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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339105/effects-of-thymol-on-amyloid-%C3%AE-induced-impairments-in-hippocampal-synaptic-plasticity-in-rats-fed-a-high-fat-diet
#1
Masoumeh Asadbegi, Alireza Komaki, Iraj Salehi, Parichehreh Yaghmaei, Azadeh Ebrahim-Habibi, Siamak Shahidi, Abdolrahman Sarihi, Sara Soleimani Asl, Zoleikha Golipoor
Obesity and a high-fat diet (HFD) are known to increase the incidence of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Oxidative stress, a major risk factor for AD, is increased with HFD consumption. Thymol (Thy) has antioxidant properties. Therefore, in the present study, we examined the protective and therapeutic effects of Thy on amyloid-β (Aβ)-induced impairments in the hippocampal synaptic plasticity of HFD-fed rats. In this study, 72 adult male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to 9 groups (n = 8 rats/group): Group 1 (control; standard diet); Group 2: Control + phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) + Oil (Thy vehicle); Group 3 (HFD + PBS); Group 4: (HFD + Aβ); Group 5: Control + PBS + Thy; Group 6: (HFD + Aβ + Oil); Group 7: Control + Aβ + Thy; Group 8: HFD + PBS + Thy; Group 9: (HFD + Aβ + Thy)...
January 12, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338620/diminished-dentate-gyrus-filtering-of-cortical-input-leads-to-enhanced-area-ca3-excitability-after-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#2
Kaitlin Folweiler, Sandy Samuel, Hannah Metheny, Akiva S Cohen
Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) disrupts hippocampal function and can lead to long-lasting episodic memory impairments. The encoding of episodic memories relies on spatial information processing within the hippocampus. As the primary entry point for spatial information into hippocampus, the dentate gyrus is thought to function as a physiological gate, or filter, of afferent excitation before reaching downstream area CA3. While injury has previously been shown to alter dentate gyrus network excitability, it is unknown whether mTBI affects dentate gyrus output to area CA3...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334839/bax-inhibitor-1-is-required-for-resisting-the-early-brain-injury-induced-by-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-through-regulating-ire1-jnk-pathway
#3
Lei Shi, Zaizong Wang, Xianjin Liu, Mao Li, Shangfei Zhang, Xiaobin Song
Background and Purpose Bax inhibitor-1 (BI-1) has been identified as a suppressor of Bax-mediated cell apoptosis by regulation of endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced cell death. However, the role of BI-1 in Early Brain Injury (EBI) after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) remains unclear. In the present study, we aim to explore the neuroprotective functions of BI-1 in EBI after SAH by using models of SAH that induced endovascular perforation in rats. Method The neurological score, brain water content and blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability were evaluated simultaneously as prognostic indicators...
January 16, 2018: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325596/late-normal-tissue-response-in-the-rat-spinal-cord-after-carbon-ion-irradiation
#4
Maria Saager, Peter Peschke, Thomas Welzel, Lifi Huang, Stephan Brons, Rebecca Grün, Michael Scholz, Jürgen Debus, Christian P Karger
BACKGROUND: The present work summarizes the research activities on radiation-induced late effects in the rat spinal cord carried out within the "clinical research group ion beam therapy" funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG, KFO 214). METHODS AND MATERIALS: Dose-response curves for the endpoint radiation-induced myelopathy were determined at 6 different positions (LET 16-99 keV/μm) within a 6 cm spread-out Bragg peak using either 1, 2 or 6 fractions of carbon ions...
January 11, 2018: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273596/dihydrolipoic-acid-inhibits-lysosomal-rupture-and-nlrp3-through-lysosome-associated-membrane-protein-1-calcium-calmodulin-dependent-protein-kinase-ii-tak1-pathways-after-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-in-rat
#5
Keren Zhou, Budbazar Enkhjargal, Zhiyi Xie, Chengmei Sun, Lingyun Wu, Jay Malaguit, Sheng Chen, Jiping Tang, Jianmin Zhang, John H Zhang
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The NLRP3 (nucleotide binding and oligomerization domain-like receptor family pyrin domain-containing 3) inflammasome is a crucial component of the inflammatory response in early brain injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). In this study, we investigated a role of dihydrolipoic acid (DHLA) in lysosomal rupture, NLRP3 activation, and determined the underlying pathway. METHODS: SAH was induced by endovascular perforation in male Sprague-Dawley rats...
January 2018: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249938/peli1-contributions-in-microglial-activation-neuroinflammatory-responses-and-neurological-deficits-following-experimental-subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#6
Xue-Ping Huang, Jian-Hua Peng, Jin-Wei Pang, Xiao-Cui Tian, Xin-Shen Li, Yue Wu, Yong Li, Yong Jiang, Xiao-Chuan Sun
Early brain injury (EBI) following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is closely associated with neuroinflammation. Microglial activation is an early event that leads to neuroinflammation after SAH. Peli1 is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that mediates the induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines in microglia. Here we report Peli1 contributions in SAH mediated brain pathology. An SAH model was induced by endovascular perforation in adult male C57BL/6J mice. Peli1 was markedly induced in mice brains in a time-dependent manner and was predominantly expressed in CD16/32-positive microglia after SAH...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223673/risk-stratification-in-pediatric-perforated-appendicitis-prospective-correlation-with-outcomes-and-resource-utilization
#7
Yasmine Yousef, Fouad Youssef, Trish Dinh, Kartikey Pandya, Hayden Stagg, Michael Homsy, Robert Baird, Jean-Martin Laberge, Dan Poenaru, Pramod Puligandla, Kenneth Shaw, Sherif Emil
PURPOSE: Despite a wide spectrum of severity, perforated appendicitis in children is typically considered a single entity in outcomes studies. We performed a prospective cohort study to define a risk stratification system that correlates with outcomes and resource utilization. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted of all children operated for perforated appendicitis between May 2015 and December 2016 at a tertiary free-standing university children's hospital...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220863/a-small-dose-of-apomorphine-counteracts-the-deleterious-effects-of-middle-cerebral-artery-occlusion-in-different-models
#8
F Mastroiacovo, A Gaglione, C L Busceti, L Ryskalin, G Bozza, F Nicoletti, F Orzi, F Fornai
The present manuscript investigates in two animal species by using two different experimental models of middle cerebral artery occlusion (permanent and transient), the neuroprotective effects of the dopamine receptor agonist apomorphine. These effects were evaluated by measuring the infarct volume and by counting muscle strength at different time points following the ischemic insult. Apomorphine at the dose of 3 mg/Kg when adminsitered at two hours following the occlusion of the middle cerebral artery was able to reduce significantly the infarct volume in the cortex of mice and the ischemic volume of the basal ganglia perfused by the perforant branches of the middle cerebral artery in the rat...
September 1, 2017: Archives Italiennes de Biologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209170/noradrenaline-modulates-the-membrane-potential-and-holding-current-of-medial-prefrontal-cortex-pyramidal-neurons-via-%C3%AE-1-adrenergic-receptors-and-hcn-channels
#9
Katarzyna Grzelka, Przemysław Kurowski, Maciej Gawlak, Paweł Szulczyk
The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) receives dense noradrenergic projections from the locus coeruleus. Adrenergic innervation of mPFC pyramidal neurons plays an essential role in both physiology (control of memory formation, attention, working memory, and cognitive behavior) and pathophysiology (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, cognitive deterioration after traumatic brain injury, behavioral changes related to addiction, Alzheimer's disease and depression). The aim of this study was to elucidate the mechanism responsible for adrenergic receptor-mediated control of the resting membrane potential in layer V mPFC pyramidal neurons...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204679/gestational-exposure-to-inorganic-arsenic-ias3-alters-glutamate-disposition-in-the-mouse-hippocampus-and-ionotropic-glutamate-receptor-expression-leading-to-memory-impairment
#10
Janikua Nelson-Mora, Martha L Escobar, Luis Rodríguez-Durán, Lourdes Massieu, Teresa Montiel, Verónica M Rodríguez, Karina Hernández-Mercado, María E Gonsebatt
Early life exposure to environmental pollutants and toxic chemicals has been linked to learning and behavioral alterations in children. iAs exposure is associated with different types neurological disorders such as memory and learning impairment. iAs is methylated in the brain by the arsenic III-methyltransferase in a process that requires glutathione (GSH). The xCT-antiporter cell membrane transporter participates in the influx of cystine for GSH synthesis in exchange for glutamate in a 1:1 ratio. In CD-1 mice gestationally exposed to 20 ppm of sodium arsenite in drinking water, we have previously observed up-regulation of xCT in the male mouse hippocampus which caused glutamatergic synapse alterations affecting learning and memory processes...
December 4, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201002/a-comparison-of-different-slicing-planes-in-preservation-of-major-hippocampal-pathway-fibers-in-the-mouse
#11
Guoxiang Xiong, Hannah Metheny, Brian N Johnson, Akiva S Cohen
The hippocampus plays a critical role in learning and memory and higher cognitive functions, and its dysfunction has been implicated in various neuropathological disorders. Electrophysiological recording undertaken in live brain slices is one of the most powerful tools for investigating hippocampal cellular and network activities. The plane for cutting the slices determines which afferent and/or efferent connections are best preserved, and there are three commonly used slices: hippocampal-entorhinal cortex (HEC), coronal and transverse...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187576/host-cell-perforation-by-listeriolysin-o-llo-activates-a-ca2-dependent-cpkc-rac1-arp2-3-signaling-pathway-that-promotes-l-monocytogenes-internalization-independently-of-membrane-resealing
#12
Jonathan Lam, Stephen Vadia, Sarika Pathak-Sharma, Eric McLaughlin, Xiaoli Zhang, Joel Swanson, Stephanie Seveau
Host cell invasion is an indispensable step for a successful infection by intracellular pathogens. Recent studies identified pathogen-induced host cell plasma membrane perforation as a novel mechanism used by diverse pathogens (Trypanosoma cruzi, Listeria monocytogenes, and adenovirus) to promote their internalization into target cells. It was concluded that T. cruzi and adenovirus damage the host cell plasma membrane to hijack the endocytic-dependent membrane resealing machinery, thereby invading the host cell...
November 29, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183753/xanthine-derived-kmup-1-reverses-glucotoxicity-activated-kv-channels-through-the-camp-pka-signaling-pathway-in-rat-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells
#13
Chien-Hsing Lee, Chih-Sheng Chu, Han-Jie Tsai, Liang-Yin Ke, Hsiang-Chun Lee, Jwu-Lai Yeh, Chu-Huang Chen, Bin-Nan Wu
Hyperglycemia-associated glucotoxicity induces β-cell dysfunction and a reduction in insulin secretion. Voltage-dependent K+ (Kv) channels in pancreatic β-cells play a key role in glucose-dependent insulin secretion. KMUP-1, a xanthine derivative, has been demonstrated to modulate Kv channel activity in smooth muscles; however, the role of KMUP-1 in glucotoxicity-activated Kv channels in pancreatic β-cells remains unclear. In this study we examined the mechanisms by which KMUP-1 could inhibit high glucose (25 mM) activated Kv currents (IKv) in pancreatic β-cells...
November 25, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164103/the-human-antimicrobial-peptides-dermcidin-and-ll-37-show-novel-distinct-pathways-in-membrane-interactions
#14
REVIEW
Kornelius Zeth, Enea Sancho-Vaello
Mammals protect themselves from inflammation triggered by microorganisms through secretion of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). One mechanism by which AMPs kill bacterial cells is perforating their membranes. Membrane interactions and pore formation were investigated for α-helical AMPs leading to the formulation of three basic mechanistic models: the barrel stave, toroidal, and carpet model. One major drawback of these models is their simplicity. They do not reflect the real in vitro and in vivo conditions. To challenge and refine these models using a structure-based approach we set out to investigate how human cathelicidin (LL-37) and dermcidin (DCD) interact with membranes...
2017: Frontiers in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162556/recombinant-netrin-1-binding-unc5b-receptor-attenuates-neuroinflammation-and-brain-injury-via-ppar%C3%AE-nf%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathway-after-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-in-rats
#15
Zongyi Xie, Lei Huang, Budbazar Enkhjargal, Cesar Reis, Weifeng Wan, Jiping Tang, Yuan Cheng, John H Zhang
Neuroinflammation is an essential mechanism involved in the pathogenesis of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH)-induced brain injury. Recently, Netrin-1 (NTN-1) is well established to exert anti-inflammatory property in non-nervous system diseases through inhibiting infiltration of neutrophil. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of NTN-1 on neuroinflammation, and the potential mechanism in a rat model of SAH. Two hundred and ninety-four male Sprague Dawley rats (weight 280-330 g) were subjected to the endovascular perforation model of SAH...
November 18, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149926/drug-induced-gastrointestinal-and-hepatic-disease-associated-with-biologics-and-nonbiologic-disease-modifying-antirheumatic-drugs
#16
REVIEW
Patrick R Wood, Liron Caplan
A variety of gastrointestinal adverse drug reactions are seen in nearly all conventional antirheumatic medications, ranging from nausea to life-threatening drug-induced liver injury. Rheumatologists should be particularly familiar with hepatotoxicity associated with long-term methotrexate use, and the range of unique hepatic, biliary, and pancreatic manifestations associated with azathioprine. Hepatitis B virus reactivation is the most serious gastrointestinal disease risk associated with many biological therapies, particularly rituximab...
February 2018: Rheumatic Diseases Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104648/identification-of-key-signaling-pathways-in-cerebral-small-vessel-disease-using-differential-pathway-network-analysis
#17
Gang Zheng, Qianlei Zheng, Qianwei Xu
Cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) primarily affects the perforating cerebral arterioles and capillaries, and results in injury to subcortical grey and white matter. Despite advances in determining the genetic basis of CSVD, the molecular mechanisms underlying the development and progression of CSVD remain unclear. The present study aimed to identify significant signaling pathways associated with CSVD based on differential pathway network analysis. Combining CSVD microarray data with human protein-protein interaction data and data from the Reactome pathway database, pathway interactions were constructed using the Spearman's correlation coefficient strategy...
November 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083089/hmgb1-induced-angiogenesis-in-perforated-disc-cells-of-human-temporomandibular-joint
#18
Yaping Feng, Jin Ke, Pinyin Cao, Mohong Deng, Jian Li, Hengxing Cai, Qinggong Meng, Yingjie Li, Xing Long
High mobility group 1 protein (HMGB1), a highly conserved nuclear DNA-binding protein and inflammatory mediator, has been recently found to be involved in angiogenesis. Our previous study has demonstrated the elevation of HMGB1 in the tissue of perforated disc of temporomandibular joint (TMJ). Here, we investigated a novel mediator of HMGB1 in regulating hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) to mediate angiogenesis in perforated disc cells of TMJ. HMGB1 increased the expression of HIF-1α and VEGF in a dose- and time-dependent manner in these cells...
October 30, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066948/is-arc-mrna-unique-a-search-for-mrnas-that-localize-to-the-distal-dendrites-of-dentate-gyrus-granule-cells-following-neural-activity
#19
Christopher A de Solis, Anna A Morales, Matthew P Hosek, Alex C Partin, Jonathan E Ploski
There have been several attempts to identify which RNAs are localized to dendrites; however, no study has determined which RNAs localize to the dendrites following the induction of synaptic activity. We sought to identify all RNA transcripts that localize to the distal dendrites of dentate gyrus granule cells following unilateral high frequency stimulation of the perforant pathway (pp-HFS) using Sprague Dawley rats. We then utilized laser microdissection (LMD) to very accurately dissect out the distal 2/3rds of the molecular layer (ML), which contains these dendrites, without contamination from the granule cell layer, 2 and 4 h post pp-HFS...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064344/low-infection-related-re-admission-rates-in-a-retrospective-of-4725-children-with-appendicitis-using-a-clinical-pathway-in-a-tertiary-care-pediatric-center
#20
Nikolas E Marino, Kate Davenport, Mary Hilfiker, Simone Langness, Timothy Fairbanks, Erin Stucky Fisher, Robert Newbury, Allyson Andrews, Alan Wells, Juan D Chaparro, John S Bradley
BACKGROUND: Standardization of antibiotic management of appendicitis in tertiary care pediatric centers has been associated with improved outcomes. Rady Children's Hospital-San Diego implemented an appendicitis clinical pathway in 2005. We evaluated infection-related re-admission risk factors since 2010, when an electronic medical record was established, with the aim to optimize the clinical pathway. METHODS: Between January 2010 and August 2015, 4725 children with a diagnosis of appendicitis were evaluated for demographic data, pathology diagnoses, culture results, and inpatient and oral step-down antibiotic therapy regimens...
October 24, 2017: Surgical Infections
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