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Grid cells

Xiangchuan Meng, Xiaotian Hu, Xia Yang, Jingping Yin, Qingxia Wang, Liqiang Huang, Zoukangning Yu, Ting Hu, Licheng Tan, Weihua Zhou, Yiwang Chen
Flexible transparent electrodes (FTEs) are an indispensable component for flexible optoelectronic devices. In this work, the meter-scale composite transparent electrode (CTEs) composing of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) and Ag-grid/PET with optimized mechanical and optical properties is demonstrated by slot-die roll-to-roll technique with solution printing method under a low cost (2.8 $ for per square meter), via control of the viscosity and surface energy of PEDOT:PSS ink as well as the printing parameters...
February 19, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Masaaki Yoshida, Shiho Kunimatsu-Sanuki, Kazuko Omodaka, Toru Nakazawa
PURPOSE: This study aimed to calculate a predicted integrated visual field (IVF) based on predicted monocular visual fields (MVFs) derived, with a new method, from wide-scan optical coherence tomography (OCT) data. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Visual field testing used the central (6 × 4) 24 points of the Humphrey Field Analyzer 24-2 program. OCT scans of a corresponding retinal area, centered on the fovea, were divided into a 6 × 4 grid. The thickness of the macular retinal nerve fiber layer (mRNFL), ganglion cell layer + inner plexiform layer (GCIPL), and mRNFL + GCIPL (GCC) was measured in each grid area...
February 16, 2018: Current Eye Research
Ying Rao, Yanghua Wang
The contrast of elastic properties across a subsurface interface imposes a dominant influence on the seismic wavefield, which includes transmitted and reflected waves from the interface. Therefore, for an accurate waveform simulation, it is necessary to have an accurate representation of the subsurface interfaces within the numerical model. Accordingly, body-fitted gridding is used to partition subsurface models so that the grids coincide well with both the irregular surface and fluctuating interfaces of the Earth...
February 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Simon M Lauer, Undine Schneeweiß, Michael Brecht, Saikat Ray
The cortex of mammalian brains is parcellated into distinct substructures or modules. Cortical modules typically lie parallel to the cortical sheet, and can be delineated by certain histochemical and immunohistochemical methods. In this study, we highlight a method to isolate the cortex from mammalian brains and flatten them to obtain sections parallel to the cortical sheet. We further highlight selected histochemical and immunohistochemical methods to process these flattened tangential sections to visualize cortical modules...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Takatomo Sugano, Yui Sasaki, Fumio Mizutani, Tomoyuki Yasukawa
Arrays with cell aggregations and single-cell arrays embedded in hydrogel sheets were fabricated by negative dielectrophoretic (n-DEP) cell-manipulation techniques and hydrogel gelation. Cells suspended randomly in a prepolymer solution were rapidly manipulated to form an island-like organization of cells through the repulsive force of n-DEP by using a DEP device consisting of grid electrodes. The cell patterns were retained by irradiating ultraviolet (UV) light so as to urge gelation. Moreover, control of the optical transparency of the grid electrode allows for the fabrication of cubes with single cells and cell aggregation...
2018: Analytical Sciences: the International Journal of the Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry
Bryan C Souza, Rodrigo Pavão, Hindiael Belchior, Adriano B L Tort
The hippocampal formation is involved in navigation, and its neuronal activity exhibits a variety of spatial correlates (e.g., place cells, grid cells). The quantification of the information encoded by spikes has been standard procedure to identify which cells have spatial correlates. For place cells, most of the established metrics derive from Shannon's mutual information (Shannon, 1948), and convey information rate in bits/sec or bits/spike (Skaggs et al., 1993; Skaggs et al., 1996). Despite their widespread use, the performance of these metrics in relation to the original mutual information metric has never been investigated...
February 9, 2018: Neuroscience
Chuan Xia, Jing Guo, Peng Li, Xixiang Zhang, Husam N Alshareef
Cost-effective aqueous rechargeable batteries are attractive alternatives to non-aqueous cells for stationary grid energy storage. Among different aqueous cells, zinc-ion batteries (ZIBs), based on Zn2+ intercalation chemistry, stand out as they can employ high-capacity Zn metal as anode material. Herein, we report a layered calcium vanadium oxide bronze as cathode material for aqueous Zn batteries. For the storage of Zn2+ ions in aqueous electrolyte, we demonstrate that calcium based bronze structure can deliver a high capacity of 340 mAh g-1 at 0...
February 12, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Wen Yang, Ariane Briegel
Cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) allows the imaging of intact macromolecular complexes in the context of whole cells. The biological samples for cryo-EM are kept in a near-native state by flash freezing, without the need for any additional sample preparation or fixation steps. Since transmission electron microscopy only generates 2D projections of the samples, the specimen has to be tilted in order to recover its 3D structural information. This is done by collecting images of the sample with various tilt angles in respect to the electron beam...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
S Vignesh, Aswathi Gopalakrishnan, M R Poorna, Shantikumar V Nair, R Jayakumar, Ullas Mony
Micropatterning techniques involve soft lithography, which is laborious, expensive and restricted to a narrow spectrum of biomaterials. In this work we report, first time employment of patterned wax moulds for generation of micropatterned alginate-gelatin and κ-carrageenan (κ-CRG) hydrogel systems by a novel, simple and cost effective method. We generated and characterized uniform and reproducible micropatterned hydrogels of varying sizes and shapes such as square projections, square grooves, and circular grids and crisscrossed hillocks...
February 7, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Eng Kuan Moo, Scott C Sibole, Sang Kuy Han, Walter Herzog
Non-invasive characterization of the mechanical micro-environment surrounding cells in biological tissues at multiple length scales is important for the understanding of the role of mechanics in regulating the biosynthesis and phenotype of cells. However, there is a lack of imaging methods that allow for characterization of the cell micro-environment in three-dimensional (3D) space. The aims of this study were (i) to develop a multi-photon laser microscopy protocol capable of imprinting 3D grid lines onto living tissue at a high spatial resolution, and (ii) to develop image processing software capable of analyzing the resulting microscopic images and performing high resolution 3D strain analyses...
February 6, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Robert Fritze, Anita Graser, Markus Sinnl
OBJECTIVES: Emergency medical services have been established in many countries all over the world. Good first care improves the outcome of patients in terms of hospital stay duration, chances of full recovery and of treatment costs. In this paper, we present an integrated approach combining spatial information and integer optimization for emergency medical service location planning. The research is motivated by a recent call for bids to restructure the location of emergency medical services in the Austrian federal state of Lower Austria by the local state government...
March 2018: International Journal of Medical Informatics
A Simsek, A J Bullock, S Roman, C R Chapple, S Macneil
INTRODUCTION: We aimed to compare alternative synthetic scaffolds suitable for future implantation and to examine the use of an inhibitor of lysyl oxidase (beta-amino- propionitrile [β-APN]) to reduce contraction in these implants. METHODS: Three synthetic scaffolds were compared to natural dermis as substrates for the production of tissue-engineered skin. For natural dermis, Euroskin was used to provide a cell-free cadaveric dermis. Synthetic scaffolds consisted of microfibrous PLA, nanofibrous PHBV, and a micro-/nanofibrous trilayer of PLA-PHBV-PLA...
February 6, 2018: Canadian Urological Association Journal, Journal de L'Association des Urologues du Canada
Lipeng Wan, Daomu Zhao
A novel class of partially coherent light sources termed optical coherence grids (OCGs) are introduced that can yield stable optical grids in the far field. The optical grids, of which the light distributes in a network of straight lines crossing each other to form a series of hollow cages, can be seen as a better controlled optical lattice. Propagation properties of OCG beams in free space, including spectral density, transverse coherence, and M2 factor, are investigated in detail. It is interesting that a periodic grid pattern is produced at a distance and remains stable on further propagation, and we stress that the structure of far-field optical grids can be flexibly tuned by modulating the correlation parameters of the source...
January 22, 2018: Optics Express
Inês Gomes Castro, Maya Schuldiner, Einat Zalckvar
The eukaryotic cell is organized as a complex grid system where membrane-bound cellular compartments, organelles, must be localized to the right place at the right time. One way to facilitate correct organelle localization and organelle cooperation is through membrane contact sites, areas of close proximity between two organelles that are bridged by protein/lipid complexes. It is now clear that all organelles physically contact each other. The main focus of this review is contact sites of peroxisomes, central metabolic hubs whose defects lead to a variety of diseases...
January 27, 2018: Trends in Biochemical Sciences
Olena Müller, Margarita G Todorova, Torsten Schlote
PURPOSE: We aimed to investigate central macular microvasculature by optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) and to analyse its relation to alterations in classical parameters of optical coherence tomography (OCT) in glaucoma patients. METHODS: Using OCTA (Avanti incl. AngioVue; Optovue, Inc., Fremont, CA), the superficial flow (SF) and the superficial non-flow (SNF) area of the macula, as well as the S-ETDRS (based on Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy charts)...
February 1, 2018: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
Rishi R Sekar, Dattatraya Patil, Yoram Baum, Jeffrey Pearl, Anna Bausum, Mehmet A Bilen, Omer Kucuk, Wayne B Harris, Bradley C Carthon, Mehrdad Alemozaffar, Christopher P Filson, John G Pattaras, Peter T Nieh, Kenneth Ogan, Viraj A Master
Objective: Several inflammatory markers have been studied as potential biomarkers in renal cell carcinoma (RCC), however few reports have analyzed their prognostic value in aggregate and in non-clear cell histologies. We hypothesize that a combination of specific inflammatory markers into an RCC Inflammatory Score (RISK) could serve as a rigorous prognostic indicator of overall survival (OS) in patients with clear cell and non-clear cell RCC. Methods: Combination of preoperative C-reactive protein (CRP), albumin, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), corrected calcium, and aspartate transaminase to alanine transaminase (AST/ALT) ratio was used to develop RISK...
October 2017: Asian Journal of Urology
Miriam L R Meister, Elizabeth A Buffalo
Primates predominantly rely on vision to gather information from the environment, and neurons representing visual space and gaze position are found in many brain areas. Within the medial temporal lobe, a brain region critical for memory, neurons in the entorhinal cortex of macaque monkeys exhibit spatial selectivity for gaze position. Specifically, the firing rate of single neurons reflects fixation location within a visual image (Killian et al., 2012). In the rodents, entorhinal cells such as grid cells, border cells, and head direction cells show spatial representations aligned to visual environmental features instead of the body (Hafting et al...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Sarah A Tennant, Lukas Fischer, Derek L F Garden, Klára Zsófia Gerlei, Cristina Martinez-Gonzalez, Christina McClure, Emma R Wood, Matthew F Nolan
Spatial learning requires estimates of location that may be obtained by path integration or from positional cues. Grid and other spatial firing patterns of neurons in the superficial medial entorhinal cortex (MEC) suggest roles in behavioral estimation of location. However, distinguishing the contributions of path integration and cue-based signals to spatial behaviors is challenging, and the roles of identified MEC neurons are unclear. We use virtual reality to dissociate linear path integration from other strategies for behavioral estimation of location...
January 30, 2018: Cell Reports
Jun Wang, Rongbo Zhu, Shubo Liu, Zhaohui Cai
Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are widely applied in industrial application with the rapid development of Industry 4.0. Combining with centralized cloud platform, the enormous computational power is provided for data analysis, such as strategy control and policy making. However, the data analysis and mining will bring the issue of privacy leakage since sensors will collect varieties of data including sensitive location information of monitored objects. Differential privacy is a novel technique that can prevent compromising single record benefits...
January 31, 2018: Sensors
Tale L Bjerknes, Nenitha C Dagslott, Edvard I Moser, May-Britt Moser
Place cells in the hippocampus and grid cells in the medial entorhinal cortex rely on self-motion information and path integration for spatially confined firing. Place cells can be observed in young rats as soon as they leave their nest at around 2.5 wk of postnatal life. In contrast, the regularly spaced firing of grid cells develops only after weaning, during the fourth week. In the present study, we sought to determine whether place cells are able to integrate self-motion information before maturation of the grid-cell system...
January 30, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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