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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721342/hepatitis-b-virus-genotype-e-infection-among-egyptian-health-care-workers
#1
Reem Elmaghloub, Ashraf Elbahrawy, Gamal El Didamony, Ahmed Elwassief, Abdel-Gawad Saied Mohammad, Ahmed Alashker, Hendawy Zedan, Abdallah Mahmoud Abdallah, Mahmoud Haddad Hemidah, Amr Elmestikawy, Mohamed El Fayoumei, Hossam Shahba, Ahmed Gawish, Mohamed Hanafy Morsy, Alaa Hashim, Mohamed Ali Abdelbaseer, Yoshihide Ueda, Tsutomu Chiba, Hafez Abdelhafeez
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Health Care Workers (HCWs) are at a high risk of needle stick injuries and HBV infection in Egypt; this problem is further aggravated by low Hepatitis B (HB) vaccination coverage. Limited data are available on the prevalence of HBV infection in Egyptian HCWs. In this study, we aimed to assess the HBV infection rate and genotypes among Egyptian HCWs. METHODS: Five hundred and sixty-four (564) HCWs were included. Of them, 258 (45.74%) were health care providers and 306 (54...
June 2017: Journal of Translational Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720427/the-challenges-and-promise-of-targeting-the-liver-x-receptors-for-treatment-of-inflammatory-disease
#2
REVIEW
Michael B Fessler
The Liver X Receptors (LXRs) are oxysterol-activated transcription factors that upregulate a suite of genes that together promote coordinated mobilization of excess cholesterol from cells and from the body. The LXRs, like other nuclear receptors, are anti-inflammatory, inhibiting signal-dependent induction of pro-inflammatory genes by nuclear factor-κB, activating protein-1, and other transcription factors. Synthetic LXR agonists have been shown to ameliorate atherosclerosis and a wide range of inflammatory disorders in preclinical animal models...
July 15, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719500/a-randomized-controlled-study-of-a-fully-liquid-dtap-ipv-hb-prp-t-hexavalent-vaccine-for-primary-and-booster-vaccinations-of-healthy-infants-and-toddlers-in-latin-america
#3
Pío López, Adriano Arguedas Mohs, Arturo Abdelnour Vásquez, Maria Consuelo-Miranda, Emmanuel Feroldi, Fernando Noriega, Emilia Jordanov, Siham B'Chir, Betzana Zambrano
BACKGROUND: Hexavalent diphtheria (D)-tetanus (T)-acellular pertussis (aP)-inactivated poliovirus (IPV)-hepatitis B (HB)-Haemophilus influenzae type b (PRP-T)-containing vaccines are increasingly the standard of care. This study evaluated the primary series (NCT01177722) and booster (NCT01444781) of a fully liquid DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T vaccine in Latin America. METHODS: Infants (N=1375) received HB vaccine at birth and were randomized to one of three batches of the investigational DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T or licensed control vaccine (DTaP-HB-IPV//PRP-T) at 2-4-6 months of age, co-administered with 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) (2-4-6 months) and rotavirus vaccine (2-4 months)...
July 14, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715695/new-liver-cancer-biomarkers-pi3k-akt-mtor-pathway-members-and-eukaryotic-translation-initiation-factors
#4
Nicole Golob-Schwarzl, Stefanie Krassnig, Anna M Toeglhofer, Young Nyun Park, Margit Gogg-Kamerer, Klemens Vierlinger, Fabian Schröder, Hyungjn Rhee, Rudolf Schicho, Peter Fickert, Johannes Haybaeck
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. The initiation of protein translation is an important rate-limiting step in eukaryotes and is crucial in many viral infections. Eukaryotic translation initiation factors (eIFs) are involved in the initiation step of protein translation and are linked to the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinases PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway. Therefore we aimed to investigate a potential role of eIFs in HCC. We herein report on the immunohistochemical expression of the various eIF subunits in 235 cases of virus-related human HCC...
July 14, 2017: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710435/evaluation-of-elift-for-non-invasive-assessment-of-liver-fibrosis-and-cirrhosis-in-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-b-virus-infection
#5
Qiang Li, Chuan Lu, Weixia Li, Yuxian Huang, Liang Chen
Recently, the easy Liver Fibrosis Test (eLIFT), a sum of points attributed to age, gender, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, aspartate transaminase, platelets, and prothrombin time, was developed for diagnosing advanced fibrosis and cirrhosis in chronic liver disease. We aimed to evaluate the performance of eLIFT to predict liver fibrosis and cirrhosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). Histologic and laboratory data of 747 CHB patients were analyzed. The performance of eLIFT for diagnosing liver fibrosis and cirrhosis was compared with that of aspartate transaminase to platelet ratio index (APRI) and fibrosis index based on the 4 factors (FIB-4)...
July 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709980/downregulation-of-usp18-inhibits-growth-and-induces-apoptosis-in-hepatitis-b-virus-related-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cells-by-suppressing-bcl2l1
#6
Jing Cai, Tiande Liu, Xiaoliu Jiang, Changkuo Guo, Anwen Liu, Xinlan Xiao
Ubiquitin-specific peptidase 18 (USP18) is closely related with hepatitis B virus (HBV), which has been involved in tumourigenesis. However, there has been little research into the role of USP18 on the progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), especially in HBV-related HCC. In present study, we found that USP18 expression was aberrantly elevated in HCC tissues than adjacent non-tumour tissues. Importantly, USP18 expression was higher in HBV-related HCC cell lines (HepG2.2.15 and Hep3B) than HBV-unrelated HCC cell lines...
July 11, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708894/magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-spectroscopy-for-differential-assessment-of-liver-abnormalities-induced-by-opisthorchis-felineus-in-an-animal-model
#7
Alexandra G Pershina, Vladimir V Ivanov, Lina V Efimova, Oleg B Shevelev, Sergey V Vtorushin, Tatjana V Perevozchikova, Alexey E Sazonov, Ludmila M Ogorodova
BACKGROUND: European liver fluke Opisthorchis felineus, causing opisthorchiasis disease, is widespread in Russia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan and sporadically detected in the EU countries. O. felineus infection leads to hepatobiliary pathological changes, cholangitis, fibrosis and, in severe cases, malignant transformation of bile ducts. Due to absence of specific symptoms, the infection is frequently neglected for a long period. The association of opisthorchiasis with almost incurable bile duct cancer and rising international migration of people that increases the risk of the parasitic etiology of liver fibrosis in non-endemic regions determine high demand for development of approaches to opisthorchiasis detection...
July 14, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707778/role-of-quantitative-hepatitis-b-core-antibody-levels-in-predicting-significant-liver-inflammation-in-chronic-hepatitis-b-patients-with-normal-or-near-normal-alanine-aminotransferase-levels
#8
Jing Li, Tian-Ying Zhang, Liu-Wei Song, Xun Qi, Xue-Ping Yu, Fa-Hong Li, Pu Zhou, Yan-Li Qin, Lin Yang, Jing-Hua Zhao, Ri-Cheng Mao, Yong-Mei Zhang, Jin-Yu Wang, Fei-Fei Yang, Hao-Xiang Zhu, Si-Si Yang, Yu-Xian Huang, Quan Yuan, Jun Zhang, Ji-Ming Zhang, Ning-Shao Xia
AIM: Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients with normal alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels are not free from significant hepatic lesions. Recently, there has been an improved understanding of the clinical significance of quantitative hepatitis B core antibody levels (qAnti-HBc) during CHB management. In this cross-section study, we evaluated the utility of qAnti-HBc in identifying significant liver inflammation in CHB patients. METHODS: A total of 469 patients (the training set: 363; the validation set: 106) underwent liver biopsy (LB) were included...
July 14, 2017: Hepatology Research: the Official Journal of the Japan Society of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706267/a-simple-add-and-display-method-for-immobilisation-of-cancer-drug-on-his-tagged-virus-like-nanoparticles-for-controlled-drug-delivery
#9
Roya Biabanikhankahdani, Saadi Bayat, Kok Lian Ho, Noorjahan Banu Mohamed Alitheen, Wen Siang Tan
pH-responsive virus-like nanoparticles (VLNPs) hold promising potential as drug delivery systems for cancer therapy. In the present study, hepatitis B virus (HBV) VLNPs harbouring His-tags were used to display doxorubicin (DOX) via nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) conjugation. The His-tags served as pH-responsive nanojoints which released DOX from VLNPs in a controlled manner. The His-tagged VLNPs conjugated non-covalently with NTA-DOX, and cross-linked with folic acid (FA) were able to specifically target and deliver the DOX into ovarian cancer cells via folate receptor (FR)-mediated endocytosis...
July 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705716/occult-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-in-greek-patients-with-congenital-bleeding-disorders
#10
Agoritsa Varaklioti, Anna Kouramba, Panagiota Ioannidou, Olga Katsarou
Occult hepatitis B infection (OBI) is a form of chronic HBV infection characterized by low level HBV DNA, without detectable HBV surface antigen (HBsAg). OBI is frequently associated with the presence of anti-HBc and in some cases also with anti-HBs. Patients, who formerly received non-inactivated factor concentrates, can potentially be considered at high risk for OBI, especially since these patients usually are HIV or HCV co-infected. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of occult HBV infection in Greek patients with hereditary bleeding disorders...
July 10, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705153/a-randomized-clinical-pharmacokinetic-trial-of-tenofovir-in-blood-plasma-and-urine-in-adults-with-perfect-moderate-and-low-prep-adherence-the-target-study
#11
Tim R Cressey, Oraphan Siriprakaisil, Virat Klinbuayaem, Justice Quame-Amaglo, Rachel W Kubiak, Pra-Ornsuda Sukrakanchana, Kanchana Than-In-At, Jared Baeten, Wasna Sirirungsi, Ratchada Cressey, Paul K Drain
BACKGROUND: Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) is key component of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV, but existing tools to monitor drug adherence are often inaccurate. Detection of tenofovir (TFV) in accessible biological samples, such as fingerprick blood, urine or oral fluid samples could be a novel objective measure of recent TDF adherence. To measure TFV concentrations associated with different levels of TDF adherence, we designed a randomized clinical trial to assess the blood, urine and oral fluid concentrations of TFV in adults with perfect, moderate and low drug adherence...
July 14, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702738/impact-of-etiological-treatment-on-prognosis
#12
REVIEW
Chien-Wei Su, Ying-Ying Yang, Han-Chieh Lin
Portal hypertension (PHT) is a frequent and severe complication of cirrhosis. PHT may lead to the development of various complications with high mortality. Liver transplantation is the gold standard as a surgical curative treatment for end-stage liver disease. Theoretically, etiological treatment focusing on the pathophysiology of the underlying disease should be the objective of the nonsurgical management of cirrhotic PHT. Chronic viral hepatitis is the major etiology of cirrhosis and PHT. In cirrhotic patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection, antiviral therapies can suppress viral replication, ameliorate hepatic inflammation, regress fibrosis, and restore liver functional reserve...
July 12, 2017: Hepatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702728/cd8-t-cell-expansion-in-hiv-hcv-coinfection-is-associated-with-systemic-inflammation
#13
E V Saidakova, K V Shmagel, L B Korolevskaya, N G Shmagel, V A Chereshnev
High prevalence of non-AIDS-defining illnesses in treated HIV-infected patients is associated with increased peripheral CD8(+) T cell counts. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfection is an additional risk factor for the development of non-AIDS events. We found that, in HIV/HCV coinfection, the increased proportion of CD8(+) T lymphocytes is due to the effector memory and terminal effector T cells gain. Moreover, in these patients, the accumulation of highly differentiated forms of CD8(+) T lymphocytes was associated with increased concentrations of inflammatory indices...
May 2017: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702667/microengineered-cultures-containing-human-hepatic-stellate-cells-and-hepatocytes-for-drug-development
#14
Matthew D Davidson, David A Kukla, Salman R Khetani
In non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), hepatic stellate cells (HSC) differentiate into myofibroblast-like cells that cause fibrosis, which predisposes patients to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Thus, modeling interactions between activated HSCs and hepatocytes in vitro can aid in the development of anti-NASH/fibrosis therapeutics and lead to a better understanding of disease progression. Species-specific differences in drug metabolism and disease pathways now necessitate the supplementation of animal studies with data acquired using human liver models; however, current models do not adequately model the negative effects of primary human activated HSCs on the phenotype of otherwise well-differentiated primary human hepatocytes (PHHs) as in vivo...
July 12, 2017: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700730/pediatric-autoimmune-hepatitis-shows-a-disproportionate-decline-of-regulatory-t-cells-in-the-liver-and-of-il-2-in-the-blood-of-patients-undergoing-therapy
#15
Jana Diestelhorst, Norman Junge, Jerome Schlue, Christine S Falk, Michael P Manns, Ulrich Baumann, Elmar Jaeckel, Richard Taubert
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a chronic hepatitis driven by the adaptive immunity that affects all age groups. A functional and numerical regulatory T cell (Treg) defect has been reported in pediatric AIH (pAIH), while an intrahepatic increase in adult AIH (aAIH) patients has been detected in current research findings. METHODS: Therefore, we quantified the intrahepatic numbers of Treg, T and B cells, as well as serum cytokine levels before and during therapy in pAIH...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700328/additional-n-glycosylation-mutation-in-the-major-hydrophilic-region-of-hepatitis-b-virus-s-gene-is-a-risk-indicator-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma-occurrence-in-patients-with-coexistence-of-hbsag-anti-hbs
#16
Yan Qiao, Shanshan Lu, Zhihui Xu, Xiaodong Li, Kai Zhang, Yan Liu, Li Zhao, Rongjuan Chen, Lanlan Si, Shumei Lin, Dongping Xu, Jin Li
The study aimed to determine the association of additional N-glycosylation mutations in the major hydrophilic region (MHR) of hepatitis B virus (HBV) S gene with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) occurrence in HBsAg/anti-HBs coexistent patients. A total of 288 HBsAg/anti-HBs coexistent patients and 490 single HBsAg-positive patients were enrolled, including 193 with HCC, 433 with chronic hepatitis B (CHB), and 152 with acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF). The HBV S genes were amplified from serum and sequenced...
June 27, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699901/transcriptomic-profiling-of-long-non-coding-rnas-in-hepatitis-b-virus-related-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#17
Hongxia Fan, Qiaoge Zhang, Xiaopei Zhao, Ping Lv, Min Liu, Hua Tang
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been reported to be involved in the development and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, few studies have focus on the dyregulation and the role of lncRNAs in HBV-related HCC. We performed a comprehensive analysis of lncRNAs expression profile in HBV-related HCC tissues samples using deep sequencing. We revealed that a total of 1242 lncRNA transcripts (983 up-regulated and 259 down-regulated) and 1841 mRNA transcripts were significantly differentially expressed in HBV-related HCC patients...
June 30, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697899/hiv-and-coronary-disease-when-secondary-prevention-is-insufficient
#18
Ana Sofia Carvalho, Rui Osório Valente, Luís Almeida Morais, Pedro Modas Daniel, Ramiro Sá Carvalho, Lurdes Ferreira, Rui Cruz Ferreira
Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has created a new paradigm for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients, but their increased risk for coronary disease is well documented. We present the case of a 57-year-old man, co-infected with HIV-2 and hepatitis B virus, adequately controlled and with insulin-treated type 2 diabetes and dyslipidemia, who was admitted with non-ST elevation acute myocardial infarction. Coronary angiography performed on day four of hospital stay documented two-vessel disease (mid segment of the right coronary artery [RCA, 90% stenosis] and the first marginal)...
July 8, 2017: Portuguese Journal of Cardiology: An Official Journal of the Portuguese Society of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696785/exendin-4-a-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-agonist-downregulates-hepatic-receptor-for-advanced-glycation-end-products-in-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-rat-model
#19
Mona M Allam, Walaa B El Gazzar
CONTEXT: Exendin-4, a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist has been shown to have curative effects on hepatic steatosis in murine models. OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to elucidate the effect of Exendin-4 on hepatic receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) mRNA expression in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) rat model induced by high-fat diet. METHODS: NASH was induced by high-fat diet intake, and Exendin-4 was given in two different doses...
July 11, 2017: Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696069/hcc-associated-single-nucleotide-variants-and-deletions-identified-using-genome-wide-high-throughput-analysis-of-hbv
#20
Wen-Chun Liu, I-Chin Wu, Yen-Chien Lee, Chih-Peng Lin, Ji-Hong Cheng, Yih-Jyh Lin, Chia-Jui Yen, Pin-Nan Cheng, Pei-Fu Li, Yi-Ting Cheng, Pei-Wen Cheng, Koun-Tem Sun, Shu-Ling Yan, Jia-Jhen Lin, Jui-Chu Yang, Kung-Chao Chang, Cheng-Hsun Ho, Vincent S Tseng, Bill Chia-Han Chang, Jaw-Ching Wu, Ting-Tsung Chang
This study investigated hepatitis B virus (HBV) single nucleotide variants (SNVs) and deletion mutations linked with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Ninety-three HCC patients and 108 non-HCC patients were enrolled for HBV genome-wide next-generation sequencing (NGS) analysis. Systemic literature review and meta-analysis were performed to validate NGS-defined HCC-associated SNVs and deletions. The experimental results identified 60 NGS-defined HCC-associated SNVs, including 41 novel SNVs, and their pathogenic frequencies...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Pathology
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