Read by QxMD icon Read


A H Togo, M Maraninchi, F Bittar, D Raoult, M Million
We report here the main characteristics of a new bacterium species, "Ruminococcus phoceensis" strain AT10 (CSUR = P2086, DSM = 100837). This bacterium was isolated from the faeces of a 37-year-old woman from Marseille, France, with morbid obesity before bariatric surgery.
November 2016: New Microbes and New Infections
Edna Pereira Gomes Morais, Rachel Riera, Gustavo Jm Porfírio, Cristiane R Macedo, Vivian Sarmento Vasconcelos, Alexsandra de Souza Pedrosa, Maria R Torloni
BACKGROUND: Caesarean sections (CS) are the most frequent major surgery in the world. A transient impairment of bowel motility is expected after CS. Although this usually resolves spontaneously within a few days, it can cause considerable discomfort, require symptomatic medication and delay hospital discharge, thus increasing costs. Chewing gum in the immediate postoperative period is a simple intervention that may be effective in enhancing recovery of bowel function in other types of abdominal surgeries...
October 17, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Preeti Ps, Sanjaya Kumar Sahoo, Dhiraj Biswas, Aparajita Dasgupta
OBJECTIVES: A clean India is the responsibility of all Indians. One of the objectives of the Swachh Bharat Abhiyan (Clean India Initiative) is to bring about behavioural changes regarding healthy sanitation practices. While large-scale programs in India have increased latrine coverage, they have to some extent failed to bring behavioural changes ensuring optimal latrine use, including the safe disposal of child faeces, which is a significant source of exposure to faecal pathogens. Hence, this study was done to explore child faeces disposal practices in rural West Bengal and to elicit the determinants of unhygienic faeces disposal...
September 2016: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Yebang Ŭihakhoe Chi
Tania Fernández-Navarro, Nuria Salazar, Isabel Gutiérrez-Díaz, Borja Sánchez, Patricia Rúas-Madiedo, Clara G de Los Reyes-Gavilán, Abelardo Margolles, Miguel Gueimonde, Sonia González
PURPOSE: Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) formation by intestinal bacteria is regulated by many different factors, among which dietary fibre is currently receiving most attention. However, since fibre-rich foods are usually good dietary sources of phenolic compounds, which are also known to affect the microbiota, authors hypothesize that the regular intake of these bioactive compounds could be associated with a modulation of faecal SCFA production by the intestinal microbiota. METHODS: In this work, food intake was recorded by means of a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire...
October 15, 2016: European Journal of Nutrition
Xuewei Wang, Xingzhong Liu, Johannes Z Groenewald
The phylum Neocallimastigomycota contains eight genera (about 20 species) of strictly anaerobic fungi. The evolutionary relationships of these genera are uncertain due to insufficient sequence data to infer their phylogenies. Based on morphology and molecular phylogeny, thirteen isolates obtained from yak faeces and rumen digesta in China were assigned to Neocallimastix frontalis (nine isolates), Orpinomyces joyonii (two isolates) and Caecomyces sp. (two isolates), respectively. The phylogenetic relationships of the eight genera were evaluated using complete ITS and partial LSU sequences, compared to the ITS1 region which has been widely used in this phylum in the past...
October 12, 2016: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Eunice Molinar-Toribio, Elisabet Fuguet, Sara Ramos-Romero, Núria Taltavull, Lucía Méndez, M Rosa Nogués, Isabel Medina, Josep Lluís Torres, Jara Pérez-Jiménez
PURPOSE: Polyphenol metabolites are key mediators of the biological activities of polyphenols. This study aimed to evaluate the long-term effects of a high-fat high-sucrose (HFHS) diet on the metabolism of proanthocyanidins from grape seed extract (GSE). METHODS: Adult female Wistar-Kyoto rats were fed a standard (STD) or HFHS diet supplemented or not with GSE for 16 weeks. PA metabolites were determined by targeted HPLC-MS/MS analysis. RESULTS: A lower concentration of total microbial-derived PA metabolites was present in urine and the aqueous fraction of faeces in the HFHS + GSE group than in the STD + GSE group...
October 12, 2016: European Journal of Nutrition
Jizong Li, Tianqi Yu, Feipeng Zhang, Xiaobo Wang, Jinzhu Zhou, Xing Gao, Song Gao, Xiufan Liu
Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is subdivided into four genotypes: PCV2a, PCV2b, PCV2c and PCV2d. Here, for the first time, we compared the efficacy of two experimental inactivated chimeric PCV1-2 vaccines based on genotypes 2b and 2d. Seventeen 3-week-old pigs were divided randomly into four groups. Group 1 and 2 pigs were inoculated with genotype 2b- and 2d-based inactivated vaccines, respectively. At 28 days post-vaccination (DPV), pigs in groups 1-3 were challenged with the PCV2b 0233 strain. All experimental pigs were necropsied at 21 days post-challenge (DPC)...
October 8, 2016: Archives of Virology
Rolf Nijsse, Lapo Mughini-Gras, Jaap A Wagenaar, Harm W Ploeger
BACKGROUND: To reduce environmental contamination with Toxocara canis eggs, the current general advice is to deworm all dogs older than six months on average four times a year. However, only a small proportion of non-juvenile household dogs actually shed T. canis eggs, and some dogs shed eggs more frequently than others. The identification of these frequent shedders and the associated risk factors is an important cornerstone for constructing evidence-based deworming regimens. The purpose of this study is to identify risk factors associated with recurrence of periods of shedding Toxocara eggs in a cohort of household dogs older than six months...
October 4, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
Laetitia Lempereur, Ludovic Martinelle, Françoise Marechal, Calixte Bayrou, Anne Catherine Dalemans, Manuela Schnyder, Bertrand Losson
BACKGROUND: Canine angiostrongylosis, a gastropod-borne helminthic infection, is increasingly being described in North America and is now reported in many European countries. In dogs, Angiostrongylus vasorum may cause a wide spectrum of clinical signs. Respiratory distress such as coughing and dyspnoea are the most frequently described manifestations. The aim of the present study was to gain additional information on the distribution, prevalence and risk factors associated with A. vasorum infection in dog from southern Belgium through the combined used of a commercially available in-clinic assay for detection of circulating antigen (Angio Detect™, IDEXX, Westbrook, USA) and coprology in two different canine populations: dogs with clinical signs compatible with angiostrongylosis and asymptomatic dogs or dogs presented for unrelated conditions (control)...
October 6, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
Cristina Rodriguez, Bernard Taminiau, Nicolas Korsak, Véronique Avesani, Johan Van Broeck, Philippe Brach, Michel Delmée, Georges Daube
BACKGROUND: Increasing age, several co-morbidities, environmental contamination, antibiotic exposure and other intestinal perturbations appear to be the greatest risk factors for C. difficile infection (CDI). Therefore, elderly care home residents are considered particularly vulnerable to the infection. The main objective of this study was to evaluate and follow the prevalence of C. difficile in 23 elderly care home residents weekly during a 4-month period. A C. difficile microbiological detection scheme was performed along with an overall microbial biodiversity study of the faeces content by 16S rRNA gene analysis...
October 1, 2016: BMC Microbiology
Rachel M McQuade, Simona E Carbone, Vanesa Stojanovska, Ahmed Rahman, Rachel M Gwynne, Ainsley M Robinson, Craig A Goodman, Joel C Bornstein, Kulmira Nurgali
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Oxaliplatin is a platinum-based chemotherapeutic drug used as a first-line therapy for colorectal cancer. However, its use is associated with severe gastrointestinal side-effects resulting in dose limitations and/or cessation of treatment. In this study, we tested whether oxidative stress, caused by chronic oxaliplatin treatment, induces enteric neuronal damage and colonic dysmotility EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Oxaliplatin (3 mg/kg/d) was administered in vivo to Balb/c mice intraperitoneally three times a week...
October 7, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
Ai-Ping Fang, Ke-Ji Li, Hao-Yu Shi, Jing-Jing He, He Li
To investigate the metabolic differences of calcium requirements between Chinese and Westerners, we examined systematically the characteristics of calcium metabolism in Chinese adults with habitual dietary calcium intakes. We searched PubMed, Cochrane Library, SinoMed, and National Index to Chinese Newspapers & Periodicals, from inception to March 17, 2015, as well as the bibliographies of any relevant papers and journals, for trials assessing calcium metabolism in healthy Chinese adults within 18-60 years of age on the typical Chinese diet...
December 2016: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Marianthi Chatzikonstantinou, Panagiotis Konstantopoulos, Spyros Stergiopoulos, Konstantinos Kontzoglou, Christos Verikokos, Despina Perrea, Dimitris Dimitroulis
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are chronic intestinal disorders caused by a number of factors, including external influences, intestinal microbiota and genetics. The two major clinically defined types of IBD are Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, each of which is characterized by relapses in the clinical course, thus patients must be under constant observation via regular endoscopies. As endoscopy, which has been used for direct evaluation and diagnosis of IBD, requires uncomfortable and expensive bowel preparation, a non-invasive test was required to reduce the number of patients undergoing unnecessary endoscopy...
October 2016: Biomedical Reports
Karaffová V, Marcinková E, Bobíková K, Herich R, Revajová V, Stašová D, Kavuľová A, Levkutová M, Levkut M, Lauková A, Ševčíková Z, Levkut M
The protective effect of Enterococcus faecium EFAL41 on chicken's caecum in relation to the TLR (TLR4 and TLR21) activation and production of luminal IgA challenged with Campylobacter jejuni CCM6191 was assessed. The activation of MIF, IFN-β, MD-2 and CD14 was followed-up after bacterial infection. Day-old chicks (40) were divided into four groups (n = 10): control (C), E. faecium AL41 (EFAL41), C. jejuni (CJ) and combined E. faecium AL41+C. jejuni (EFAL41+CJ). Relative mRNA expression of TLR4, TLR21 and CD14 was upregulated in the probiotic strain and infected (combined) group on day 4 and 7 post infection (p...
October 3, 2016: Folia Microbiologica
Miroslav Popper, Soňa Gancarčíková, Marián Maďar, Dagmar Mudroňová, Gabriela Hrčková, Radomíra Nemcová
The experiment was carried out on 24 SPF BALB/c female mice and lasted for 15 days with a 5-day antibiotic (ATB) treatment and then 10 days without ATB treatment. The aim of our study was to acquire an animal model with reduced and controlled microflora and, at the same time, to ensure that the good health of these animals is maintained. Per oral administration of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium in Amoksiklav (Sandoz, Slovenia) at a dose of 387.11 mg/kg body weight (0.2 ml of dilution per mouse) and subcutaneous administration of ciprofloxacin in Ciloxan (Alcon, Spain) at a dose of 18...
October 1, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Silvia Viviana Soriano, María Florencia Debiaggi, Nora Beatriz Pierangeli, Luis Alfredo Pianciola, Héctor Fabián Jesús Bergagna, Lorena Evelina Lazzarini, Melina Leonor Mazzeo, Juan Angel Basualdo
Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (E. granulosus sl) must be considered as a species complex, comprising Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (E. granulosus ss, genotypes G1-G3), Echinococcus equinus (G4), Echinococcus ortleppi (G5) and Echinococcus canadensis (G6-G10) although the species status of E. canadensis is still controversial. These genotypes closely match the intermediate hosts associated strains described in earlier times among which E. canadensis G6 corresponds to the camel strain. As there are no studies concerning the development of adult stages of the G6 genotype from non-camel origin, the aims of the present study were: to characterize for the first time the development of E...
September 15, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
Don O'Grady, Kevin Kenny, Seamus Power, John Egan, Fergus Ryan
Intestinal infection by Yersinia enterocolitica serotype O:9 (YeO9) in cattle has been linked to false positive serological reactivity (FPSR) in diagnostic tests for brucellosis. Although eradicated in Ireland, brucellosis monitoring still identifies seropositive animals, usually one or two (termed singletons) per herd, which are classed as FPSR. To investigate a link between FPSR and YeO9, faeces and blood were collected from singleton FPSR cattle, and from companion animals, in eight selected herds with more than one FPSR animal, for YeO9 culture and Brucella serology...
October 2016: Veterinary Journal
Philippe Lebel, Ann Letellier, Jessie Longpré, Benoit Laplante, Etienne Yergeau, Philippe Fravalo
AIMS: The object of this study was to determine the impact of only modifying the processing and/or particle size of pig feed on Salmonella shedding and faecal microbiota. METHODS AND RESULTS: Pigs were fed a diet that varied only by their processing (pellet or mash) and their particle size (500, 750 or 1250 μm) for 21 days. Salmonella detection in faeces and seroconversion were determined. Faecal microbiota was assessed by Ion Torrent amplicon sequencing and real-time PCR...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Jérôme Tourret, Benjamin P Willing, Sara Dion, Jayden MacPherson, Erick Denamur, Brett B Finlay
BACKGROUND: Transplant recipients are treated with immunosuppressive (IS) therapies, which impact host-microbial interactions. We examined the impact of IS drugs on gut microbiota and on the expression of ileal antimicrobial peptides. METHODS: Mice were treated for 14 days with prednisolone, mycophenolate mofetil, tacrolimus, a combination of these 3 drugs, everolimus or water. Faeces were collected before and after treatment initiation. Ileal samples were collected after sacrifice...
September 27, 2016: Transplantation
F He, J F Lin, X Y Wang, F D Li, Z Yu, E F Chen
H9 avian influenza virus played a key role during generation of the novel H7N9 virus. A surveillance programme was conducted to assess the H9 virus in relation to the risk of H7N9 virus contamination in the environment. Risk of H7N9 virus contamination in the presence of H9 virus was higher than without (adjusted odds ratio 4·49, 95% confidence interval 3·79-5·31). Adjusted odds ratios of the H7N9 virus associated with co-presence of H9 virus and interacting factors were 4·93 (rural vs. urban area), 46·80 (live poultry markets vs...
September 28, 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"