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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773876/early-salmonella-typhimurium-infection-in-pigs-disrupts-microbiome-composition-and-functionality-principally-at-the-ileum-mucosa
#1
Héctor Argüello, Jordi Estellé, Sara Zaldívar-López, Ángeles Jiménez-Marín, Ana Carvajal, Mª Asunción López-Bascón, Fiona Crispie, Orla O'Sullivan, Paul D Cotter, Feliciano Priego-Capote, Luis Morera, Juan J Garrido
Salmonella is a major foodborne pathogen which successfully infects animal species for human consumption such as swine. The pathogen has a battery of virulence factors which it uses to colonise and persist within the host. The host microbiota may play a role in resistance to, and may also be indirectly responsible from some of the consequences of, Salmonella infection. To investigate this, we used 16S rRNA metagenomic sequencing to determine the changes in the gut microbiota of pigs in response to infection by Salmonella Typhimurium at three locations: ileum mucosa, ileum content and faeces...
May 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773406/dynamics-of-helicobacter-pylori-infection-in-infants-during-the-first-six-months-of-life
#2
José S Merino, Liliana Araneda, Paulina Lincoñir-Campos, Cristian Parra, Katia Sáez, Apolinaria García
INTRODUCTION: Mainly due to the high percentage of infection and the ineffectiveness of treatments, Helicobacter pylori is a global health problem. Knowing the age at acquisition is key to preventing the infection. PATIENTS: Sixty-seven mothers and their respective children participated. To evaluate the presence of H. pylori, the faeces of the mother and her child were analysed using the HpSA antigen test. RESULTS: 71.6% (48/67) of pregnant mothers were positive for H...
May 14, 2018: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773134/developmental-capacity-of-ascaridia-galli-eggs-is-preserved-after-anaerobic-storage-in-faeces
#3
B Tarbiat, S Rahimian, D S Jansson, P Halvarsson, J Höglund
The reliability of the results of in vitro studies such as detection of anthelmintic resistance often depends on the ability of the parasite eggs to develop under laboratory conditions. The aim of this study was to assess the embryonation capability of the chicken roundworm Ascaridia galli eggs after storage under different conditions. Two storage media for parasite eggs were used; faeces or water. Eggs in petri dishes (90 dishes in total) containing faces or water media were first exposed either to aerobic or anaerobic conditions at different temperatures (4 °C /+O2 , 4 °C /-O2 , 25 °C/-O2 ) for a maximum of 72 days...
May 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772457/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-metabolic-investigation-of-the-palbociclib-by-uhplc-q-tof-ms-ms-and-in-silico-toxicity-studies-of-its-metabolites
#4
Balasaheb B Chavan, Shristy Tiwari, Shankar G, Rakesh D Nimbalkar, Prabha Garg, Srinivas R, M V N Kumar Talluri
Palbociclib (PAB) is a CDK4/6 inhibitor and U. S Food and Drug Administration (FDA) granted regular approval for the treatment of hormone receptor (HR) positive, metastatic breast cancer in combination with an aromatase inhibitor in postmenopausal women. Metabolite identification is a crucial aspect during drug discovery and development as the drug metabolites may be pharmacologically active or possess toxicological activity. As there are no reports on the metabolism studies of the PAB, the present study focused on investigation of the in vitro and in vivo metabolic fate of the drug...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769478/mutation-of-the-s-and-3c-genes-in-genomes-of-feline-coronaviruses
#5
Keisuke Oguma, Megumi Ohno, Mayuko Yoshida, Hiroshi Sentsui
Feline coronavirus (FCoV) is classified into two biotypes based on its pathogenicity in cats: a feline enteric coronavirus of low pathogenicity and a highly virulent feline infectious peritonitis virus. It has been suspected that FCoV alters its biotype via mutations in the viral genome. The S and 3c genes of FCoV have been considered the candidates for viral pathogenicity conversion. In the present study, FCoVs were analyzed for the frequency and location of mutations in the S and 3c genes from faecal samples of cats in an animal shelter and the faeces, effusions, and tissues of cats that were referred to veterinary hospitals...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769145/phylogenetic-relationships-stage-specific-expression-and-localisation-of-a-unique-family-of-inactive-cysteine-proteases-in-sarcoptes-scabiei
#6
Deepani D Fernando, Simone L Reynolds, Martha Zakrzewski, Ehtesham Mofiz, Anthony T Papenfuss, Deborah Holt, Katja Fischer
BACKGROUND: Scabies is worldwide one of the most common, yet neglected, parasitic skin infections, affecting a wide range of mammals including humans. Limited treatment options and evidence of emerging mite resistance against the currently used drugs drive our research to explore new therapeutic candidates. Previously, we discovered a multicopy family of genes encoding cysteine proteases with their catalytic sites inactivated by mutation (SMIPP-Cs). This protein family is unique in parasitic scabies mites and is absent in related non-burrowing mites...
May 16, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763937/bacteriophage-cocktail-for-biocontrol-of-escherichia-coli-o157-h7-stability-and-potential-allergenicity-study
#7
Karina Ramirez, Carmina Cazarez-Montoya, Hector Samuel Lopez-Moreno, Nohelia Castro-Del Campo
Escherichia coli O157:H7 has become a global public health and a food safety problem. Despite the implementation of control strategies that guarantee the safety in various products, outbreaks persist and new alternatives are necessary to reduce this pathogen along the food chain. Recently, our group isolated and characterised lytic bacteriophages against E. coli O157:H7 with potential to be used as biocontrol agents in food. To this end, phages need certain requirements to allow their manufacture and application...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759109/hypocholesterolaemic-effect-of-whole-grain-highland-hull-less-barley-in-rats-fed-a-high-fat-diet
#8
Xuejuan Xia, Guannan Li, Jiaxin Song, Jiong Zheng, Jianquan Kan
Whole-grain highland hull-less barley (WHLB) contains high amounts of bioactive compounds that potentially exhibit cholesterol-lowering effects. This study investigated the hypocholesterolaemic effect of WHLB. A total of seventy-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups and were fed with the normal control diet, high-fat diet (HFD) and HFD containing low or high dose (10 or 48·95 %) of WHLB. High dose of WHLB significantly decreased the organ indexes of liver and abdominal fat and lipid levels of plasma and liver in HFD rats...
May 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757372/does-safe-disposal-of-child-faeces-matter-an-assessment-of-access-to-improved-sanitation-and-child-faeces-disposal-behaviour-and-diarrhoea-in-rural-nepal
#9
Prabhat Lamichhane, Anurag Sharma, Ajay Mahal
Background: Improper disposal of child faeces is a major source of faecal pathogens that cause diarrhoeal disease. However, this has received relatively less attention in sanitation evaluation literature, which has tended to focus on sanitation provision, implicitly assuming that child faeces disposal behaviour also improves with sanitation. We examined the impact of improved sanitation without safe disposal (households with improved sanitation but not disposing of child faeces in improved sanitation) and improved sanitation with safe disposal (households with improved sanitation and disposal of child faeces in improved sanitation) on diarrhoeal prevalence in rural Nepal...
May 11, 2018: International Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753212/quantification-of-doping-compounds-in-faecal-samples-from-racing-pigeons-by-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#10
Fernando X Moreira, Renata Silva, Maria B André, Paula G de Pinho, Maria L Bastos, João Ruivo, Patrícia Ruivo, Helena Carmo
The use of performance enhancing drugs is not only common in humans, but also in animal sports, including racing of horses, greyhounds and pigeons. The development of accurate analytical procedures to detect doping agents in sports is crucial in order to protect the fair-play of the game, avoid financial fraud in the attribution of eventual awards and, even more important, to protect the animals from harmful drugs and/or dangerous dosage regimens. The present study aimed to develop and validate, a method that enabled the screening and confirmation of the presence of a beta-agonist (clenbuterol) and three corticosteroids (betamethasone, prednisolone and budesonide) in faeces from pigeons...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752883/occurrence-molecular-characterization-and-assessment-of-zoonotic-risk-of-cryptosporidium-spp-giardia-duodenalis-and-enterocytozoon-bieneusi-in-pigs-in-henan-central-china
#11
Haiyan Wang, Yiqi Zhang, Yayun Wu, Junqiang Li, Meng Qi, Tingwen Li, Jianling Wang, Rongjun Wang, Sumei Zhang, Fuchun Jian, Changshen Ning, Longxian Zhang
Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis, and Enterocytozoon bieneusi are common gastrointestinal pathogens in humans and animals. Little is known about them and the range of species/assemblages/genotypes occurring in domestic pigs in China. Here, we present data on the occurrence and molecular diversity of these pathogens detected in the faeces from farms in Henan, central China. Of 897 fecal samples tested, 28 (3.1%), 15 (1.7%) and 408 (45.5%) samples were positive for Cryptosporidium, G. duodenalis and E...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745868/lawsonibacter-asaccharolyticus-gen-nov-sp-nov-a-butyrate-producing-bacterium-isolated-from-human-faeces
#12
Mitsuo Sakamoto, Takao Iino, Masahiro Yuki, Moriya Ohkuma
An obligately anaerobic, Gram-positive, non-spore-forming, straight rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain 3BBH22T , was isolated from a faecal sample of a healthy Japanese woman. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain 3BBH22T formed a monophyletic cluster with species in the genera Pseudoflavonifractor and Flavonifractor within the family Ruminococcaceae and had highest similarity to Pseudoflavonifractor capillosus ATCC 29799T (96.7 % sequence similarity), followed by Flavonifractor plautii ATCC 29863T (96...
May 10, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741287/longitudinal-study-on-the-occurrence-in-pigs-of-colistin-resistant-e-coli-carrying-mcr-1-following-the-cessation-of-use-of-colistin
#13
Luke P Randall, Robert A Horton, Fabrizio Lemma, Francesca Martelli, Nick A D Duggett, Richard P Smith, Miranda J Kirchner, Richard J Ellis, Jon P Rogers, Susanna M Williamson, Robin R L Simons, Camilla M Brena, Sarah J Evans, Muna F Anjum, Christopher J Teale
AIMS: In 2015, colistin-resistant Escherichia coli and Salmonella with the mcr-1 gene were isolated from a pig farm in Great Britain. Pigs were subsequently monitored over a ~ 20 month period for the occurrence of mcr-1 mediated colistin resistance and the risk of mcr-1 E. coli entering the food chain was assessed. METHODS AND RESULTS: Pig faeces and slurry were cultured for colistin resistant E. coli and Salmonella, tested for the mcr-1 gene by PCR, and selected isolates were further analysed...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741131/on-the-distribution-and-metabolism-of-fusarium-toxins-along-the-gastrointestinal-tract-of-endotoxaemic-pigs
#14
Erik Bannert, Tanja Tesch, Jeannette Kluess, Janine Winkler, Jana Frahm, Susanne Kersten, Stefan Kahlert, Lydia Renner, Hermann-Josef Rothkötter, Sven Dänicke
The aim of this study was to investigate the potential modulatory effect of E. coli lipopolysaccharides (LPS) on residues of deoxynivalenol (DON), de-epoxy-deoxynivalenol (DOM-1), zearalenone (ZEN) and its metabolites α-zearalenol (α-ZEL), β-zearalenol (β-ZEL), zearalanone (ZAN), α-zearalanol (α-ZAL) and β-zearalanol (β-ZAL) after pre- or post-hepatic administration along the gastrointestinal axis. Fifteen barrows were exposed to a naturally mycotoxin contaminated diet (4.59 mg DON/kg feed and 0.22 mg ZEN/kg feed) and equipped with jugular (ju) and portal (po) catheters...
June 2018: Archives of Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737097/-quantitative-detection-of-akkermansia-muciniphila-in-fecal-samples-by-real-time-pcr
#15
Qian-Qian Qin, Ling Zhang, Guo-Qing Wang
OBJECTIVE: To develop a real-time fluorescence PCR assay for quantitative detection of Akkermansia muciniphila (A. muciniphila) in fecal samples,providing technical support for quantitative detection and deep research of A.muciniphila. METHODS: The quantitative detection method for A.muciniphila were established by using SYBR Green Ⅰ; The standard curve was made using A.muciniphila standards; The sensitivity,specificity,anti-interference and repeatability of this assay were analyzed; 30 human fecal samples were detected by the established method...
January 2018: Sichuan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Sichuan University. Medical Science Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736913/effects-of-caffeine-on-behavioural-and-cognitive-deficits-in-rats
#16
Melissa S Assis, Aluízio C Soares, Dircilei N de Sousa, João Eudes-Filho, Lilian Rosana F Faro, Fabiana P Carneiro, Mônica V da Silva, Andrea B Motoyama, Greice Maria R de Souza, Stéphanie Marchiori, Nadyelle T de Lima, Raphael Boëchat-Barros, Vania M Ferreira
There are many studies that have sought to find drug therapies to prevent harm arising from sepsis. Such studies have represented a progress in the support to septic patients and also in the development of new pharmacological alternatives. Our interest was to investigate the caffeine effect on sepsis behavioural and memory impairments. Male rats were anaesthetized and the surgery was made to allow exposure of the cecum, which was then squeezed to extrude a small amount of faeces from the perforation site, which was later placed back into the peritoneal cavity...
May 7, 2018: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725148/design-and-commissioning-of-a-multi-mode-prototype-for-thermochemical-conversion-of-human-faeces
#17
Nelia Jurado, Tosin Somorin, Athanasios J Kolios, Stuart Wagland, Kumar Patchigolla, Beatriz Fidalgo, Alison Parker, Ewan McAdam, Leon Williams, Sean Tyrrel
This article describes the design and commissioning of a micro-combustor for energy recovery from human faeces, which can operate both in updraft and downdraft modes. Energy recovery from faecal matter via thermochemical conversion has recently been identified as a feasible solution for sanitation problems in low income countries and locations of high income countries where access to sewage infrastructures is difficult or not possible. This technology can be applied to waterless toilets with the additional outcome of generating heat and power that can be used to pre-treat the faeces before their combustion and to ensure that the entire system is self-sustaining...
May 1, 2018: Energy Conversion and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716180/current-knowledge-about-aelurostrongylus-abstrusus-biology-and-diagnostic
#18
Tatyana V Moskvina
Feline aelurostrongylosis, caused by the lungworm Aelurostrongylus abstrusus, is a parasitic disease with veterinary importance. The female hatches her eggs in the bronchioles and alveolar ducts, where the larva develop into adult worms. L1 larvae and adult nematodes cause pathological changes, typically inflammatory cell infiltrates in the bronchi and the lung parenchyma. The level of infection can range from asymptomatic to the presence of severe symptoms and may be fatal for cats. Although coprological and molecular diagnostic methods are useful for A...
2018: Annals of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715662/antimicrobial-effect-of-different-peroxyacetic-acid-and-hydrogen-peroxide-formats-against-spores-of-clostridium-estertheticum
#19
John Mills, Kylie Marree Horváth, Gale Brightwell
"Blown pack" spoilage is primarily caused by Clostridium estertheticum. The primary source of contamination is probably pelts, faeces and soil during opening cuts and de-hiding. Peroxyacetic acid (POAA) based fogs are commonly included in an abattoir's routine cleaning process. Hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) is a powerful oxidizing agent that penetrates microbe cell walls causing cell death. In this study, we compared the ability of H2 O2 and OXYSAN ZS (POAA containing 1-hydroxyethylidine-1,1-diphosphonic acid as a stabilizer) in different formats to inactivate C...
April 23, 2018: Meat Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710649/culture-and-molecular-based-detection-of-swine-adapted-salmonella-shed-by-avian-scavengers
#20
Guillermo Blanco, Juan A Díaz de Tuesta
Salmonella can play an important role as a disease agent in wildlife, which can then act as carriers and reservoirs of sanitary importance at the livestock-human interface. Transmission from livestock to avian scavengers can occur when these species consume contaminated carcasses and meat remains in supplementary feeding stations and rubbish dumps. We compared the performance of PCR-based detection with conventional culture-based methods to detect Salmonella in the faeces of red kites (Milvus milvus) and griffon vultures (Gyps fulvus) in central Spain...
April 13, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
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