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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771623/effects-of-an-ethanolic-extract-of-mulberry-fruit-on-blood-pressure-and-vascular-remodeling-in-spontaneous-hypertensive-rats
#1
Sang Woong Park, Kyung Chul Shin, Soon-Kyu Yoou, Hyun Ji Park, Seo Hyeon Eun, Young Min Bae, Hyang Mi Lee, Han-Jung Chae, Soo-Wan Chae, Bok Hee Choi
Mulberry (Morus alba) has been used in traditional oriental medicine since ages. Recently, it has been reported that mulberry produces hypotensive effects through the eNOS signaling pathway. However, the mechanism underlying the hypotensive effects of mulberry is not entirely clear. Moreover, the effects of mulberry on vascular remodeling events such as hyperplasia, an important etiology in the pathogenesis of hypertension and arteriosclerosis, are also ambiguous. Here, we hypothesized that an ethanolic extract of mulberry fruit (EMF) has beneficial effects on vascular remodeling and produces hypotensive effects...
May 17, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727795/differential-effects-of-high-consumption-of-fructose-or-glucose-on-mesenteric-arterial-function-in-female-rats
#2
Sonali Shaligram, Gemma Sangüesa, Farjana Akther, Marta Alegret, Juan C Laguna, Roshanak Rahimian
We have recently shown that type of supplemented simple sugar, not merely calorie intake, determines adverse effects on metabolism and aortic endothelial function in female rats. The aim of the current study was to investigate and compare the effects of high consumption of glucose or fructose on mesenteric arterial reactivity and systolic blood pressure (SBP). Sprague-Dawley female rats were supplemented with 20% w/v glucose or fructose in drinking water for 8 weeks. Here, we show that both sugars alter insulin signaling in mesenteric arteries (MA), assessed by a reduction in phosphorylated Akt, and increase in SBP...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688750/an-online-catalog-of-muscle-variants-student-perceptions-of-a-new-opportunity-for-self-directed-learning
#3
Logan S Bale, Sean O Herrin, Natasha M Brandt, Naomi M Enos
OBJECTIVE: Muscle variants are common findings in dissection laboratories. These anomalous structures can be relevant in the diagnosis and management of certain conditions and therefore could be incorporated into anatomy curricula at chiropractic colleges. We aimed to create an online resource of muscle variants to facilitate student self-directed learning within this area of study. METHODS: At the time of their discovery during routine educational dissection, muscle variants included in the catalog were documented and subsequent case reports written...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Chiropractic Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609847/angiotensin-iv-improves-subnormothermic-machine-perfusion-preservation-of-rat-liver-graft
#4
Donia Tabka, Mohamed Bejaoui, James Javellaud, Jean-Michel Achard, Hassen Ben Abdennebi
This study aims to determine whether Angiotensin IV (Ang IV) addition to Celsior preservation solution could improve hepatic endothelium function and provide better liver protection during subnormothermic machine preservation (SMP). Two experimental models were used: In the first part of the study, rings isolated from rat hepatic artery were preserved in Celsior solution (6 h, 20 °C) with and without Ang IV (10-9  M), then, endothelium-dependent relaxation (EDR) and the concentration of acetylcholine inducing half-maximal relaxation of pre-contracted rings (EC50) were measured...
March 30, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29597832/maternal-pufa-omega-3-supplementation-prevents-hyperoxia-induced-pulmonary-hypertension-in-the-offspring
#5
Ying Zhong, Daniel Catheline, Ali Houeijeh, Dyuti Sharma, Li-Zhong Du, Capucine Besengez, Philippe Deruelle, Philippe Legrand, Laurent Storme
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) and right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH) affect 16-25% of premature infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), contributing significantly to perinatal morbidity and mortality. Polyunsaturated fatty acids ω-3 (PUFA ω-3) can improve vascular remodeling, angiogenesis, and inflammation under pathophysiological conditions. However, the effects of PUFA ω-3 supplementation in BPD-associated PH are unknown. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of PUFA ω-3 on pulmonary vascular remodeling, angiogenesis, and inflammatory response in a hyperoxia-induced rat model of PH...
March 29, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596860/endothelial-dysfunction-endothelial-nitric-oxide-bioavailability-tetrahydrobiopterin-and-5-methyltetrahydrofolate-in-cardiovascular-disease-where-are-we-with-therapy
#6
REVIEW
Matthew F Yuyun, Leong L Ng, G André Ng
Homeostasis around vascular endothelium is a function of the equilibrium between the bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO) and oxidizing reactive oxygen species (ROS). Within the vascular endothelium, NO enhances vasodilatation, reduces platelet aggression and adhesion (anti-thrombotic), prevents smooth muscle proliferation, inhibits adhesion of leukocytes and expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines genes (anti-inflammatory), and counters the oxidation of low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. A shift in the equilibrium that favours NO deficiency and ROS formation leads to endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular disease...
March 27, 2018: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415069/administration-of-l-arginine-plus-l-citrulline-or-l-citrulline-alone-successfully-retarded-endothelial-senescence
#7
Tomoe Tsuboi, Morihiko Maeda, Toshio Hayashi
L-citrulline and L-arginine supplementation has been shown to have several beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system. Nitric oxide (NO) protects against the progression of atherosclerosis and is synthesized by nitric oxide synthase (NOS), which converts L-arginine (L-Arg) into L-citrulline (L-Cit). Our previous study revealed that chronic administration of a combination of L-Cit and L- Arg has a better therapeutic effect on high cholesterol-induced atherosclerosis in rabbits. We investigated how L-Arg and L-Cit affect endothelial function, aging and atherosclerosis...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412804/testosterone-to-estrogen-conversion-is-not-responsible-for-the-vasodilating-effects-of-testosterone-ex-vivo
#8
Shijin Tan, Dong Yi, Wei Zhu, Rong Sun, Meng Wei
Men have a higher incidence of cardiovascular disease, but poorer vasodilatation than women. However, testosterone exerts vasodilating actions ex vivo. We aimed to determine if reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced in vivo could cause 'eNOS uncoupling' that accounts for the disparity between in vivo and ex vivo results. Ovariectomized SHR and WKY rats were divided into 3 groups: untreated, estradiol benzoate (EB) treated, and testosterone propionate (TP) treated. EB and TP rats were treated for 8 weeks, and blood pressure, serum estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone were measured...
January 31, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408903/vitamin-d-deficiency-causes-inward-hypertrophic-remodeling-and-alters-vascular-reactivity-of-rat-cerebral-arterioles
#9
Éva Pál, Leila Hadjadj, Zoltán Fontányi, Anna Monori-Kiss, Zsuzsanna Mezei, Norbert Lippai, Attila Magyar, Andrea Heinzlmann, Gellért Karvaly, Emil Monos, György Nádasy, Zoltán Benyó, Szabolcs Várbíró
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Vitamin D deficiency (VDD) is a global health problem, which can lead to several pathophysiological consequences including cardiovascular diseases. Its impact on the cerebrovascular system is not well understood. The goal of the present work was to examine the effects of VDD on the morphological, biomechanical and functional properties of cerebral arterioles. METHODS: Four-week-old male Wistar rats (n = 11 per group) were either fed with vitamin D deficient diet or received conventional rat chow with per os vitamin D supplementation...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394240/beneficial-effects-of-adrenal-androgen-supplement-in-bleeding-cirrhotic-rats
#10
Hui-Chun Huang, Shao-Jung Hsu, Ching-Chih Chang, Ming-Hung Tsai, Fa-Yauh Lee, Ming-Chih Hou, Shou-Dong Lee
Critical illness is accompanied by hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation, but adrenal insufficiency characterized by inadequate glucocorticoid synthesis is common in critically ill cirrhotic patients, the 'hepato-adrenal syndrome'. Adrenal cortex also synthesizes androgen (dehydroepiandrosterone, DHEA). DHEA maintains microcirculation by enhancing vascular endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity. In critical patients of other disease entities, a shift of adrenal steroidogenesis away from androgens towards glucocorticoid has been noted, arousing interests in androgen replacement in critical settings...
February 1, 2018: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29390203/enos-uncoupling-a-therapeutic-target-for-ischemic-foot-of-diabetic-rat
#11
Ling Gao, Ailin Yu, Jingcheng Liu, Lina Ma, Jing Li
AIM: To determine the relationship between eNOS uncoupling and diabetic ischemic foot and whether reversing eNOS uncoupling by Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) transfection or folic acid (FA) supplementation can be beneficiary in diabetic ischemic foot. METHODS: The bilateral common iliac artery of diabetic rats were ligated to establish the diabetic ischemic foot animal model. DHFR transfection was implemented via femoral artery and muscle injection of in vivo transfection reagent mixture (GenEscortIII) every 4 days during the 2 weeks intervention...
February 1, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374793/taurine-supplementation-prevents-endothelial-dysfunction-and-attenuates-structural-changes-in-aortas-from-hypothalamic-obese-rats
#12
Valéria F Leão, Letícia L D M Ferreira, Cinthya M Melo, Maria L Bonfleur, Leandro L da Silva, Everardo M Carneiro, Juliana M Raimundo, Rosane A Ribeiro
PURPOSE: Obesity predisposes to cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. The amino acid, L-taurine (Tau), regulates glucose and lipid homeostasis and vascular function. Here we investigated whether Tau supplementation prevents endothelial dysfunction in the thoracic aortas of monosodium glutamate-induced obese (MSG) rats. METHODS: Male rats received subcutaneous injections of MSG (4 mg/kg body weight/day) or saline (control group, CTL) during the first five days of life...
January 27, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29368944/a-specific-amino-acid-formula-prevents-alcoholic-liver-disease-in-rodents
#13
Laura Tedesco, Giovanni Corsetti, Chiara Ruocco, Maurizio Ragni, Fabio Rossi, Michele O Carruba, Alessandra Valerio, Enzo Nisoli
Chronic alcohol consumption promotes mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, defective protein metabolism, and fat accumulation in hepatocytes (liver steatosis). Inadequate amino-acid metabolism is worsened by protein malnutrition, frequently present in alcohol-consuming patients, with reduced circulating branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs). Here we asked whether dietary supplementation with a specific amino-acid mixture, enriched in BCAAs (BCAAem) and able to promote mitochondrial function in muscle of middle-aged rodents, would prevent mitochondrial dysfunction and liver steatosis in Wistar rats fed on a Lieber-DeCarli ethanol (EtOH)-containing liquid diet...
January 25, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336891/cupua%C3%A3-u-extract-reduces-nitrosative-stress-and-modulates-inflammatory-mediators-in-the-kidneys-of-experimental-diabetes
#14
Giovana R Punaro, Deyse Y Lima, Adelson M Rodrigues, Samuel Pugliero, Margaret G Mouro, Marcelo M Rogero, Elisa M S Higa
BACKGROUND & AIMS: We have previously reported an increased nitrosative stress in the kidneys of diabetic animals, which was reduced by an antioxidant probiotic. The present study evaluated whether the extract of cupuaçu (EC), an antioxidant compound rich in polyphenols and theograndins, when administered at a dose that can be reasonably obtained through daily consumption, could delay the onset of diabetic complications in the kidney. METHODS: Mouse immortalized mesangial cells (MiMC) were placed in medium normal glucose (NG) or high glucose (HG), with or without EC (500, 100, 50 or 10 μg/mL) during 24, 48 or 72 h for analysis of viability, proliferation, nitric oxide (NO) levels and reactive oxygen species or nitrogen (ROS/RNS)...
December 26, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242848/effect-of-combined-endurance-resistance-training-and-soy-extract-supplementation-on-expression-of-enos-gene-in-ovariectomized-rats
#15
Morteza Jourkesh, Siroos Choobineh, Rahman Soori, Ali Asghar Ravasi
Introduction: Menopause is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Physical exercise and soybean diets have been suggested to reduce the risk of CVD in postmenopausal women. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of combined resistance and endurance (RE) training and soy extract (SOY) supplementation, both known to improve endothelial function, on expression of the eNOS gene in the heart of ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Material and methods: Fifty female Wistar rats were divided into five groups: 1) sham (SHAM); 2) ovariectomy (OVX); 3) ovariectomy with soy extract supplementation (OVX + SOY); 4) OVX with RE training (OVX + RE); 5) and ovariectomy plus RE training with soy extract supplementation (OVX + RE + SOY)...
2017: Archives of Medical Sciences. Atherosclerotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213078/functional-status-of-microvascular-vasomotion-is-impaired-in-spontaneously-hypertensive-rat
#16
Mingming Liu, Xiaoyan Zhang, Bing Wang, Qingbin Wu, Bingwei Li, Ailing Li, Honggang Zhang, Ruijuan Xiu
Accumulating evidence demonstrates that microcirculation plays a role in the pathogenesis of hypertension. In the current study, we demonstrated that pancreatic islet microvascular vasomotion of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) lost the ability to regulate blood flow perfusion and exhibited a lower microvascular blood perfusion pattern which was negative correlated with blood glucose level. SHRs administrated with insulin revealed an improvement of pancreatic islet microvascular vasomotion and blood perfusion pattern...
December 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164133/role-of-dietary-antioxidants-in-the-preservation-of-vascular-function-and-the-modulation-of-health-and-disease
#17
REVIEW
Saradhadevi Varadharaj, Owen J Kelly, Rami N Khayat, Purnima S Kumar, Naseer Ahmed, Jay L Zweier
In vascular diseases, including hypertension and atherosclerosis, vascular endothelial dysfunction (VED) occurs secondary to altered function of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). A novel redox regulated pathway was identified through which eNOS is uncoupled due to S -glutathionylation of critical cysteine residues, resulting in superoxide free radical formation instead of the vasodilator molecule, nitric oxide. In addition, the redox sensitive cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin, BH4 , is also essential for eNOS coupling...
2017: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042272/effects-of-dietary-nitrate-on-respiratory-physiology-at-high-altitude-results-from-the-xtreme-alps-study
#18
Andrew F Cumpstey, Philip J Hennis, Edward T Gilbert-Kawai, Bernadette O Fernandez, Matthieu Poudevigne, Alexandra Cobb, Paula Meale, Kay Mitchell, Helen Moyses, Helmut Pöhnl, Monty G Mythen, Michael P W Grocott, Martin Feelisch, Daniel S Martin
Nitric oxide (NO) production plays a central role in conferring tolerance to hypoxia. Tibetan highlanders, successful high-altitude dwellers for millennia, have higher circulating nitrate and exhaled NO (ENO ) levels than native lowlanders. Since nitrate itself can reduce the oxygen cost of exercise in normoxia it may confer additional benefits at high altitude. Xtreme Alps was a double-blinded randomised placebo-controlled trial to investigate how dietary nitrate supplementation affects physiological responses to hypoxia in 28 healthy adult volunteers resident at 4559 m for 1 week; 14 receiving a beetroot-based high-nitrate supplement and 14 receiving a low-nitrate 'placebo' of matching appearance/taste...
December 1, 2017: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030392/hydrogen-sulfide-preserves-endothelial-nitric-oxide-synthase-function-by-inhibiting-proline-rich-kinase-2-implications-for-cardiomyocyte-survival-and-cardioprotection
#19
Sofia-Iris Bibli, Csaba Szabo, Athanasia Chatzianastasiou, Bert Luck, Sven Zukunft, Ingrid Fleming, Andreas Papapetropoulos
Hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) exhibits beneficial effects in the cardiovascular system, many of which depend on nitric oxide (NO). Proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (PYK2), a redox-sensitive tyrosine kinase, directly phosphorylates and inhibits endothelial NO synthase (eNOS). We investigated the ability of H2 S to relieve PYK2-mediated eNOS inhibition and evaluated the importance of the H2 S/PYK2/eNOS axis on cardiomyocyte injury in vitro and in vivo. Exposure of H9c2 cardiomyocytes to H2 O2 or pharmacologic inhibition of H2 S production increased PYK2 (Y402) and eNOS (Y656) phosphorylation...
December 2017: Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025731/macrophage-depletion-using-clodronate-liposomes-decreases-tumorigenesis-and-alters-gut-microbiota-in-the-aom-dss-mouse-model-of-colon-cancer
#20
Jackie E Bader, Reilly T Enos, Kandy T Velázquez, Meredith S Carson, Mitzi Nagarkatti, Prakash S Nagarkatti, Ioulia Chatzistamou, J Mark Davis, James A Carson, Cory M Robinson, E Angela Murphy
We examined the role of macrophages in inflammation associated with colorectal cancer (CRC). Given the emerging evidence on immune-microbiota interactions in CRC, we also sought to examine the interaction between macrophages and gut microbiota. To induce CRC, male C57BL/6 mice ( n = 32) received a single injection of azoxymethane (AOM), followed by three cycles of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-supplemented water in weeks 1, 4, and 7. Prior to the final DSS cycle ( week 7) and twice weekly until euthanasia, mice ( n = 16/group) received either 200 μl ip of clodronate-filled liposomes (CLD) or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) encapsulated liposomes to deplete macrophages...
January 1, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
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