonal antibody against human insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R). Given the cross-talk between the IGF and VEGF pathways, we performed a phase I study of the combination of cixutumumab and sorafenib in hepatocellular cancer (HCC). METHODS: Eligible patients with no prior systemic therapy for advanced HCC and Child-Pugh A to B7 were treated with sorafenib 400 mg BID and escalating doses of cixutumumab (2, 4, or 6 mg/kg IV weekly) in a 3 + 3 design...
March 8, 2018: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
J Harry Blaise, Jee E Park, Nicholas J Bellas, Thomas M Gitchell, Vy Phan
Caffeine, one of the most commonly consumed psychoactive substances in the world, has long been known to alter neurological functions, such as alertness, attention, and memory. Despite caffeine's popularity, systematic investigations of its effects on synaptic plasticity in the brain are still lacking. Here we used a freely behaving rodent model of long-term potentiation (LTP), a frequently studied form of synaptic plasticity, to assess the effects of caffeine consumption on hippocampal plasticity. LTP, which is a persistent increase in the strength of synaptic connections between neurons, is a cellular mechanism widely considered to underlie the processes of learning and memory...
March 2018: Physiological Reports
H Wu, M He, R Yang, Y Zuo, Z Bian
AIM: To identify the role of astrocyte elevated gene-1 (AEG-1) and the mechanism underlying the inflammatory response in dental pulp cells. METHODOLOGY: AEG-1 expression was detected at different stages of pulpitis in a rat model using immunohistochemistry. RT-qPCR and Western blot were used to assess AEG-1 expression in human dental pulp cells stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The LPS-induced expression of inflammatory cytokine genes was quantified by RT-qPCR in cells transfected with AEG-1 or negative control (NC) siRNA...
March 5, 2018: International Endodontic Journal
Natalie Hutchings, Wendy Wood, Isabel Reading, Erin Walker, Jane M Blazeby, William Van't Hoff, Bridget Young, Esther M Crawley, Simon Eaton, Maria Chorozoglou, Frances C Sherratt, Lucy Beasant, Harriet Corbett, Michael P Stanton, Simon Grist, Elizabeth Dixon, Nigel J Hall
BACKGROUND: Currently, the routine treatment for acute appendicitis in the United Kingdom is an appendicectomy. However, there is increasing scientific interest and research into non-operative treatment of appendicitis in adults and children. While a number of studies have investigated non-operative treatment of appendicitis in adults, this research cannot be applied to the paediatric population. Ultimately, we aim to perform a UK-based multicentre randomised controlled trial (RCT) to test the clinical and cost effectiveness of non-operative treatment of acute uncomplicated appendicitis in children, as compared with appendicectomy...
March 2, 2018: Trials
Nishant Patel, Manoj Monga
INTRODUCTION: Ureteral access sheaths (UAS) facilitate flexible ureteroscopy in the treatment of urolithiasis. The physical properties of UAS vary by manufacturer and model. We compared three new UAS: Glideway (GW, Terumo, 11/13Fr, 12/14Fr), Pathway (PW, Terumo 12/14F) and Navigator HD (NHD, Boston Scientific, 11/13Fr, 12/14Fr) in the domains of safety characteristics, positioning characteristics, lubricity and radioopacity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In vitro testing of the three UAS included safety testing-tip perforation force, sheath edge deformation and dilator extraction forces...
March 1, 2018: International Braz J Urol: Official Journal of the Brazilian Society of Urology
Weifeng Wan, Yan Ding, Zongyi Xie, Qian Li, Feng Yan, Enkhjargal Budbazar, William J Pearce, Richard Hartman, Andre Obenaus, John H Zhang, Yong Jiang, Jiping Tang
Platelet-derived growth factor receptor-β (PDGFR-β) has been reported to promote phenotypic transformation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of the PDGFR-β/IRF9/SIRT-1/NF-κB pathway in VSMC phenotypic transformation after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). SAH was induced using the endovascular perforation model in Sprague-Dawley rats. PDGFR-β small interfering RNA (siRNA) and IRF9 siRNA were injected intracerebroventricularly 48 h before SAH. SIRT1 activator (resveratrol) and inhibitor (EX527) were administered intraperitoneally 1 h after SAH induction...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Sala Abdalla, Rupinder Gill, Gibran Timothy Yusuf, Rosaria Scarpinata
While colonoscopy is generally regarded as a safe procedure, colonic perforation can occur and the risk of this is higher when interventional procedures are undertaken. The presentation may be acute or delayed depending on the extent of the perforation. Extracolonic gas following colonic perforation can migrate to several body compartments that are embryologically related and it has previously been reported in the thorax, mediastinum, neck, scrotum, and lower limbs. This review discusses in detail the anatomical pathways that led to a rare case of widespread subcutaneous emphysema, bilateral pneumothoraces, pneumomediastinum, and mediastinal shift from colonic perforation during a diagnostic colonoscopy...
January 2018: Surgery Journal
Atsushi Takeda, Haruna Tamano, Wakana Hashimoto, Shuhei Kobuchi, Hiroki Suzuki, Taku Murakami, Munekazu Tempaku, Yuta Koike, Paul A Adlard, Ashley I Bush
The role of metallothioneins (MTs) in cognitive decline associated with intracellular Zn2+ dysregulation remains unclear. Here, we report that hippocampal MT induction defends cognitive decline, which was induced by amyloid β1-42 (Aβ1-42 )-mediated excess Zn2+ and functional Zn2+ deficiency. Excess increase in intracellular Zn2+ , which was induced by local injection of Aβ1-42 into the dentate granule cell layer, attenuated in vivo perforant pathway LTP, while the attenuation was rescued by preinjection of MT inducers into the same region...
February 19, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Aashit K Shah, Darren Fuerst, Sandeep Mittal
OBJECTIVE: Relationship between electrographic seizures on hippocampal electrocorticography (IH-ECoG) and presence/type of hippocampal pathology remains unclear. METHODS: IH-ECoG was recorded for 10-20 min from the ventricular surface of the hippocampus following removal of the temporal neocortex in 40 consecutive patients. Correlation between intraoperative hippocampal seizures and preoperative MRI, hippocampal histopathology, and EEG from invasive monitoring was determined...
February 2, 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Ji-Yang An, Hong-Gang Pang, Ting-Qin Huang, Jin-Ning Song, Dan-Dong Li, Yong-Lin Zhao, Xu-Dong Ma
High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a classic damage-associated molecular pattern that has an important role in the pathological inflammatory response. In vitro studies have demonstrated that the Janus kinase 2 (JAK2)/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling pathway is involved in the regulation of HMGB1 expression, mediating the inflammatory response. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to evaluate JAK2/STAT3 pathway involvement in the subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH)-dependent regulation of HMGB1, using an in vivo rat model...
February 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Yucong Peng, Jianxiang Jin, Linfeng Fan, Hangzhe Xu, Pingyou He, Jianru Li, Ting Chen, Wu Ruan, Gao Chen
Early brain injury (EBI) is the primary cause of poor outcome in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) patients. Rolipram, a specific phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor which is traditionally used as an anti-depressant drug, has been recently proven to exert neuroprotective effects in several central nervous system insults. However, the role of rolipram in SAH remains uncertain. The current study was aimed to investigate the role of rolipram in EBI after SAH and explore the potential mechanism. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to an endovascular perforation process to produce an SAH model...
February 3, 2018: Neurochemical Research
Thanh-Binh Nguyen, Kazuto Shima
The objective of this study was to examine the feasibility of sewage sludge composting using a simple aeration method. Two consecutive composting trials (run A and run B) using Japanese sludge and woodchips (1:1, v/v) were conducted in cubic boxes (0.45 × 0.45 × 0.45 m3) made by plywood at Okayama University. Air was forced up through small holes perforated on two open-ended parallel PVC pipes (ø 16 mm, 0.25 m apart) laid at the base. The results show that compost temperatures were rapidly increased to the peak points of 47...
February 2, 2018: Environmental Management
Masoumeh Asadbegi, Alireza Komaki, Iraj Salehi, Parichehreh Yaghmaei, Azadeh Ebrahim-Habibi, Siamak Shahidi, Abdolrahman Sarihi, Sara Soleimani Asl, Zoleikha Golipoor
Obesity and a high-fat diet (HFD) are known to increase the incidence of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Oxidative stress, a major risk factor for AD, is increased with HFD consumption. Thymol (Thy) has antioxidant properties. Therefore, in the present study, we examined the protective and therapeutic effects of Thy on amyloid-β (Aβ)-induced impairments in the hippocampal synaptic plasticity of HFD-fed rats. In this study, 72 adult male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to 9 groups (n = 8 rats/group): Group 1 (control; standard diet); Group 2: Control + phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) + Oil (Thy vehicle); Group 3 (HFD + PBS); Group 4: (HFD + Aβ); Group 5: Control + PBS + Thy; Group 6: (HFD + Aβ + Oil); Group 7: Control + Aβ + Thy; Group 8: HFD + PBS + Thy; Group 9: (HFD + Aβ + Thy)...
January 12, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Kaitlin Folweiler, Sandy Samuel, Hannah Metheny, Akiva S Cohen
Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) disrupts hippocampal function and can lead to long-lasting episodic memory impairments. The encoding of episodic memories relies on spatial information processing within the hippocampus. As the primary entry point for spatial information into hippocampus, the dentate gyrus is thought to function as a physiological gate, or filter, of afferent excitation before reaching downstream area CA3. While injury has previously been shown to alter dentate gyrus network excitability, it is unknown whether mTBI affects dentate gyrus output to area CA3...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
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