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Alzheimer's etiologies

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150331/anti-amyloidogenic-and-anti-apoptotic-effect-of-%C3%AE-bisabolol-against-a%C3%AE-induced-neurotoxicity-in-pc12-cells
#1
Balakrishnan Shanmuganathan, Venkatesan Suryanarayanan, Sethuraman Sathya, Muralidharan Narenkumar, Sanjeev Kumar Singh, Kandasamy Ruckmani, Kasi Pandima Devi
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a life-threatening neurodegenerative disorder leading to dementia, with a progressive decline in memory and other thinking skills of elderly populace. Of the multiple etiological factors of AD, the accumulation of senile plaques (SPs) particularly as Aβ oligomers correlates with the relentlessness cognitive impairment in AD patients and play a vital role in AD pathology. Since natural essential oil constituents have successfully served as a source of drugs for AD treatment, the present study aims at the in vitro and in silico investigation of anti-amyloidogenic potential and anti-apoptotic property of the α-bisabolol against Aβ25-35 induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells...
October 10, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150325/ilex-paraguariensis-potential-antioxidant-on-aluminium-toxicity-in-an-experimental-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#2
Pâmela M Bortoli, Carla Alves, Eduarda Costa, Ana Paula Vanin, Jéssica R Sofiatti, Diego P Siqueira, Rogério M Dallago, Helen Treichel, Gean Delise L P Vargas, Rosilene R Kaizer
Ilex paraguariensis, yerba mate is a native plant from the southern region of Brazil. Studies showed that yerba mate has an antioxidant potential, which could help to reduce the risk of developing neurodegenerative diseases, as Alzheimer's Disease (AD). It's known that I. paraguariensis grows in acid soils with aluminium (Al), which is bioavailable in these soils. Al has a neurotoxic potential related with the progression of neurological disorders. This study aim was to evaluate the potential of I. paraguariensis in the etiology of AD using strains of Caenorhabditis elegans and the concentration of Al and antioxidants in the yerba mate extract...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150293/a-unique-and-promising-combination-of-medications-for-the-treatment-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#3
James D Weinstein
At present there is no therapy for Alzheimer's Disease which completely stops the progressive dementia effecting late onset Alzheimer's Disease (AD) patients. It is felt that the main reason for this failure is that AD appears to be a disease caused by four major pathological processes. To date, efforts to develop treatments have addressed only one or another of these four etiologies. However, even a partially effective therapy against one cause allows the others, untreated, to continue their inexorable destruction of the neurons of the brain...
November 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143445/glycyrrhiza-uralensis-and-semilicoisoflavone-b-reduce-a%C3%AE-secretion-by-increasing-ppar%C3%AE-expression-and-inhibiting-stat3-phosphorylation-to-inhibit-bace1-expression
#4
Ming-Yao Gu, Yoon Sun Chun, Dong Zhao, Ryu Shi Yong, Hyun Ok Yang
SCOPE: Glycyrrhiza uralensis extract (GUE) has been reported to improve amyloid beta (Aβ) induced cognitive deficits in mice. However, the mechanisms underlying this effect and the components involved have not been previously explored. Extracellular Aβ plaques are one of the major pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Therefore, decreasing Aβ levels is one strategy for preventing the etiology of AD. This study aimed to test the effect of GUE and semilicoisoflavone B (SB) on Aβ secretion and investigate the mechanism underlying this effect...
November 16, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142239/differential-overexpression-of-serpina3-in-human-prion-diseases
#5
S Vanni, F Moda, M Zattoni, E Bistaffa, E De Cecco, M Rossi, G Giaccone, F Tagliavini, S Haïk, J P Deslys, G Zanusso, J W Ironside, I Ferrer, G G Kovacs, G Legname
Prion diseases are fatal neurodegenerative disorders with sporadic, genetic or acquired etiologies. The molecular alterations leading to the onset and the spreading of these diseases are still unknown. In a previous work we identified a five-gene signature able to distinguish intracranially BSE-infected macaques from healthy ones, with SERPINA3 showing the most prominent dysregulation. We analyzed 128 suitable frontal cortex samples, from prion-affected patients (variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) n = 20, iatrogenic CJD (iCJD) n = 11, sporadic CJD (sCJD) n = 23, familial CJD (gCJD) n = 17, fatal familial insomnia (FFI) n = 9, Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker syndrome (GSS)) n = 4), patients with Alzheimer disease (AD, n = 14) and age-matched controls (n = 30)...
November 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138762/identifying-cu-ii-amyloid-peptide-binding-intermediates-in-the-early-stages-of-aggregation-by-resonance-raman-spectroscopy-a-simulation-study
#6
Hao Ren, Yu Zhang, Sibei Guo, Na Lin, Li Deng, Tongtao Yue, Fang Huang
The aggregation of amyloid beta (Aβ) peptides plays a crucial role in the pathology and etiology of Alzheimer's disease. Experimental evidence shows that copper ion is an aggregation-prone species with the ability to coordinately bind to Aβ and further induce the formation of neurotoxic Aβ oligomers. However, the detailed structures of Cu(ii)-Aβ complexes have not been illustrated, and the kinetics and dynamics of the Cu(ii) binding are not well understood. Two Cu(ii)-Aβ complexes have been proposed to exist under physiological conditions, and another two might exist at higher pH values...
November 15, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135358/training-area-agencies-on-aging-case-managers-to-improve-physical-function-mood-and-behavior-in-persons-with-dementia-and-caregivers-examples-from-the-rdad-northwest-study
#7
Susan M McCurry, Rebecca G Logsdon, Kenneth C Pike, David M LaFazia, Linda Teri
The Reducing Disability in Alzheimer's Disease (RDAD) program has been shown to be an effective tool for teaching caregivers strategies to improve mood, behavior, and physical function in persons with dementia. This paper describes how RDAD has been translated and implemented for use by Area Agencies on Aging (AAA) case managers across Washington and Oregon. Modifications to the original RDAD program as part of its community translation included decreasing the number of in-person sessions while preserving all educational content; involving caregivers in exercise activities for themselves as well as acting as exercise coaches for care-receivers; and enrolling persons with cognitive impairment due to mixed etiologies...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Gerontological Social Work
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132997/thyroid-hormone-improves-insulin-signaling-and-reduces-the-activation-of-neurodegenerative-pathway-in-the-hippocampus-of-diabetic-adult-male-rats
#8
Fernanda Prieto-Almeida, Ana Carolina Panveloski-Costa, Fernanda Crunfli, Silvania da Silva Teixeira, Maria Tereza Nunes, Andréa da Silva Torrão
AIMS: Diabetes mellitus (DM) and impairments of glucose metabolism and insulin resistance in the brain have been suggested as a likely etiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Studies have shown that thyroid hormones (THs) improve insulin sensitivity in DM rats and act as mediators of the plasticity of the nervous system altering behavior and cognitive function. Based on these findings, this study aimed to evaluate the effects of diabetes and triiodothyronine (T3) treatment upon proteins associated with DM and AD in the central nervous system...
November 10, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131706/alzheimer-s-disease-current-status-and-future-directions
#9
Deepshikha Bhardwaj, Connie Mitra, Chandrakala Aluganti Narasimhulu, Aladdin Riad, Mitsushita Doomra, Sampath Parthasarathy
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-related neurodegenerative disorder of the brain. The presence of amyloid-beta (Aβ) plaques, neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs), loss of neurons, synapses, and altered sensory perceptions, including memory loss, delineate AD. However, the cause of AD is not clearly known. Several genetic and nongenetic factors have been implicated in the disease. Of the genes, the ɛ4 allele of apolipoprotein E is the largest known genetic risk factor of AD. This review article focuses on the various genetic and other predisposing factors that account for AD, pathophysiology of the disease, and the mechanisms by which Aβ plaques and NFTs are formed and could affect AD brain...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117955/alzheimer-s-disease-related-dementias-summit-2016-national-research-priorities
#10
REVIEW
Roderick A Corriveau, Walter J Koroshetz, Jordan T Gladman, Sophia Jeon, Debra Babcock, David A Bennett, S Thomas Carmichael, Susan L-J Dickinson, Dennis W Dickson, Marian Emr, Howard Fillit, Steven M Greenberg, Michael L Hutton, David S Knopman, Jennifer J Manly, Karen S Marder, Claudia S Moy, Creighton H Phelps, Paul A Scott, William W Seeley, Beth-Anne Sieber, Nina B Silverberg, Margaret L Sutherland, Angela Taylor, Christine L Torborg, Salina P Waddy, Amelie K Gubitz, David M Holtzman
Goal 1 of the National Plan to Address Alzheimer's Disease is to prevent and effectively treat Alzheimer disease and Alzheimer disease-related dementias by 2025. To help inform the research agenda toward achieving this goal, the NIH hosts periodic summits that set and refine relevant research priorities for the subsequent 5 to 10 years. This proceedings article summarizes the 2016 Alzheimer's Disease-Related Dementias Summit, including discussion of scientific progress, challenges, and opportunities in major areas of dementia research, including mixed-etiology dementias, Lewy body dementia, frontotemporal degeneration, vascular contributions to cognitive impairment and dementia, dementia disparities, and dementia nomenclature...
November 8, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115888/in-vitro-assessment-of-selected-korean-plants-for-antioxidant-and-antiacetylcholinesterase-activities
#11
Seulah Lee, Dahae Lee, Jiwon Baek, Eun Bee Jung, Ji Yun Baek, Il Kyun Lee, Tae Su Jang, Ki Sung Kang, Ki Hyun Kim
CONTEXT: Antiacetylcholinesterase (AChE) drugs have been a main therapeutic treatment for Alzheimer's disease because increased AChE levels play a key role in reducing neurotransmission. OBJECTIVES: Extracts from 35 Korean plants were selected and screened for antioxidant and anti-cholinesterase activity to explore new sources derived from Korean natural resources that could be used as AD therapeutic agents. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The antioxidant effect of extracts from 35 selected Korean plants was determined using two most common free radical scavenging assays using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS)...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115515/serum-microrna-expression-profiling-in-patients-with-multiple-system-atrophy
#12
Kodai Kume, Hisakazu Iwama, Kazushi Deguchi, Kazuyo Ikeda, Tadayuki Takata, Yohei Kokudo, Masaki Kamada, Keiko Fujikawa, Kayo Hirose, Hisashi Masugata, Tetsuo Touge, Tsutomu Masaki
Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a sporadic neurodegenerative disease that is pathologically characterized by α‑synuclein positive glial cytoplasmic inclusions in oligodendrocytes. The clinical diagnosis of MSA is often challenging as there are no established biomarkers and diagnoses are now based on clinical findings alone. At present, the etiology and pathogenesis of MSA are unclear. It has been reported that dysregulation of microRNA (miRNA/miR) serves an important role in neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis...
November 7, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111023/can-fibrinolytic-system-components-explain-cognitive-impairment-in-multiple-sclerosis
#13
María Yaiza Pérez-Martín, Montserrat González-Platas, Alejandro Jiménez-Sosa, Julio Plata-Bello, Francisco Javier Carrillo-Padilla, Andrés Franco-Maside, Pablo Eguia-Del Río
BACKGROUND: The fibrinolytic system is capable of modulating inflammatory and degenerative events within the central nervous system. Specifically, the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) has been associated with different pathological conditions in multiple sclerosis (MS) and its role in cognitive functioning is also known. OBJECTIVES AND METHODS: To study the association between plasma levels and the polymorphic variants of the PAI-1 gene and cognitive performance in MS...
November 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096697/race-modifies-the-relationship-between-cognition-and-alzheimer-s-disease-cerebrospinal-fluid-biomarkers
#14
Jennifer C Howell, Kelly D Watts, Monica W Parker, Junjie Wu, Alexander Kollhoff, Thomas S Wingo, Cornelya D Dorbin, Deqiang Qiu, William T Hu
BACKGROUND: African Americans have been reported to have a higher prevalence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) than Caucasians, but etiology-specific AD biomarkers have not been systematically analyzed in older African Americans. Coexisting cerebrovascular disease may also contribute to this increased prevalence. We hypothesized that cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers of amyloid, neurodegeneration, and endothelial dysfunction would differ between older African Americans and Caucasians with normal cognition and cognitive impairment associated with AD...
November 2, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089884/systemic-and-disease-specific-risk-factors-in-vascular-dementia-diagnosis-and-prevention
#15
Efraim Jaul, Oded Meiron
In order to prevent the onset of vascular dementia (VaD) in aging individuals, it is critical to detect clinically relevant vascular and systemic pathophysiological changes to signal the onset of its preceding prodromal stages. Identifying behavioral and neurobiological markers that are highly sensitive to VaD classification vs. other dementias is likely to assist in developing novel preventive treatment strategies that could delay the onset of disruptive psychomotor symptoms, decrease hospitalizations, and increase the quality of life in clinically-high-risk aging individuals...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080524/oxidative-stress-and-the-amyloid-beta-peptide-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#16
REVIEW
C Cheignon, M Tomas, D Bonnefont-Rousselot, P Faller, C Hureau, F Collin
Oxidative stress is known to play an important role in the pathogenesis of a number of diseases. In particular, it is linked to the etiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD), an age-related neurodegenerative disease and the most common cause of dementia in the elderly. Histopathological hallmarks of AD are intracellular neurofibrillary tangles and extracellular formation of senile plaques composed of the amyloid-beta peptide (Aβ) in aggregated form along with metal-ions such as copper, iron or zinc. Redox active metal ions, as for example copper, can catalyze the production of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) when bound to the amyloid-β (Aβ)...
October 18, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079292/p2x-receptor-overexpression-induced-by-soluble-oligomers-of-amyloid-beta-peptide-potentiates-synaptic-failure-and-neuronal-dyshomeostasis-in-cellular-models-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#17
Francisco Sáez-Orellana, María C Fuentes-Fuentes, Pamela A Godoy, Tiare Silva-Grecchi, Jessica D Panes, Leonardo Guzmán, Gonzalo E Yévenes, Javiera Gavilán, Terrance M Egan, Luis G Aguayo, Jorge Fuentealba
The most common cause of dementia is Alzheimer's disease. The etiology of the disease is unknown, although considerable evidence suggests a critical role for the soluble oligomers of amyloid beta peptide (Aβ). Because Aβ increases the expression of purinergic receptors (P2XRs) in vitro and in vivo, we studied the functional correlation between long-term exposure to Aβ and the ability of P2XRs to modulate network synaptic tone. We used electrophysiological recordings and Ca(2+) microfluorimetry to assess the effects of chronic exposure (24 h) to Aβ oligomers (0...
October 25, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066951/connexin43-and-pannexin-based-channels-in-neuroinflammation-and-cerebral-neuropathies
#18
REVIEW
Denis Sarrouilhe, Catherine Dejean, Marc Mesnil
Connexins (Cx) are largely represented in the central nervous system (CNS) with 11 Cx isoforms forming intercellular channels. Moreover, in the CNS, Cx43 can form hemichannels (HCs) at non-junctional membrane as does the related channel-forming Pannexin1 (Panx1) and Panx2. Opening of Panx1 channels and Cx43 HCs appears to be involved in inflammation and has been documented in various CNS pathologies. Over recent years, evidence has accumulated supporting a link between inflammation and cerebral neuropathies (migraine, Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), major depressive disorder, autism spectrum disorder (ASD), epilepsy, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder)...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056865/1-2-3-4-6-penta-o-galloyl-%C3%AE-d-glucopyranose-binds-to-the-n-terminal-metal-binding-region-to-inhibit-amyloid-%C3%AE-protein-oligomer-and-fibril-formation
#19
Natália E C de Almeida, Thanh D Do, Nichole E LaPointe, Michael Tro, Stuart C Feinstein, Joan-Emma Shea, Michael T Bowers
The early oligomerization of amyloid β-protein (Aβ) is a crucial step in the etiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD), in which soluble and highly neurotoxic oligomers are produced and accumulated inside neurons. In search of therapeutic solutions for AD treatment and prevention, potent inhibitors that remodel Aβ assembly and prevent neurotoxic oligomer formation offer a promising approach. In particular, several polyphenolic compounds have shown anti-aggregation properties and good efficacy on inhibiting oligomeric amyloid formation...
September 2017: International Journal of Mass Spectrometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052848/beyond-amyloid-widening-the-view-on-alzheimer-s-disease
#20
Christian Behl, Christine Ziegler
For 25 years, the amyloid cascade hypothesis, based on the finding that mutations in the amyloid precursor protein are closely linked to familial forms of Alzheimer's disease (AD), dominated the research on this disease. Recent failures of clinical anti-amyloidogenic trials, however, substantially support the reasoning (i) that the pathomechanisms that trigger familial AD, namely the generation, aggregation, and deposition of amyloid beta, cannot necessarily be extrapolated to sporadic cases and (ii) that amyloid beta represents a prominent histopathological feature in AD but not its exclusive causative factor...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
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