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Alzheimer's etiologies

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340083/evaluating-the-patterns-of-aging-related-tau-astrogliopathy-unravels-novel-insights-into-brain-aging-and-neurodegenerative-diseases
#1
Gabor G Kovacs, John L Robinson, Sharon X Xie, Edward B Lee, Murray Grossman, David A Wolk, David J Irwin, Dan Weintraub, Christopher F Kim, Theresa Schuck, Ahmed Yousef, Stephanie T Wagner, Eunran Suh, Vivianna M Van Deerlin, Virginia M-Y Lee, John Q Trojanowski
The term "aging-related tau astrogliopathy" (ARTAG) describes pathological accumulation of abnormally phosphorylated tau protein in astrocytes. We evaluated the correlates of ARTAG types (i.e., subpial, subependymal, white and gray matter, and perivascular) in different neuroanatomical regions. Clinical, neuropathological, and genetic (eg, APOE ε4 allele, MAPT H1/H2 haplotype) data from 628 postmortem brains from subjects were investigated; most of the patients had been longitudinally followed at the University of Pennsylvania...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333388/central-regulation-of-glucose-homeostasis
#2
Alexander Tups, Jonas Benzler, Domenico Sergi, Sharon R Ladyman, Lynda M Williams
The ability of the brain to directly control glucose levels in the blood independently of its effects on food intake and body weight has been known ever since 1854 when Claude Bernard, a French physiologist, discovered that lesioning the floor of the fourth ventricle in rabbits led to a rise of sugar in the blood. Despite this outstanding discovery at that time, it took more than 140 years before progress started to be made in identifying the underlying mechanisms of brain-mediated control of glucose homeostasis...
March 16, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298276/early-life-nutritional-programming-of-cognition-the-fundamental-role-of-epigenetic-mechanisms-in-mediating-the-relation-between-early-life-environment-and-learning-and-memory-process
#3
REVIEW
Laura Moody, Hong Chen, Yuan-Xiang Pan
The perinatal period is a window of heightened plasticity that lays the groundwork for future anatomic, physiologic, and behavioral outcomes. During this time, maternal diet plays a pivotal role in the maturation of vital organs and the establishment of neuronal connections. However, when perinatal nutrition is either lacking in specific micro- and macronutrients or overloaded with excess calories, the consequences can be devastating and long lasting. The brain is particularly sensitive to perinatal insults, with several neurologic and psychiatric disorders having been linked to a poor in utero environment...
March 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294067/the-infectious-etiology-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#4
Marta Sochocka, Katarzyna Zwolińska, Jerzy Leszek
Inflammation is a part of the first line of defense of the body against invasive pathogens, and plays a crucial role in tissue regeneration and repair. A proper inflammatory response ensures the suitable resolution of inflammation and elimination of harmful stimuli, but when the inflammatory reactions are inappropriate it can lead to damage of the surrounding normal cells. The relationship between infections and Alzheimer's Disease (AD) etiology, especially late-onset AD (LOAD) has been continuously debated over the past three decades...
March 13, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286146/altered-gene-expression-in-late-onset-alzheimer-s-disease-due-to-snps-within-3-utr-microrna-response-elements
#5
Jyoti Roy, Bibekanand Mallick
Late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) is a progressive and fatal neurodegenerative disease found in people older than 65years of age. Disease etiology is complex, as susceptibility has been linked to multiple gene variants conferred by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). However, the molecular mechanisms by which SNPs contribute to LOAD pathogenesis have not been extensively studied, particularly for SNPs within the 3' untranslated regions (3'UTRs), the hubs for microRNA binding. Therefore, we screened for SNPs within the 3'UTRs of LOAD-associated genes that may create or destroy microRNA response elements (MREs) and thus alter gene expression...
March 9, 2017: Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282807/radiological-pathological-correlation-in-alzheimer-s-disease-systematic-review-of-antemortem-magnetic-resonance-imaging-findings
#6
Caroline Dallaire-Théroux, Brandy L Callahan, Olivier Potvin, Stéphan Saikali, Simon Duchesne
BACKGROUND: The standard method of ascertaining Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains postmortem assessment of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary degeneration. Vascular pathology, Lewy bodies, TDP-43, and hippocampal sclerosis are frequent comorbidities. There is therefore a need for biomarkers that can assess these etiologies and provide a diagnosis in vivo. OBJECTIVE: We conducted a systematic review of published radiological-pathological correlation studies to determine the relationship between antemortem magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and neuropathological findings in AD...
2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281098/effect-of-metal-chelators-on-the-aggregation-of-beta-amyloid-peptides-in-the-presence-of-copper-and-iron
#7
Foozhan Tahmasebinia, Saeed Emadi
Amyloid β (Aβ) fibrils and amorphous aggregates are found in the brain of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), and are implicated in the etiology of AD. The metal imbalance is also among leading causes of AD, owing to the fact that Aβ aggregation takes place in the synaptic cleft where Aβ, Cu(II) and Fe(III) are found in abnormally high concentrations. Aβ40 and Aβ42 are the main components of plaques found in afflicted brains. Coordination of Cu(II) and Fe(III) ions to Aβ peptides have been linked to Aβ aggregation and production of reactive oxygen species, two key events in the development of AD pathology...
April 2017: Biometals: An International Journal on the Role of Metal Ions in Biology, Biochemistry, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275722/differential-contribution-of-app-metabolites-to-early-cognitive-deficits-in-a-tgcrnd8-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#8
Valentine Hamm, Céline Héraud, Jean-Bastien Bott, Karine Herbeaux, Carole Strittmatter, Chantal Mathis, Romain Goutagny
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative pathology commonly characterized by a progressive and irreversible deterioration of cognitive functions, especially memory. Although the etiology of AD remains unknown, a consensus has emerged on the amyloid hypothesis, which posits that increased production of soluble amyloid β (Aβ) peptide induces neuronal network dysfunctions and cognitive deficits. However, the relative failures of Aβ-centric therapeutics suggest that the amyloid hypothesis is incomplete and/or that the treatments were given too late in the course of AD, when neuronal damages were already too extensive...
February 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275702/pathophysiologic-relationship-between-alzheimer-s-disease-cerebrovascular-disease-and-cardiovascular-risk-a-review-and-synthesis
#9
REVIEW
Cláudia Y Santos, Peter J Snyder, Wen-Chih Wu, Mia Zhang, Ana Echeverria, Jessica Alber
As the population ages due to demographic trends and gains in life expectancy, the incidence and prevalence of dementia increases, and the need to understand the etiology and pathogenesis of dementia becomes ever more urgent. Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common form of dementia, is a complex disease, the mechanisms of which are poorly understood. The more we learn about AD, the more questions are raised about our current conceptual models of disease. In the absence of a cure or the means by which to slow disease progress, it may be prudent to apply our current knowledge of the intersection between AD, cardiovascular disease, and cerebrovascular disease to foster efforts to delay or slow the onset of AD...
2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274814/the-role-of-aquaporin-4-in-synaptic-plasticity-memory-and-disease
#10
REVIEW
Jacqueline A Hubbard, Jenny I Szu, Devin K Binder
Since the discovery of aquaporins, it has become clear that the various mammalian aquaporins play critical physiological roles in water and ion balance in multiple tissues. Aquaporin-4 (AQP4), the principal aquaporin expressed in the central nervous system (CNS, brain and spinal cord), has been shown to mediate CNS water homeostasis. In this review, we summarize new and exciting studies indicating that AQP4 also plays critical and unanticipated roles in synaptic plasticity and memory formation. Next, we consider the role of AQP4 in Alzheimer's disease (AD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Parkinson's disease (PD), multiple sclerosis (MS), neuromyelitis optica (NMO), epilepsy, traumatic brain injury (TBI), and stroke...
March 6, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271346/non-pharmacologic-interventions-for-older-adults-with-subjective-cognitive-decline-systematic-review-meta-analysis-and-preliminary-recommendations
#11
REVIEW
Colette M Smart, Justin E Karr, Corson N Areshenkoff, Laura A Rabin, Carol Hudon, Nicola Gates, Jordan I Ali, Eider M Arenaza-Urquijo, Rachel F Buckley, Gael Chetelat, Harald Hampel, Frank Jessen, Natalie L Marchant, Sietske A M Sikkes, Andrea Tales, Wiesje M van der Flier, Linda Wesselman
In subjective cognitive decline (SCD), older adults present with concerns about self-perceived cognitive decline but are found to have clinically normal function. However, a significant proportion of those adults are subsequently found to develop mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer's dementia or other neurocognitive disorder. In other cases, SCD may be associated with mood, personality, and physical health concerns. Regardless of etiology, adults with SCD may benefit from interventions that could enhance current function or slow incipient cognitive decline...
March 7, 2017: Neuropsychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258666/the-role-of-gene-editing-in-neurodegenerative-diseases
#12
Hueng-Chuen Fan, Ching-Shiang Chi, Yih-Jing Lee, Jeng-Dau Tsai, Shinn-Zong Lin, Horng-Jyh Harn
Neurodegenerative diseases (NDs), at least including Alzheimer's, Huntington's, and Parkinson's diseases, have become the most dreaded maladies because of no precise diagnostic tools or definite treatments for these debilitating diseases. The increased prevalence and a substantial impact on the social-economic and medical care of NDs propel governments to develop policies to counteract the impact. Although the etiologies of NDs are still unknown, growing evidence suggests that genetic, cellular and circuit alternations may cause the generation of abnormal misfolded proteins, which uncontrolledly accumulate to damage eventually overwhelms the protein-disposal mechanisms of these neurons, leading to a common pathological feature of NDs...
March 3, 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251365/mitochondria-in-alzheimer-s-disease-and-diabetes-associated-neurodegeneration-license-to-heal
#13
Susana M Cardoso, Sónia C Correia, Cristina Carvalho, Paula I Moreira
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a difficult puzzle to solve, in part because the etiology of this devastating neurodegenerative disorder remains murky. However, diabetes has been pinpointed as a major risk factor for the sporadic forms of AD. Several overlapping neurodegenerative mechanisms have been identified between AD and diabetes, including mitochondrial malfunction. This is not surprising taking into account that neurons are cells with a complex morphology, long lifespan, and high energetic requirements which make them particularly reliant on a properly organized and dynamic mitochondrial network to sustain neuronal function and integrity...
March 2, 2017: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243102/from-mild-cognitive-impairment-to-subjective-cognitive-decline-conceptual-and-methodological-evolution
#14
REVIEW
Yu-Wen Cheng, Ta-Fu Chen, Ming-Jang Chiu
Identification of subjects at the early stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is fundamental for drug development and possible intervention or prevention of cognitive decline. The concept of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) evolved during the past two decades to define subjects at the transitional stage between normal aging and dementia. Evidence from cross-sectional and longitudinal studies has shown that MCI is associated with an increased risk of positive AD biomarkers and an increased annual conversion rate of 5%-17% to AD...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240674/a-second-wind-for-the-cholinergic-system-in-alzheimer-s-therapy
#15
Vincent Douchamps, Chantal Mathis
Notwithstanding tremendous research efforts, the cause of Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains elusive and there is no curative treatment. The cholinergic hypothesis presented 35 years ago was the first major evidence-based hypothesis on the etiology of AD. It proposed that the depletion of brain acetylcholine was a primary cause of cognitive decline in advanced age and AD. It relied on a series of observations obtained in aged animals, elderly, and AD patients that pointed to dysfunctions of cholinergic basal forebrain, similarities between cognitive impairments induced by anticholinergic drugs and those found in advanced age and AD, and beneficial effects of drugs stimulating cholinergic activity...
April 2017: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236716/alzheimer-s-disease-neuropathologic-change-lewy-body-disease-and-vascular-brain-injury-in-clinic-and-community-based-samples
#16
Willa D Brenowitz, C Dirk Keene, Stephen E Hawes, Rebecca A Hubbard, W T Longstreth, Randy L Woltjer, Paul K Crane, Eric B Larson, Walter A Kukull
We examined the relationships between Alzheimer's disease neuropathologic change (ADNC), Lewy body disease (LBD), and vascular brain injury (VBI) in 2 large autopsy samples. Because findings may differ between study populations, data came from U.S. Alzheimer's Disease Centers contributing to the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center (n = 2742) and from the population-based Adult Changes in Thought study (n = 499). Regardless of study population, over 50% of participants with ADNC had co-occurring LBD or VBI; the majority of whom had a clinical AD dementia diagnosis prior to death...
January 30, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236618/common-1h-mrs-characteristics-in-patients-with-alzheimer-s-disease-and-vascular-dementia-diagnosed-with-kidney-essence-deficiency-syndrome-a-preliminary-study
#17
Zhongwei Guo, Xiaozheng Liu, Yulin Cao, Hongtao Hou, Xingli Chen, Yongcan Chen, Feihua Huang, Wei Chen
Context • Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) indicates that both Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VD) should be categorized as dementia and that they have a common etiology and pathogenesis under TCM classification of syndromes, such as with kidney essence deficiency syndrome (KEDS). The pathological location is mainly in the brain. However, it remains unclear whether AD and VD patients with KEDS exhibit a metabolic commonality in the same region of the brain. Objective • The study intended to investigate the metabolic characteristics of the brain using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) in patients with AD and VD who had been diagnosed with KEDS...
February 27, 2017: Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236166/alteration-of-regional-homogeneity-and-white-matter-hyperintensities-in-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment-subtypes-are-related-to-cognition-and-csf-biomarkers
#18
Xiao Luo, Yerfan Jiaerken, Peiyu Huang, Xiao Jun Xu, Tiantian Qiu, Yunlu Jia, Zhujing Shen, Xiaojun Guan, Jiong Zhou, Minming Zhang
Amnestic mild cognitive impairment can be further classified as single-domain aMCI (SD-aMCI) with isolated memory deficit, or multi-domain aMCI (MD-aMCI) if memory deficit is combined with impairment in other cognitive domains. Prior studies reported these clinical subtypes presumably differ in etiology. Thus, we aimed to explore the possible mechanisms between different aMCI subtypes by assessing alteration in brain activity and brain vasculature, and their relations with CSF AD biomarkers. 49 healthy controls, 32 SD-aMCI, and 32 MD-aMCI, who had undergone structural scans, resting-state functional MRI (rsfMRI) scans and neuropsychological evaluations, were identified...
February 24, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218653/proteomic-analysis-of-mitochondria-enriched-fraction-isolated-from-the-frontal-cortex-and-hippocampus-of-apolipoprotein-e-knockout-mice-treated-with-alda-1-an-activator-of-mitochondrial-aldehyde-dehydrogenase-aldh2
#19
Aneta Stachowicz, Rafał Olszanecki, Maciej Suski, Katarzyna Głombik, Agnieszka Basta-Kaim, Dariusz Adamek, Ryszard Korbut
The role of different genotypes of apolipoprotein E (apoE) in the etiology of Alzheimer's disease is widely recognized. It has been shown that altered functioning of apoE may promote 4-hydroxynonenal modification of mitochondrial proteins, which may result in mitochondrial dysfunction, aggravation of oxidative stress, and neurodegeneration. Mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) is an enzyme considered to perform protective function in mitochondria by the detoxification of the end products of lipid peroxidation, such as 4-hydroxynonenal and other reactive aldehydes...
February 17, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211812/recent-progress-in-alzheimer-s-disease-research-part-2-genetics-and-epidemiology
#20
Morgan Robinson, Brenda Y Lee, Francis T Hane
This is the second part of a three-part review series reviewing the most important advances in Alzheimer's disease (AD) research since 2010. This review covers the latest research on genetics and epidemiology. Epidemiological and genetic studies are revealing important insights into the etiology of, and factors that contribute to AD, as well as areas of priority for research into mechanisms and interventions. The widespread adoption of genome wide association studies has provided compelling evidence of the genetic complexity of AD with genes associated with such diverse physiological function as immunity and lipid metabolism being implicated in AD pathogenesis...
2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
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