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Alzheimer's etiologies

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633142/multifactorial-analysis-of-a-biomarker-pool-for-alzheimer-disease-risk-in-a-north-indian-population
#1
Puneet Talwar, Sandeep Grover, Juhi Sinha, Puneet Chandna, Rachna Agarwal, Suman Kushwaha, Ritushree Kukreti
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease with a complex multifactorial etiology. Here, we aim to identify a biomarker pool comprised of genetic variants and blood biomarkers as predictor of AD risk. METHODS: We performed a case-control study involving 108 cases and 159 non-demented healthy controls to examine the association of multiple biomarkers with AD risk. RESULTS: The APOE genotyping revealed that ε4 allele frequency was significantly high (p value = 0...
June 21, 2017: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632966/characterizing-alzheimer-s-disease-through-metabolomics-and-investigating-anti-alzheimer-s-disease-effects-of-natural-products
#2
REVIEW
Lunzhao Yi, Wenbin Liu, Zhe Wang, Dabing Ren, Weijun Peng
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia in elderly people and is among the greatest healthcare challenges of the 21st century. However, the etiology and pathogenesis of AD remain poorly understood, and no curative treatments are available to slow down or stop the degenerative effects of AD. As a high-throughput approach, metabolomics is gaining significant attention in AD research, because it has a powerful potential to discover novel biomarkers, unravel new therapeutic targets for AD, and identify perturbed metabolic pathways involved in AD progression...
June 20, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627379/microvascular-changes-in-down-syndrome-with-alzheimer-type-pathology-insights-into-a-potential-vascular-mechanism-for-down-syndrome-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#3
David A Drachman, Thomas W Smith, Bassam Alkamachi, Kevin Kane
INTRODUCTION: The mechanism triggering degeneration in Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains uncertain. Therapeutic failure following β amyloid (Aβ) removal casts doubt on amyloid neurotoxicity per se as the primary cause of AD. Impaired microvascular function has been suggested as an alternative etiology. People with Down syndrome (DS) develop Alzheimer pathology, but whether microvascular impairment also occurs in DS (as in AD) is unknown. METHODS: We examined brain microvasculature in five DS subjects with AD-type histopathology, seven AD cases, and seven controls without AD-type pathology...
June 13, 2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624131/studying-arterial-stiffness-using-high-frequency-ultrasound-in-mice-with-alzheimer-disease
#4
Chin-Chia Huang, Hsiang-Fan Cheng, Ben-Peng Zhu, Pei-Yu Chen, Suet Theng Beh, Yu-Min Kuo, Chih-Chung Huang
Alzheimer disease (AD) is an irreversible, progressive brain disorder that causes slow loss of memory and thinking skills, normally leading to death in 3-9 y. The etiology of AD is not fully understood but is widely believed to be induced by the production and deposition of amyloid-β peptide in the brain. Recently, a correlation was discovered between amyloid-β deposition and atherosclerosis in the cerebral arteries of postmortem brains, indicating that amyloid-β promotes atherogenesis and that in turn atherosclerosis promotes brain amyloid-β accumulation...
June 14, 2017: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623607/presenilin-1-targeted-morpholino-induces-cognitive-deficits-increased-brain-a%C3%AE-1-42-and-decreased-synaptic-marker-psd-95-in-zebrafish-larvae
#5
Laura Roesler Nery, Natalia Eltz Silva, Raphaela Fonseca, Monica Ryff Moreira Vianna
Presenilins are transmembrane proteases required for the proteolytic cleavage of Notch and also act as the catalytic core of the γ-secretase complex, which is responsible for the final cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein into Amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides of varying lengths. Presenilin-1 gene (psen1) mutations are the main cause of early-onset autosomal-dominant Familial Alzheimer Disease. Elucidating the roles of Presenilin-1 and other hallmark proteins involved in Alzheimer's disease is crucial for understanding the disease etiology and underlying molecular mechanisms...
June 16, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620295/slow-and-fast-neocortical-oscillations-in-the-senescence-accelerated-mouse-model-samp8
#6
Patricia Castano-Prat, Maria Perez-Zabalza, Lorena Perez-Mendez, Rosa M Escorihuela, Maria V Sanchez-Vives
The senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) model is characterized by accelerated, progressive cognitive decline as well as Alzheimer's disease (AD)-like neurodegenerative changes, and resembles the etiology of multicausal, sporadic late-onset/age-related AD in humans. Our aim was to find whether these AD-like pathological features, together with the cognitive deficits present in the SAMP8 strain, are accompanied by disturbances in cortical network activity with respect to control mice (SAM resistance 1, SAMR1) and, if so, how the alterations in cortical activity progress with age...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619181/multifactorial-sleep-disturbance-in-parkinson-s-disease
#7
REVIEW
J Andrew Albers, Pratap Chand, A Michael Anch
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder, ranking only behind Alzheimer's disease and affecting 2% of the population over the age of 65. Pathophysiologically, PD is characterized by selective degeneration of the dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) and striatal dopamine depletion. Patients may also exhibit mild-to-severe degeneration of other central and peripheral nervous tissues. The most dramatic symptoms of the disease are profound dopamine-responsive motor disturbances, including bradykinesia, akinesia, rigidity, resting tremor, and postural instability...
July 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611660/neurodegeneration-and-the-circadian-clock
#8
REVIEW
Suzanne Hood, Shimon Amir
Despite varied etiologies and symptoms, several neurodegenerative diseases-specifically, Alzheimer's (AD), Parkinson's (PD), and Huntington's diseases (HDs)-share the common feature of abnormal circadian rhythms, such as those in behavior (e.g., disrupted sleep/wake cycles), physiological processes (e.g., diminished hormone release) and biochemical activities (e.g., antioxidant production). Circadian disturbances are among the earliest symptoms of these diseases, and the molecular mechanisms of the circadian system are suspected to play a pivotal, and possibly causal, role in their natural histories...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607377/amyloid-%C3%AE-peptides-overexpression-in-retinal-pigment-epithelial-cells-via-aav-mediated-gene-transfer-mimics-amd-like-pathology-in-mice
#9
Tuhina Prasad, Ping Zhu, Amrisha Verma, Paramita Chakrabarty, Awilda M Rosario, Todd E Golde, Qiuhong Li
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a progressive retinal neurodegenerative disorder characterized by extracellular deposits known as drusen. A major constituent of drusen deposits are Alzheimer disease-associated amyloid β (Aβ) peptides. To understand the etiology of Aβ proteostasis in AMD, we delivered recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) encoding Aβ42 and Aβ40 peptides fused to BRI2 protein by intraocular injection in C57BL/6J mice. Endogenous protease cleavage of such constructs leads to production of secreted Aβ42 and Aβ40 respectively...
June 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599331/-the-aging-retina-in-the-context-of-cerebral-neurodegenerative-diseases
#10
Michael R R Böhm, Solon Thanos
Background Neurodegenerative diseases (ND) consist of divers affections of the central nervous system related to etiology, localization, and of course of the disease. Alzheimer's disease (AD) and related dementias are best investigated together with socioeconomic conditions and play an important role in its high prevalence. This work will present ND diseases in the context of analogous retinal degeneration mechanisms and ophthalmological diseases. Methods Based on epidemiological data, the current neurological bibliography of ND has been considered...
June 9, 2017: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595557/oxidative-stress-mitochondrial-abnormalities-and-proteins-deposition-multitarget-approaches-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#11
Nesi Giulia, Sestito Simona, Digiacomo Maria, Rapposelli Simona
Alzheimer diseases (AD) is a multifactorial pathology characterized by a complex etiology. The hallmarks of AD, such as Aβ deposits in senile plaque and neurofibrillary tangles (NFT), are strongly intertwined with reactive oxygen species (ROS)production and oxidative stress (OS),which are considered the common effectors of the cascade of degenerative events. An increasing body of evidence reveals that both mitochondrial abnormalities and metal accumulations synergistically act as major producers of ROS, thus contributing to neuronal toxicity...
June 6, 2017: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592028/-analysis-of-12-cases-of-exogenous-lipoid-pneumonia-confirmed-by-pathology
#12
Y X Wang, F Fang, Y F Guo, Y M Li, T Y Sun, M Zhang, J Chen, B M Fang
Objective: To study the etiological, clinical, radiological, diagnostic, therapeutic, and prognostic manifestations of exogenous lipoid pneumonia (ELP), and therefore to improve the diagnosis and treatment of this disease. Methods: The clinical data of 12 cases of ELP confirmed by pathology were retrospectively analyzed. Results: The patients consisted of 9 males and 3 females, with an average age of 73.8 years (range, 44 to 100 years). The underlying diseases were variable, including diseases affecting the general condition (multiple organ failure, chronic heart and renal insufficiency, pemphigoid, etc) and conditions with increased risk of aspiration (sequelae of cerebrovascular disease, Alzheimer's disease, advanced stage of nasopharyngeal carcinoma, paralytic ileus, etc)...
June 12, 2017: Chinese Journal of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588507/neurovascular-unit-dysfunction-and-blood-brain-barrier-hyperpermeability-contribute-to-schizophrenia-neurobiology-a-theoretical-integration-of-clinical-and-experimental-evidence
#13
REVIEW
Souhel Najjar, Silky Pahlajani, Virginia De Sanctis, Joel N H Stern, Amanda Najjar, Derek Chong
Schizophrenia is a psychotic disorder characterized by delusions, hallucinations, negative symptoms, as well as behavioral and cognitive dysfunction. It is a pathoetiologically heterogeneous disorder involving complex interrelated mechanisms that include oxidative stress and neuroinflammation. Neurovascular endothelial dysfunction and blood-brain barrier (BBB) hyperpermeability are established mechanisms in neurological disorders with comorbid psychiatric symptoms such as epilepsy, traumatic brain injury, and Alzheimer's disease...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580182/cerebral-microvascular-accumulation-of-tau-oligomers-in-alzheimer-s-disease-and-related-tauopathies
#14
Diana L Castillo-Carranza, Ashley N Nilson, Candice E Van Skike, Jordan B Jahrling, Kishan Patel, Prajesh Garach, Julia E Gerson, Urmi Sengupta, Jose Abisambra, Peter Nelson, Juan Troncoso, Zoltan Ungvari, Veronica Galvan, Rakez Kayed
The importance of vascular contributions to cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID) associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and related neurodegenerative diseases is increasingly recognized, however, the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. There is growing evidence that in addition to Aβ deposition, accumulation of hyperphosphorylated oligomeric tau contributes significantly to AD etiology. Tau oligomers are toxic and it has been suggested that they propagate in a "prion-like" fashion, inducing endogenous tau misfolding in cells...
May 2017: Aging and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552182/altered-protein-glycosylation-predicts-alzheimer-s-disease-and-modulates-its-pathology-in-disease-model-drosophila
#15
Moran Frenkel-Pinter, Shiri Stempler, Sharon Tal-Mazaki, Yelena Losev, Avnika Singh-Anand, Daniela Escobar-Álvarez, Jonathan Lezmy, Ehud Gazit, Eytan Ruppin, Daniel Segal
The pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are pathogenic oligomers and fibrils of misfolded amyloidogenic proteins (e.g., β-amyloid and hyper-phosphorylated tau in AD), which cause progressive loss of neurons in the brain and nervous system. Although deviations from normal protein glycosylation have been documented in AD, their role in disease pathology has been barely explored. Here our analysis of available expression data sets indicates that many glycosylation-related genes are differentially expressed in brains of AD patients compared with healthy controls...
May 3, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552027/correlates-of-recognition-memory-performance-in-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment
#16
Victoria Sanborn, Deepti Putcha, Geoffrey Tremont
INTRODUCTION: Determining whether the etiology of amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI) is Alzheimer's disease (AD) is challenging. Recognition memory (RM) performance could be helpful in identifying individuals with cognitive patterns indicative of underlying AD. In order to better identify such patterns, we examined RM discriminability in aMCI and its associations with nonmemory cognitive domains impaired in AD. METHODS: Participants were 97 individuals diagnosed with aMCI (Mage = 74...
May 28, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547865/re-imagining-alzheimer-s-disease-the-diminishing-importance-of-amyloid-and-a-glimpse-of-what-lies-ahead
#17
REVIEW
Kai-Hei Tse, Karl Herrup
Many have criticized the amyloid cascade hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease for its inconsistencies and failures to either accurately predict disease symptoms or guide the development of productive therapies. In addition to criticisms, however, we believe that the field would benefit from having alternative narratives and disease models that can either replace or function alongside of an amyloid-centric view of Alzheimer's. This review is an attempt to meet that need. We offer three experimentally verified amyloid-independent mechanisms, each of which plausibly contributes substantially to the aetiology of Alzheimer's disease: loss of DNA integrity, faulty cell cycle regulation, regression of myelination...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540771/identifying-therapeutic-targets-for-alzheimer-s-disease-with-big-data
#18
Nilüfer Ertekin-Taner
Nilüfer Ertekin-Taner is a Professor of Neuroscience and Neurology at the Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL, USA. A neurogeneticist and board-certified behavioral neurologist, she received her medical degree from Hacettepe University Medical School in Ankara, Turkey and her doctorate degree in Molecular Neuroscience from Mayo Graduate School. She completed her residency training in the Department of Neurology at Mayo Clinic in Rochester (MN, USA) and fellowship in Behavioral Neurology at Mayo Clinic in Jacksonville...
April 2017: Neurodegenerative Disease Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532055/gold-nanoparticles-prevent-cognitive-deficits-oxidative-stress-and-inflammation-in-a-rat-model-of-sporadic-dementia-of-alzheimer-s-type
#19
Alexandre Pastoris Muller, Gabriela K Ferreira, Allison José Pires, Gustavo de Bem Silveira, Débora Laureano de Souza, Joice de Abreu Brandolfi, Claudio Teodoro de Souza, Marcos M S Paula, Paulo Cesar Lock Silveira
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of neurodegenerative dementia in the aged brain. Even though its etiology is unknown, factors such as neuroinflammation, mitochondrial dysfunction, formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and impaired insulin signaling may play a role. We used a sporadic AD model in rats generated by intracerebroventricular-streptozotocin (i.c.v.-STZ) injection to test the therapeutic effect of gold nanoparticles (GNPs). We tested the null hypothesis that there would be no difference between the STZ+GNPs group and the STZ group in the analyzed markers...
August 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523555/alzheimer-s-disease-and-ncrnas
#20
Rotem Maoz, Benjamin P Garfinkel, Hermona Soreq
Alzheimer's disease is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder affecting a significant portion of the world's rapidly growing aging population. In spite of its prevalence, the etiology of the disease is still poorly understood, and effective therapy is all but unavailable. Over the past decade, noncoding RNA, including microRNA (miRNA), has emerged as a major class of regulatory molecules involved in virtually all physiological and disease states. The specificity provided by miRNA sequence complementarity, together with the ability of these molecules to regulate complex networks of genes, has made them exciting novel targets for therapeutic agents...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
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