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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752434/activation-of-tgf-%C3%AE-activated-kinase-1-tak1-restricts-salmonella-typhimurium-growth-by-inducing-ampk-activation-and-autophagy
#1
Wei Liu, Yuanyuan Jiang, Jing Sun, Shizhong Geng, Zhiming Pan, Richard A Prinz, Chengming Wang, Jun Sun, Xinan Jiao, Xiulong Xu
Autophagy is a conserved cellular process that functions as a first-line defense to restrict the growth of invading parasitic bacteria. As an intracellular pathogen, Salmonella (S) Typhimurium invades host cells through two Type III secretion systems (T3SS) and resides in the Salmonella-containing vacuole (SCV). When the SCV membrane is perforated and ruptured by T3SS-1, a small portion of the Salmonella egresses from the SCV and replicates rapidly in the nutrient-rich cytosol. Cytosolic Salmonella and those residing in the membrane-damaged SCV are tagged by ubiquitination and marked for autophagy through the ubiquitin-binding adaptor proteins such as p62, NDP52, and optineurin...
May 11, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730348/epicardial-intraoperative-3-d-mapping-of-wolff-parkinson-white-in-a-child-with-ebstein-s-anomaly
#2
James C Perry, Andras Bratincsak, Suzanne Shepard, Matthew R Williams, Joseph Loslo, Raghav Murthy, John J Lamberti
Catheter ablation of arrhythmias in small patients has inherent significant risk due to patient, catheter, and lesion size. Heart block, perforation and coronary damage may occur. This report shows adaptation of a 3-D electroanatomic mapping system for intraoperative use in a small patient with Ebstein's anomaly undergoing Cone procedure and bidirectional Glenn. Use of this technique gave clear identification of the epicardial insertion points of two accessory pathways causing Wolff-Parkinson-White and resistant episodes of supraventricular tachycardia...
May 3, 2018: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715250/pneumoperitoneum
#3
Denise R Ramponi
Pneumoperitoneum, usually seen as free air under the diaphragm, is a finding that can be seen on plain abdominal radiographs, signifying a leakage of air, usually from a perforation in the gastrointestinal tract. There are several other potential pathways from other body compartments for air to enter the abdominal cavity. Pneumoperitoneum does not always signify bowel rupture, as it can also result from pneumomediastinum and pneumothorax, and in patients who are being mechanically ventilated. Patient history and physical examination can assist in a preliminary diagnosis before diagnostic imaging...
April 2018: Advanced Emergency Nursing Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713181/minodronate-for-the-treatment-of-osteoporosis
#4
REVIEW
Tsuyoshi Ohishi, Yukihiro Matsuyama
Minodronate is a third-generation bisphosphonate that was developed and approved for clinical use in osteoporosis therapy in Japan. The mechanism of action for suppressing bone resorption is the inhibition of farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase, a key enzyme in the mevalonic acid metabolic pathway of osteoclasts, to induce apoptosis of the cells. Minodronate is the strongest inhibitor of bone resorption among the currently available oral bisphosphonates. Large randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trials have revealed an increase in bone mineral density of both the lumbar spine and femoral neck over 3 years of daily minodronate therapy and risk reduction in vertebral fractures over 2 years of therapy...
2018: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710495/phosphodiesterase-4-inhibition-confers-a-neuroprotective-efficacy-against-early-brain-injury-following-experimental-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-in-rats-by-attenuating-neuronal-apoptosis-through-the-sirt1-akt-pathway
#5
Qun Li, Yucong Peng, Linfeng Fan, Hangzhe Xu, Pingyou He, Shenglong Cao, Jianru Li, Ting Chen, Wu Ruan, Gao Chen
Phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE4) plays a fundamental role in a range of central nervous system (CNS) insults, however, the role of PDE4 in early brain injury (EBI) after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) remains unclear. The current study was designed to investigate the role of PDE4 in EBI after SAH and explore the potential mechanism. The SAH model in Sprague-Dawley rat was established by endovascular perforation process. Rats were randomly divided into: sham group, SAH?+?vehicle group, SAH?+?rolipram (PDE4 inhibitor) group, SAH?+?rolipram?+?sirtinol (SIRT1 inhibitor) group and SAH?+?rolipram+MK2206 (Akt inhibitor) group...
March 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705048/erk-activation-is-required-for-the-antiepileptogenic-effect-of-low-frequency-electrical-stimulation-in-kindled-rats
#6
Parastoo Mardani, Shahrbanoo Oryan, Abdolrahman Sarihi, Alireza Komaki, Amir Shojaei, Samaneh Dehghan, Javad Mirnajafi-Zadeh
INTRODUCTION: The signaling pathways involved in the antiepileptogenic effect of low frequency electrical stimulation (LFS) have not been fully understood. In the present study the role of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling cascade was investigated in mediating the inhibitory effects of LFS on kindled seizures. METHODS: Animals received kindling stimulations for seven days (the mean number of stimulation days for achieving stage 5 seizure) according to semi-rapid perforant path kindling protocol (12 stimulations per day at 10 min intervals)...
April 26, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622626/triggered-recruitment-of-escrt-machinery-promotes-endolysosomal-repair
#7
Michael L Skowyra, Paul H Schlesinger, Teresa V Naismith, Phyllis I Hanson
Endolysosomes can be damaged by diverse materials. Terminally damaged compartments are degraded by lysophagy, but pathways that repair salvageable organelles are poorly understood. Here we found that the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) machinery, known to mediate budding and fission on endolysosomes, also plays an essential role in their repair. ESCRTs were rapidly recruited to acutely injured endolysosomes through a pathway requiring calcium and ESCRT-activating factors that was independent of lysophagy...
April 6, 2018: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602460/preoperative-gastric-lavage-in-gastric-cancer-patients-undergoing-surgical-endoscopic-or-minimally-invasive-treatment-an-oncological-measure-preventing-peritoneal-spillage-of-intragastric-cancer-cells-and-development-of-related-metastases
#8
Edoardo Virgilio, Genoveffa Balducci, Paolo Mercantini, Enrico Giarnieri, Maria Rosaria Giovagnoli, Monica Montagnini, Antonella Proietti, Rosaria D'Urso, Marco Cavallini
In addition to classical metastatic pathways, recently gastric cancer was described having an alternative route called "endoluminal exfoliation". Provisional analyses demonstrated, in fact, this kind of shedding is associated with several clinico-pathological features indicative of aggressive behavior and resulted to be an independent prognostic factor entailing poor prognosis. Compared with non-sowing counterparts, in fact, patients affected with exfoliating early and advanced gastric carcinomas met with shorter overall survival, disease free survival, progression free survival and time to tumor progression...
May 2018: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587294/macroscopic-localized-subicular-thinning-as-a-potential-indicator-of-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#9
Hiroki Yamada, Takahiro Takeda, Toshiki Uchihara, Shizuko Sato, Susumu Kirimura, Yuka Hirota, Makoto Kodama, Masanobu Kitagawa, Katsuiku Hirokawa, Takanori Yokota, Shuta Toru
Subicular degeneration occurs in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients. However, it was unknown whether microscopic subicular degeneration could be observed as macroscopic changes and whether these changes were associated with the transactive-response DNA binding protein 43 kDa (TDP-43) pathology. Topographic differences between subicular degeneration caused by ALS and Alzheimer disease (AD) had also not been characterized. Here we investigated the subiculum and related areas in autopsied brains from 3 ALS and 3 AD patients...
March 23, 2018: European Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29581630/minimally-invasive-management-of-delayed-recognition-iatrogenic-ureteric-injury
#10
Jessica Morrow, David Curry, Maeve Dooher, Siobhan Woolsey
Introduction: Iatrogenic ureteric injuries are a rare but serious complication of abdomino-pelvic surgery which can be associated with significant morbidity. 65-80% of ureteric trauma is only identified in the postoperative period. Current guidelines recommend stent insertion or urinary diversion via percutaneous nephrostomy. Good quality evidence on success and outcomes remains scant and the optimum treatment pathway unknown. Methods: A retrospective review of all delayed presentation ureteric injuries treated in our unit between 2005 and 2013 was performed...
September 2017: Ulster Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577102/a-case-with-corneal-perforation-due-to-bacterial-concretion-derived-from-lacrimal-canaliculitis
#11
Sho Ishikawa, Naoko Kato
Purpose: To report a case with corneal perforation, presumably due to ocular cicatricial pemphigoid (OCP) and bacterial concretion derived from lacrimal canaliculitis. Observations: A patient with OCP demonstrated adherence of concretion to the cornea of her right eye. She also demonstrated canaliculitis in this eye. We removed a whitish precipitate from the bottom of the corneal ulcer. When we flushed her lacrimal pathway, a marked amount of bacterial concretion and dense mucosa were refluxed from both puncta on the right side...
March 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29564531/shaker-related-voltage-gated-potassium-channels-kv1-in-human-hippocampus
#12
Michael Willis, Irmgard Leitner, Klaus Seppi, Maria Trieb, Georg Wietzorrek, Josef Marksteiner, Hans-Günther Knaus
In this study, we investigated the tissue expression levels, alpha subunit composition and distribution of Shaker-related voltage-dependent potassium Kv1 channels in human hippocampus by combining western blotting experiments, toxin autoradiography, in vivo radioligand binding studies, immunoprecipitation and immunohistochemistry. Tissue expression of Kv1.1 and Kv1.2 α-subunits in human post-mortem brain tissue was confirmed in immunoblot analysis using a panel of specific monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies...
March 21, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29548910/chronic-infusion-of-wnt7a-wnt5a-and-dkk-1-in-the-adult-hippocampus-induces-structural-synaptic-changes-and-modifies-anxiety-and-memory-performance
#13
Abril Ortiz-Matamoros, Clorinda Arias
Wnt signaling plays an important role in the adult brain function and its dysregulation has been implicated in some neurodegenerative pathways. Despite the functional role of the Wnt signaling in adult neural circuits, there is currently no evidence regarding the relationships between exogenously Wnt signaling activation or inhibition and hippocampal structural changes in vivo. Thus, we analyzed the effect of the chronic infusion of Wnt agonists, Wnt7a and Wnt5a, and antagonist, Dkk-1, on different markers of plasticity such as neuronal MAP-2, Tau, synapse number and morphology, and behavioral changes...
March 13, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29546590/deficiency-of-tenascin-c-alleviates-neuronal-apoptosis-and-neuroinflammation-after-experimental-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-in-mice
#14
Lei Liu, Masashi Fujimoto, Fumi Nakano, Hirofumi Nishikawa, Takeshi Okada, Fumihiro Kawakita, Kyoko Imanaka-Yoshida, Toshimichi Yoshida, Hidenori Suzuki
Tenascin-C (TNC), a matricellular protein, is upregulated in brain parenchyma after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Recent studies emphasize that early brain injury (EBI) should be overcome to improve post-SAH outcomes. The aim of this study was to investigate effects of TNC knockout (TNKO) on neuronal apoptosis and neuroinflammation, both of which are important constituents of EBI after SAH. C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) mice or TNKO mice underwent sham or filament perforation SAH modeling. Twenty-five WT mice and 25 TNKO mice were randomly divided into sham+WT (n = 10), sham+TNKO (n = 8), SAH+WT (n = 15), and SAH+TNKO (n = 17) groups...
March 15, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540522/olfaction-written-in-bone-cribriform-plate-size-parallels-olfactory-receptor-gene-repertoires-in-mammalia
#15
Deborah J Bird, William J Murphy, Lester Fox-Rosales, Iman Hamid, Robert A Eagle, Blaire Van Valkenburgh
The evolution of mammalian olfaction is manifested in a remarkable diversity of gene repertoires, neuroanatomy and skull morphology across living species. Olfactory receptor genes (ORGs), which initiate the conversion of odorant molecules into odour perceptions and help an animal resolve the olfactory world, range in number from a mere handful to several thousand genes across species. Within the snout, each of these ORGs is exclusively expressed by a discrete population of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs), suggesting that newly evolved ORGs may be coupled with new OSN populations in the nasal epithelium...
March 14, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29532267/severe-ischemic-cytomegalovirus-proctocolitis-with-multiple-perforation
#16
Reuban Toby D'cruz, Cheryl Chien-Li Lau, Thomas Paulraj Thamboo
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) typically causes gastrointestinal infections in immunocompetent patients. Colonic perforations secondary to CMV are exceeding rare. We describe a 88-year-old male presenting with a week-long history of intractable abdominal discomfort, bloating, nausea and diarrhea. Flexible sigmoidoscopy revealed significant ulceration with yellowish slough. Emergency surgery was performed subsequently in view of multiple perforations in the rectosigmoid junction. CMV gastrointestinal infections demonstrated an ischemic process secondary to vasculitis, which accelerated the pathway to colonic perforation...
March 12, 2018: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29524627/calcium-activated-sk-potassium-channels-are-key-modulators-of-the-pacemaker-frequency-in-locus-coeruleus-neurons
#17
Lina A Matschke, Susanne Rinné, Terrance P Snutch, Wolfgang H Oertel, Amalia M Dolga, Niels Decher
The physiological, intrinsic activity of noradrenergic locus coeruleus (LC) neurons is important for the control of sleep/wakefulness, cognition and autonomous body functions. Dysregulations of the LC-noradrenergic network contribute to the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders and are key findings in early stages of neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, identifying ion channels mediating the intrinsic pacemaking mechanism of LC neurons, which is in turn directly coupled to Ca2+ homeostasis and cell survival signaling pathways, can help to foster our understanding of the vulnerability of these neurons in neurodegenerative diseases...
April 2018: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29520435/a-phase-i-trial-of-escalating-doses-of-cixutumumab-imc-a12-and-sorafenib-in-the-treatment-of-advanced-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#18
Anthony B El-Khoueiry, Robert O'Donnell, Thomas J Semrad, Philip Mack, Suzette Blanchard, Nathan Bahary, Yixing Jiang, Yun Yen, John Wright, Helen Chen, Heinz-Josef Lenz, David R Gandara
PURPOSE: The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) pathway is activated in hepatocarcinogenesis. Cixutumumab is a monoclonal antibody against human insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R). Given the cross-talk between the IGF and VEGF pathways, we performed a phase I study of the combination of cixutumumab and sorafenib in hepatocellular cancer (HCC). METHODS: Eligible patients with no prior systemic therapy for advanced HCC and Child-Pugh A to B7 were treated with sorafenib 400 mg BID and escalating doses of cixutumumab (2, 4, or 6 mg/kg IV weekly) in a 3 + 3 design...
May 2018: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29512310/caffeine-consumption-disrupts-hippocampal-long-term-potentiation-in-freely-behaving-rats
#19
J Harry Blaise, Jee E Park, Nicholas J Bellas, Thomas M Gitchell, Vy Phan
Caffeine, one of the most commonly consumed psychoactive substances in the world, has long been known to alter neurological functions, such as alertness, attention, and memory. Despite caffeine's popularity, systematic investigations of its effects on synaptic plasticity in the brain are still lacking. Here we used a freely behaving rodent model of long-term potentiation (LTP), a frequently studied form of synaptic plasticity, to assess the effects of caffeine consumption on hippocampal plasticity. LTP, which is a persistent increase in the strength of synaptic connections between neurons, is a cellular mechanism widely considered to underlie the processes of learning and memory...
March 2018: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29505090/astrocyte-elevated-gene-1-participates-in-the-production-of-pro-inflammatory-cytokines-in-dental-pulp-cells-via-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signalling-pathway
#20
H Wu, M He, R Yang, Y Zuo, Z Bian
AIM: To identify the role of astrocyte elevated gene-1 (AEG-1) and the mechanism underlying the inflammatory response in dental pulp cells. METHODOLOGY: Astrocyte elevated gene-1 expression was detected at different stages of pulpitis in a rat model using immunohistochemistry. RT-qPCR and Western blot were used to assess AEG-1 expression in human dental pulp cells stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The LPS-induced expression of inflammatory cytokine genes was quantified by RT-qPCR in cells transfected with AEG-1 or negative control (NC) siRNA...
March 5, 2018: International Endodontic Journal
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