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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237767/comparison-between-virulence-characteristics-of-dominant-and-non-dominant-escherichia-coli-strains-of-the-gut-and-their-interaction-with-caco-2%C3%A2-cells
#1
B Owrangi, N Masters, T L Vollmerhausen, C O'dea, A Kuballa, M Katouli
Escherichia coli strains are normal inhabitants of the gut and are normally found in the faeces of the host at different population sizes. We characterised faecal E. coli of 45 healthy male (n = 17) and female (n = 28) volunteers by testing 28 isolates from each individual. These isolates were typed and divided into dominant (if constituted >50% of the population tested) and non-dominant types in each individual. Representative strains of each dominant and non-dominant type were tested for their virulence gene profiles, their ability to form biofilm, adhere to, invade and translocate through a gut epithelial cell line (Caco-2 cells)...
February 22, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230234/nasal-infestation-by-linguatula-serrata-in-a-dog-in-the-uk-a-case-report
#2
E Villedieu, R F Sanchez, R E Jepson, G Ter Haar
A two-year-old, female neutered, cross-breed dog imported from Romania was diagnosed with nasal infestation of Linguatula serrata after she sneezed out an adult female. The dog was presented with mucopurulent/sanguinous nasal discharge, marked left-sided exophthalmia, conjunctival hyperaemia and chemosis. Computed tomography and left frontal sinusotomy revealed no further evidence of adult parasites. In addition, there was no evidence of egg shedding in the nasal secretions or faeces. Clinical signs resolved within 48 hours of sinusotomy, and with systemic broad-spectrum antibiotics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229970/molecular-analysis-of-the-human-faecal-archaea-in-a-southern-indian-population
#3
Sandya B Rani, Ramadass Balamurugan, Balakrishnan S Ramakrishna
Archaea are an important constituent of the human gut microbiota, but there is no information on human gut archaea in an Indian population. In this study, faecal samples were obtained from different age groups (neonatal babies, preschool children, school-going children, adolescents, adults and elderly) of a southern Indian population, and from a tribal population also resident in southern India). 16S rRNA gene sequences specific to Archaea were amplified from pooled faecal DNA in each group, sequenced, and aligned against the NCBI database...
March 2017: Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229163/-prevalence-of-dog-circovirus-in-healthy-and-diarrhoeic-dogs
#4
Michaela Gentil, Achim D Gruber, Elisabeth Müller
OBJECTIVE: In 2012, a Dog circovirus (DogCV) was discovered in the USA, which was followed by further descriptions of the virus in the USA, Italy and Germany. The present study is the first to examine the prevalence of DogCV in faeces of dogs from Germany and other European countries. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Faecal samples from 184 dogs with diarrhoea and from 82 clinically healthy dogs (control group) were analysed for the presence of DogCV by PCR. Furthermore, the detection of parvovirus, coronavirus, Giardia and Cryptosporidium was performed in all samples...
February 23, 2017: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe K, Kleintiere/Heimtiere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222923/consumption-of-aquaculture-waste-affects-the-fatty-acid-metabolism-of-a-benthic-invertebrate
#5
Camille A White, Raymond J Bannister, Symon A Dworjanyn, Vivian Husa, Peter D Nichols, Tina Kutti, Tim Dempster
Trophic subsidies can drive widespread ecological change, thus knowledge of how keystone species respond to subsidies is important. Aquaculture of large carnivorous fish generates substantial waste as faeces and lost feed, providing a food source to mobile benthic invertebrates. We used a controlled feeding study combined with a field survey to better understand the interaction between salmon aquaculture and the sea urchin, Echinus acutus, a dominant mobile invertebrate in Norwegian fjords. We tested if diets affected urchin fatty acid composition by feeding them one of three diet treatments ("aquafeed", "composite" and "natural") for 10weeks...
February 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219467/comparative-fibre-degrading-capacity-in-foals-at-immediate-and-late-post-weaning-periods
#6
C Faubladier, V Julliand, L Beuneiche, C Philippeau
Total tract apparent digestibility of dietary fibrous components and parameters of the faecal digestive ecosystem were compared at immediate and late post-weaning periods using five foals. The foals were abruptly weaned (day 0) from their mares at 6 months of age. Immediately (day 0 to day 14) and later (day 131 to day 194) after weaning, foals received the same basal diet consisting of hay and pellets. Pellets were fed at 0.36% BW. Hay was offered ad libitum and corresponded to 120% of the average voluntary hay intake measured individually during the immediate (days 1 to 4) and late (days 180 to 183) post-weaning periods...
February 21, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218734/-lesions-detected-in-six-spanish-colorectal-cancer-screening-population-based-programmes-cribea-project-spain
#7
Isabel Portillo Villares, Eunate Arana-Arri, Isabel Idigoras Rubio, Josep Alfons Espinás Piñol, Francisco Pérez Riquelme, Mariola de la Vega Prieto, Alvaro González Aledo, Elena Oceja Setien, Mercedes Vanaclocha Espi, Josefa Ibáñez Cabanell, Dolores Salas Trejo
OBJECTIVE: In this study, the results of six Colorectal Cancer Screening Population Programmes are shown (Catalonia, Valence, Murcia, Cantabria, the Basque Country and the Canary Islands collected between 2005 and 2012. These programmes use the faeces occult blood test (FOBt) biennial. Objective: To determine and compare the results of lesions detected by the programmes, participation, sex, age and test used. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study based on people invited, aged between 50-74 years, in at least a complete round...
February 20, 2017: Revista Española de Salud Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216695/continuous-self-sustaining-smouldering-destruction-of-simulated-faeces
#8
Ivo Fabris, Daniel Cormier, Jason I Gerhard, Tomek Bartczak, Mark Kortschot, Jose L Torero, Yu-Ling Cheng
A new approach for the rapid destruction of human waste using smouldering combustion is presented. Recently, self-sustaining smouldering combustion was shown to destroy the organic component of simulated human solid waste and dog faeces resulting in the sanitization of all pathogens using a batch process (Yermán et al., 2015). Here, a continuous smouldering process is demonstrated for the first time, allowing for a much smaller reactor size and much less energy input per mass of waste treated. The self-sustained smouldering of simulated human faeces mixed with sand is evaluated over long periods (more than 16 h) based on a single ignition...
February 15, 2017: Fuel
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215872/detection-of-specific-antibodies-in-cats-infected-with-the-lung-nematode-aelurostrongylus-abstrusus
#9
Eva-Maria Zottler, Christina Strube, Manuela Schnyder
Feline aelurostrongylosis, caused by the metastrongylid nematode Aelurostrongylus abstrusus, is an underestimated respiratory parasitosis. Its diagnosis currently mainly relies on the isolation of first stage larvae from fresh faecal samples. The aim of our study was to develop a serological test for the detection of specific antibodies against A. abstrusus by ELISA. We used recombinant major sperm protein (MSP) of the bovine lungworm Dictyocaulus viviparus as detection antigen and evaluated two different ELISA plates (Maxisorp and Immobilizer™ Amino-plate, Nunc Roskilde, Denmark) with two different enzyme systems [alkaline phosphatase (AP) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP)]...
February 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215863/zero-inflated-hierarchical-models-for-faecal-egg-counts-to-assess-anthelmintic-efficacy
#10
Craig Wang, Paul R Torgerson, Johan Höglund, Reinhard Furrer
The prevalence of anthelmintic resistance has increased in recent years, as a result of the extensive use of anthelmintic drugs to reduce the infection of parasitic worms in livestock. In order to detect the resistance, the number of parasite eggs in animal faeces is counted. Typically a subsample of the diluted faeces is examined, and the mean egg counts from both untreated and treated animals are compared. However, the conventional method ignores the variabilities introduced by the counting process and by different infection levels across animals...
February 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215185/nutritive-value-and-anthelmintic-effect-of-sainfoin-pellets-fed-to-experimentally-infected-growing-rabbits
#11
H Legendre, H Hoste, T Gidenne
Alternative strategies to synthetic chemical drugs are needed in livestock and are a key issue in organic farming today. This study aimed at examining the potentialities of sainfoin, a legume rich in condensed tannins, as a nutraceutical that combines nutritive and antiparasitic effects in rabbits. To test the effect of infection with a helminth (I: infected groups; NI: not infected groups) and the effect of substituting 40% of the alfalfa in a control diet (C) with sainfoin (diet S), four groups of 16 weaned rabbits were arranged according to a 2×2 bifactorial design...
February 20, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209601/the-influence-of-rosuvastatin-upon-the-gastrointestinal-microbiota-and-host-gene-expression-profiles
#12
James A Nolan, Peter Henry Skuse, Kalaimathi Govindarajan, Elaine Patterson, Nina Konstantinidou, Patrick G Casey, John MacSharry, Fergus Shanahan, Catherine Stanton, Colin Hill, P D Cotter, Susan A Joyce, Cormac Gm Gahan
Statins are the most widely prescribed medications worldwide for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia. They inhibit the activity of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl co enzyme A reductase (HMG-R) an enzyme involved in cholesterol synthesis in higher organisms and in isoprenoid biosynthesis in some bacteria. We hypothesized that statins may influence the microbial community in the gut through either direct inhibition or indirect mechanisms involving alterations to host responses. We therefore examined the impact of rosuvastatin (RSV) on the community structure of the murine gastrointestinal microbiota...
February 16, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205325/wholegrain-oat-diet-changes-the-expression-of-genes-associated-with-intestinal-bile-acid-transport
#13
Kristina E Andersson, Aakash Chawade, Narda Thuresson, Ana Rascon, Rickard Öste, Olov Sterner, Olof Olsson, Per Hellstrand
SCOPE: The molecular mechanisms underlying the cholesterol-lowering properties of oats are only partly known. To study possible pathways involved, we investigated gene expressions in the liver and small intestine of mice fed oats. METHOD AND RESULTS: Cholesterol and bile acids were analysed in plasma and faeces from LDL-receptor deficient (LDLr(-/-) ) mice fed Western diet with wholegrain oats. A transcriptome analysis of mRNA from liver and jejunum was performed together with quantitative RT-PCR...
February 16, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201933/determination-and-prediction-of-the-digestible-and-metabolisable-energy-content-of-barley-for-growing-pigs-based-on-chemical-composition
#14
Hongliang Wang, Meng Shi, Xiao Xu, Long Pan, Xiaokang Ma, Ping Li, Xiangshu Piao
This experiment was conducted to define the sources of variation determining the energy content of barley and to develop a practical method to predict the digestible energy (DE) and metabolisable energy (ME) content of individual barley samples. The 19 barley samples used in this study were diverse varieties grown in different regions. The feeding experiment used 57 barrows (initial body weight 31.5 ± 3.2 kg) and was conducted over two consecutive periods (n = 6 per treatment) using a completely randomised design...
April 2017: Archives of Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194470/effect-of-vanadium-on-calcium-homeostasis-osteopontin-mrna-expression-and-bone-microarchitecture-in-diabetic-rats
#15
Cristina Sanchez-Gonzalez, Laura Moreno, Carlos Lopez-Chaves, Elena Nebot, Peter Pietschmann, Alba Rodriguez-Nogales, Julio Galvez, María Montes-Bayon, Alfredo Sanz-Medel, Juan Llopis
The aim of this study was to examine whether alterations caused by diabetes in calcium homeostasis, expression of osteopontin and the microarchitecture of bone are corrected by exposure to vanadium. Four study groups were examined over a period of five weeks: control (C), diabetic (DM), diabetic treated with 1 mg V per d (DMV), and diabetic treated with 3 mg V per d (DMVH). Vanadium was supplied in drinking water as bis(maltolato)oxovanadium(iv). Calcium was measured in the food, faeces, urine, serum, kidneys, liver, muscles, and femur...
February 14, 2017: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194411/antibiotic-resistance-of-campylobacter-recovered-from-faeces-and-carcasses-of-healthy-livestock
#16
Akosua B Karikari, Kwasi Obiri-Danso, Enoch H Frimpong, Karen A Krogfelt
Campylobacter is of major significance in food safety and human and veterinary medicine. This study highlighted resistance situation in the area of veterinary public health in Ghana. Using selective mCCDA agar, isolates were confirmed phenotypically on API CAMPY and genotypically by multiplex PCR of IpxA gene. The susceptibility profile of species to common and relevant antibiotics was determined by the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Cattle, sheep, goat, and pig faecal samples analysed, respectively, yielded 13...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192084/using-duddingtonia-flagrans-in-calves-under-an-organic-milk-farm-production-system-in-the-mexican-tropics
#17
Diego Otoniel Ortiz Pérez, Bernardo Sánchez Muñoz, José Nahed Toral, Miguel Ángel Orantes Zebadúa, José Luis Cruz López, María Eréndira Reyes García, Pedro Mendoza de Gives
The reduction of the gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) larvae population in faeces of cattle treated with Duddingtonia flagrans chlamydospores on a farm under an organic production system in Chiapas, Mexico, was assessed. Seventeen Cebu/Swiss crossbreed grazing calves naturally infected with GIN, were randomly distributed into two groups and treated as follows: Group 1, an oral administration of 2 × 10(6)D. flagrans chlamydospores/kg BW, every two days for 30 days; group 2, Control, without any treatment...
February 10, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190490/risk-factors-for-development-of-lameness-in-gestating-sows-within-the-first-days-after-moving-to-group-housing
#18
Liesbet M Pluym, Dominiek Maes, Stephanie Van Weyenberg, Annelies Van Nuffel
Lameness in sows is an important welfare issue that is affected by housing conditions and is thought to be influenced by hierarchical fights within the first days after mixing sows in groups. A longitudinal study in 15 randomly selected herds was performed to investigate the incidence of sow lameness and possible risk factors within the first days of group housing. Each herd was visited just before and again 3-5 days after the sows were moved to group housing. The floor characteristics and dimensions of the group housing facilities were assessed...
February 2017: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190419/seaweed-extracts-and-galacto-oligosaccharides-improve-intestinal-health-in-pigs-following-salmonella-typhimurium-challenge
#19
M A Bouwhuis, M J McDonnell, T Sweeney, A Mukhopadhya, C J O'Shea, J V O'Doherty
Pork and pork products are recognised as vehicles of Salmonella Typhimurium infection in humans. Seaweed-derived polysaccharides (SWE) and galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) have shown to exhibit antimicrobial, prebiotic and immunomodulatory activity. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of dietary GOS and SWE supplementation on reducing S. Typhimurium numbers and intestinal inflammation in vivo. In total, 30 pigs (n=10/treatment, BW 30.9 kg) were randomly assigned to three dietary treatments: (1) basal diet; (2) basal diet+2...
February 13, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188477/probiotic-potential-of-a-lactobacillus-bacterium-of-canine-faecal-origin-and-its-impact-on-select-gut-health-indices-and-immune-response-of-dogs
#20
Sachin Kumar, Ashok Kumar Pattanaik, Shalini Sharma, Sunil Eknath Jadhav, Narayan Dutta, Avneesh Kumar
The objective of the present study was to develop a probiotic of canine-origin for its potential application in pet nutrition. Accordingly, 32 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains were isolated from faeces of dogs, out of which 9 strains were short-listed for further in vitro testing based on the aggregation time and cell surface hydrophobicity. The results of acid-, bile- and phenol-tolerance tests indicated that out of the nine, isolate cPRO23 was having better resistance to these adverse conditions likely to be encountered in the gastrointestinal tract...
February 10, 2017: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
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