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Alzheimer's etiologies

Cheng-Xin Gong, Fei Liu, Khalid Iqbal
The amyloid cascade hypothesis has been dominating drug discovery for Alzheimer's disease (AD) for the last two decades. The failure of the development of effective drugs for slowing down or reversing the progression of AD warrants the AD field to consider out-of-the-box thinking and therapeutic approaches. We propose the multifactorial hypothesis of AD, emphasizing that AD is caused by multiple etiological factors, which may result in common brain pathology and functional consequences through several separate but integrated molecular pathways...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Madeleine L Werhane, Kelsey R Thomas, Emily C Edmonds, Katherine J Bangen, My Tran, Alexandra L Clark, Daniel A Nation, Paul E Gilbert, Mark W Bondi, Lisa Delano-Wood
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: The APOE ɛ4 allele and increased vascular risk have both been independently linked to cognitive impairment and dementia. Since few studies have characterized how these risk factors affect everyday functioning, we investigated the relationship between APOE ɛ4 genotype and elevated pulse pressure (PP) on functional change in cognitively normal participants from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI). METHODS: 738 normally aging participants underwent APOE genotyping, and baseline PP was calculated from blood pressure indices...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Dillon F Da Fonte, Chris J Martyniuk, Lei Xing, Vance L Trudeau
Radial glial cells (RGCs) are the main macroglia in the teleost brain and have established roles in neurogenesis and neurosteroidogenesis. They are the only brain cell type expressing aromatase B ( cyp19a1b ), the enzyme that synthesizes estrogens from androgen precursors. There are few studies on the regulation of RGC functions, but our previous investigations demonstrated that dopamine stimulates cyp19a1b expression in goldfish RGCs, while secretoneurin A (SNa) inhibits the expression of this enzyme. Here, we determine the range of proteins and cellular processes responsive to SNa treatments in these steroidogenic cells...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
James D Weinstein
Despite decades of research, at present there is no curative therapy for Alzheimer's disease. Changes in the way new drugs are tested appear to be necessary. Three changes are presented here and will be discussed. The first change is that Alzheimer's disease must be considered a disease of four major pathological processes, not one. The four processes are: 1) vascular hypoperfusion of the brain with associated mitochondrial dysfunction, 2) destructive protein inclusions, 3) uncontrolled oxidative stress, and 4) proinflammatory immune processes secondary to microglial and astrocytic dysfunction in the brain...
February 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
Varda Shoshan-Barmatz, Edna Nahon-Crystal, Anna Shteinfer-Kuzmine, Rajeev Gupta
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-related neurodegenerative disorder. Although an accumulation of brain amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide and hyperphosphorylated tau protein have been implicated in the pathogenesis of AD, the etiology of the disease remains unclear. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been identified as an early event in AD pathogenesis and is reflected by reduced metabolism, disruption of Ca2+ homeostasis, and increased levels of reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation, and apoptosis. The focus of this review is the involvement of mitochondrial dysfunction in AD, and specifically, the role of the voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1), which has been linked to AD pathogenesis...
March 15, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Julie A Reisz, Alexander S Barrett, Travis Nemkov, Kirk C Hansen, Angelo D'Alessandro
Proteins have been historically regarded as "nature's robots": Molecular machines that are essential to cellular/extracellular physical mechanical properties and catalyze key reactions for cell/system viability. However, these robots are kept in check by other protein-based machinery to preserve proteome integrity and stability. During aging, protein homeostasis is challenged by oxidation, decreased synthesis, and increasingly inefficient mechanisms responsible for repairing or degrading damaged proteins...
March 14, 2018: Expert Review of Proteomics
Bozidarka L Zaric, Milan Obradovic, Vladan Bajic, Mohamed A Haidara, Milos Jovanovic, Esma R Isenovic
Homocysteine (Hcy) is thiol group containing the amino acid, which naturally occurs in all humans. Hcy is degraded in the body through two metabolic pathways, while a minor part is excreted through kidneys. The chemical reactions that are necessary for degradation of Hcy require the presence of the folic acid, vitamins B6 and B12. Consequently, the level of the total Hcy in the serum is influenced by the presence or absence of these vitamins. An elevated level of the Hcy, hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) and homocystinuria are connected with occlusive artery disease, especially in the brain, the heart, and the kidney, in addition to venous thrombosis, chronic renal failure, megaloblastic anemia, osteoporosis, depression, Alzheimer's disease, pregnancy problems, and others...
March 12, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Gwendolien Vanderschaeghe, Kris Dierickx, Rik Vandenberghe
BACKGROUND: Today, many healthcare or dementia organizations, clinicians, and companies emphasize the importance of detection of Alzheimer's disease in an early phase. This idea has gained considerable momentum due to the development of biomarkers, the recent FDA and EMA approval of three amyloid tracers, and the failure of a number of recent therapeutic trials conducted in the early dementia phase. On the one hand, an early etiological diagnosis can lead to early and more efficacious intervention...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry
Zareen Amtul, Jun Yang, Simona Nikolova, Ting-Yim Lee, Robert Bartha, David F Cechetto
Defect in brain microperfusion is increasingly recognized as an antecedent event to Alzheimer's disease (AD) and ischemia. Nevertheless, studies on the role of impaired microperfusion as a pathological trigger to neuroinflammation, Aβ deposition as well as blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption, and the etiological link between AD and ischemia are lacking. In this study, we employ in vivo sequential magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) imaging in a co-morbid rat model of β-amyloid toxicity (Aβ) and ischemia (ET1) with subsequent histopathology of striatal lesion core and penumbra at 1, 7, and 28 days post injury...
March 5, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Ding-Qi Wang, Peng Fu, Chengye Yao, Ling-Shuang Zhu, Tong-Yao Hou, Jian-Guo Chen, Youming Lu, Dan Liu, Ling-Qiang Zhu
Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) is a kind of non-coding RNA (ncRNA), with a length of 200 nt to 100 kb, that lacks a significant open reading frame (ORF) encoding a protein. lncRNAs are widely implicated in various physiological and pathological processes, such as epigenetic regulation, cell cycle regulation, cell differentiation regulation, cancer, and neurodegenerative diseases, through their interactions with chromatin, protein, and other RNAs. Numerous studies have suggested that lncRNAs are closely linked with the occurrence and development of a variety of diseases, especially neurodegenerative diseases, of which the etiologies are complicated and the underlying mechanisms remain elusive...
March 2, 2018: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
Qi Zhang, Cheng Ma, Marla Gearing, Peng George Wang, Lih-Shen Chin, Lian Li
Although the genetic causes for several rare, familial forms of Alzheimer's disease (AD) have been identified, the etiology of the sporadic form of AD remains unclear. Here, we report a systems-level study of disease-associated proteome changes in human frontal cortex of sporadic AD patients using an integrated approach that combines mass spectrometry-based quantitative proteomics, differential expression analysis, and co-expression network analysis. Our analyses of 16 human brain tissues from AD patients and age-matched controls showed organization of the cortical proteome into a network of 24 biologically meaningful modules of co-expressed proteins...
March 1, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
L E M Wisse, S R Das, C Davatzikos, B C Dickerson, S X Xie, P A Yushkevich, D A Wolk
Introduction: Suspected non-Alzheimer's pathophysiology (SNAP) is a biomarker driven designation that represents a heterogeneous group in terms of etiology and prognosis. SNAP has only been identified by cross-sectional neurodegeneration measures, whereas longitudinal measures might better reflect "active" neurodegeneration and might be more tightly linked to prognosis. We compare neurodegeneration defined by cross-sectional 'hippocampal volume' only (SNAP/L-) versus both cross-sectional and longitudinal 'hippocampal atrophy rate' (SNAP/L+) and investigate how these definitions impact prevalence and the clinical and biomarker profile of SNAP in Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI)...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Peter Verwilst, Hyeong Seok Kim, Soobin Kim, Chulhun Kang, Jong Seung Kim
Historically, in Alzheimer's disease research, a lot of attention has been paid to the development of highly selective fluorophores for beta amyloid plaques. With a shift in the understanding of the disease and the importance of a network of cross-talk interactions, the development of small-molecule fluorescent dyes with high selectivity for (hyperphosphorylated) tau protein aggregates in neurofibrillary tangles has been gaining increasing attention. Fluorescent dyes for the selective labelling of tau aggregates in histological AD brain sections have been described, spanning the entire visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum...
February 27, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
Franziska Rieche, Katia Carmine-Simmen, Burkhard Poeck, Doris Kretzschmar, Roland Strauss
The β-amyloid precursor protein (APP) plays a central role in the etiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, its normal physiological functions are still unclear. APP is cleaved by various secretases whereby sequential processing by the β- and γ-secretases produces the β-amyloid peptide that is accumulating in plaques that typify AD. In addition, this produces secreted N-terminal sAPPβ fragments and the APP intracellular domain (AICD). Alternative cleavage by α-secretase results in slightly longer secreted sAPPα fragments and the identical AICD...
February 12, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Susana Carmona, John Hardy, Rita Guerreiro
Alzheimer disease (AD), a progressive and neurodegenerative disease, is the most common form of dementia with high incidence in elderly people. Neuropathologically the disease is defined by the combined presence of extracellular amyloid-beta (Aβ) plaques and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles of phosphorylated tau protein. Genetically, the first clues were provided by genetic linkage studies that led to the identification of APP, PSEN1, and PSEN2 mutations as the main causes of autosomal-dominant early-onset AD...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Kimberly C Paul, Michael Jerrett, Beate Ritz
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: A number of studies over the past two decades have suggested that type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients are at an increased risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Several common molecular pathways to cellular and metabolic dysfunction have been implicated in the etiology of both diseases. Here, we review the emerging evidence from observational studies that investigate the relationship between T2DM and AD, and of shared environmental risk factors, specifically air pollution and pesticides, associated with both chronic disorders...
February 20, 2018: Current Environmental Health Reports
O A Kicherova, L I Reikhert
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a serious medical and social problem of our time, while remaining the most common cause of dementia in the elderly. The leading symptom in the clinical picture of the disease is a progressive loss of memory with further development of behavioral disorders. In the early stages of AD, patients are mostly managed by neurologists and differential diagnosis is carried out with a variety of neurodegenerative diseases. The authors present clinical criteria of AD diagnosis and consider diagnostic possibilities in the predementia stage using biological markers...
2018: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
Parvana Hajieva, Marius W Baeken, Bernd Moosmann
Selective degeneration of differentiated neurons in the brain is the unifying feature of neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD) or Alzheimer's disease (AD). A broad spectrum of evidence indicates that initially subtle, but temporally early calcium dysregulation may be central to the selective neuronal vulnerability observed in these slowly progressing, chronic disorders. Moreover, it has long been evident that excitotoxicity and its major toxic effector mechanism, neuronal calcium overload, play a decisive role in the propagation of secondary neuronal death after acute brain injury from trauma or ischemia...
January 10, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Johanna K DiStefano
Only a small fraction of the human genome corresponds to protein-coding genes. Historically, the vast majority of genomic sequence was dismissed as transcriptionally silent, but recent large-scale investigations have instead revealed a rich array of functionally significant elements, including non-protein-coding transcripts, within the noncoding regions of the human genome. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), a class of noncoding transcripts with lengths >200 nucleotides, are pervasively transcribed in the genome, and have been shown to bind DNA, RNA, and protein...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Yoshiaki Yano, An Takeno, Katsumi Matsuzaki
Minor species of amyloid β-peptide (Aβ), such as Aβ-(1-43) and pyroglutaminated Aβ-(3-42) (Aβ-(3pE-42)), have been suggested to be involved in the initiation of the Aβ aggregation process, which is closely associated with the etiology of Alzheimer's disease. They can play important roles in aggregation not only in the aqueous phase but also on neuroral membranes; however, the latter behaviors remain mostly unexplored. Here, initial aggregation processes of Aβ on living cells were monitored at physiological nanomolar concentrations by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy...
February 1, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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