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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923709/digesta-retention-patterns-in-geese-anser-anser-and-turkeys-meleagris-gallopavo-and-deduced-function-of-avian-caeca
#1
Samuel Frei, Sylvia Ortmann, Michael Kreuzer, Jean-Michel Hatt, Marcus Clauss
Although it is well-known that retrograde transport of urine fills the caeca of birds with fluid and small particles, the function of avian caeca is still not fully understood. We measured mean retention times (MRT) of solute (cobalt-EDTA, Co), small particle (<2mm, chromium-mordanted fibre, Cr) and large particle (8mm, cerium-marked fibre, Ce) markers in geese (Anser anser) and turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) fed alfalfa pellets ad libitum. Intake did not differ between species. Turkeys had longer MRT for all markers (Co: 10...
December 3, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917680/development-of-nitrogen-and-methane-losses-in-the-first-eight-weeks-of-lactation-in-holstein-cows-subjected-to-deficiency-of-utilisable-crude-protein-under-restrictive-feeding-conditions
#2
Franz Sutter, Angela Schwarm, Michael Kreuzer
Low-protein diets are increasingly being used in dairy cow nutrition to minimise noxious nitrogen (N) emissions. However, at parturition, the lower milk yield at that time may mask deficiency in dietary utilisable crude protein (uCP; equivalent to metabolisable protein). Under restrictive feeding conditions, farmers would limit the feed allowance to match the lower measured milk yield, thereby exacerbating the deficiency. The consequences for N emission intensity per kg milk yield and methane emissions are unknown...
February 2017: Archives of Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911252/chapparvoviruses-occur-in-at-least-three-vertebrate-classes-and-have-a-broad-biogeographic-distribution
#3
William Marciel de Souza, Marilia Farignoli Romeiro, Marcílio Jorge Fumagalli, Sejal Modha, Jansen de Araujo, Luzia Helena Queiroz, Edison Luiz Durigon, Luiz Tadeu Moraes Figueiredo, Pablo Ramiro Murcia, Robert Gifford
Chapparvoviruses are a highly divergent group of parvoviruses (family Parvoviridae) that have recently been identified via metagenomic sampling of animal faeces. Here we report the sequences of six novel chapparvoviruses identified through both metagenomic sampling of bat tissues and in silico screening of published vertebrate genome assemblies. The novel chapparvoviruses share several distinctive genomic features, and group together as a robustly supported monophyletic clade in phylogenetic trees. Our data indicate that chapparvoviruses have a broad host range in vertebrates, and a global distribution...
December 2, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904405/evaluation-of-prebiotic-effects-of-high-purity-galactooligosaccharides-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#4
Ki Bae Hong, Jae Hwan Kim, Hyuk Kon Kwon, Sung Hee Han, Yooheon Park, Hyung Joo Suh
Galactooligosaccharides (GOS) are an important class of dietary prebiotics that exert beneficial effects on intestinal microbiota and gut barrier function. In this study, high-purity GOS (HP-GOS) were investigated in vitro and in vivo and confirmed as prebiotic ingredients in rat diet. HP-GOS were successfully produced using a two-step process, enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation by yeast. They were found to serve as a good substrate and carbon source for supporting the growth of probiotic bacteria more effectively than other commercial GOS...
June 2016: Food Technology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902229/citrobacter-europaeus-sp-nov-a-novel-citrobacter-species-isolated-from-water-and-human-faecal-samples
#5
Sylvain Brisse, Teresa G Ribeiro, Dominique Clermont, Raquel Branquinho, Elisabete Maria Pereira Machado, Luisa Peixe
Strains 97/79T and A121, recovered respectively from human faeces and well waters, were compared to currently known Citrobacter species using genotypic and phenotypic approaches. Multilocus sequence analysis based on housekeeping genes fusA, leuS, pyrG, rpoB and recN genes, showed that the two strains formed a distinct phylogenetic lineage within the Citrobacter genus. Average nucleotide identity (ANI) between strains 97/79T and A121 was 99.2%, whereas ANI values of 97/79T with the type strains of closely related Citrobacter species C...
October 25, 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899156/echinococcus-multilocularis-in-foxes-and-raccoon-dogs-an-increasing-concern-for-baltic-countries
#6
Guna Bagrade, Gunita Deksne, Zanda Ozoliņa, Samantha Jane Howlett, Maria Interisano, Adriano Casulli, Edoardo Pozio
BACKGROUND: In Europe, the life-cycle of Echinococcus multilocularis is predominantly sylvatic, involving red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) as the main definitive hosts and rodents such as muskrats and arvicolids as intermediate hosts. The parasite is the etiological agent of human alveolar echinococcosis, a malignant zoonotic disease caused by the accidental ingestion of eggs shed by definitive hosts in their faeces. The aims of this study were to investigate the prevalence of E. multilocularis in red foxes and raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) and to study the environmental factors favouring the perpetuation of the parasite in Latvia...
November 29, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896398/acute-liver-effects-disposition-and-metabolic-fate-of-14-c-fenclozic-acid-following-oral-administration-to-normal-and-bile-cannulated-male-c57bl-6j-mice
#7
Kathryn Pickup, Scott Martin, Elizabeth A Partridge, Huw B Jones, Jonathan Wills, Tim Schulz-Utermoehl, Alan McCarthy, Alison Rodrigues, Chris Page, Kerry Ratcliffe, Sunil Sarda, Ian D Wilson
The distribution, metabolism, excretion and hepatic effects of the human hepatotoxin fenclozic acid were investigated following single oral doses of 10 mg/kg to normal and bile duct-cannulated male C57BL/6J mice. Whole body autoradiography showed distribution into all tissues except the brain, with radioactivity still detectable in blood, kidney and liver at 72 h post-dose. Mice dosed with [(14)C]-fenclozic acid showed acute centrilobular hepatocellular necrosis, but no other regions of the liver were affected...
November 28, 2016: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894832/development-of-a-rapid-one-step-screening-method-for-the-isolation-of-presumptive-proteolytic-enterococci
#8
Ken Graham, Rosemary Rea, Paul Simpson, Helena Stack
Enterococci show higher proteolytic activities than other lactic acid bacteria and thus have received considerable attention in scientific literature in recent years. Proteolytic enzymes of enterococci have warranted the use of some species as starter, adjuncts or protective cultures and as probiotics, while in some strains they have also been linked with virulence. Consequently, the isolation and identification of proteolytic enterococci is becoming of increasing interest and importance. However, current screening methods for proteolytic enterococci can be time consuming, requiring a two-step procedure which may take up to 96h...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894356/transmission-of-calicophoron-daubneyi-and-fasciola-hepatica-in-galicia-spain-temporal-follow-up-in-the-intermediate-and-definitive-hosts
#9
Javier Iglesias-Piñeiro, Marta González-Warleta, José Antonio Castro-Hermida, María Córdoba, Camino González-Lanza, Yolanda Manga-González, Mercedes Mezo
BACKGROUND: Paramphistomosis caused by Calicophoron daubneyi and fasciolosis caused by Fasciola hepatica are common parasitic diseases of livestock animals. Transmission of the diseases depends on the presence of intermediate hosts, i.e. freshwater gastropods such as lymnaeids. We carried out a 2-year-long study of the dynamics of the snail population acting as the intermediate host for these parasites, considering the population structure in terms of size/age and infection status. In addition, we determined the kinetics of trematode egg excretion in grazing cows...
November 29, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892858/longitudinal-study-of-ctx-m-esbl-producing-e-coli-strains-on-a-uk-dairy-farm
#10
R A Horton, D Duncan, L P Randall, S Chappell, L A Brunton, R Warner, N G Coldham, C J Teale
The aim of this study was to investigate the bacterial strains and farm environment that may contribute to the persistence of ESBL-producing E. coli on a single UK dairy farm. A longitudinal study was conducted comprising 6 visits, between August and October 2010, followed by a further visit at approximately 69weeks after the initial visit. Faecal and environmental samples were collected from different parts of the farm. The persistence and extent of faecal shedding of ESBL E. coli by individual calves was also determined...
September 30, 2016: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890084/comparison-of-molecular-and-conventional-methods-for-the-diagnosis-of-fasciola-hepatica-infection-in-the-field
#11
Maria Immaculata Arifin, Johan Höglund, Adam Novobilský
The liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica, is one of the major parasite threats to livestock industries world-wide. In sheep and cattle, F. hepatica infection is commonly diagnosed using a range of methods. Aside from conventional coprological and serological diagnostic methods, there are also several molecular methods available based on the detection of liver fluke DNA in faeces. In this study, the outcomes of faecal egg count (FEC), serology and coproantigen ELISA (cELISA) were compared with the performance of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) in diagnosis of F...
December 15, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881288/internal-anal-sphincter-clinical-perspective
#12
REVIEW
Lalit Kumar, Anton Emmanuel
OBJECTIVE: To summarise current knowledge of Internal anal sphincter. BACKGROUND: The internal anal sphincter (IAS) is the involuntary ring of smooth muscle in the anal canal and is the major contributor to the resting pressure in the anus. Structural injury or functional weakness of the muscle results in passive incontinence of faeces and flatus. With advent of new assessment and treatment modalities IAS has become an important topic for surgeons. This review was undertaken to summarise our current knowledge of internal anal sphincter and highlight the areas that need further research...
November 20, 2016: Surgeon: Journal of the Royal Colleges of Surgeons of Edinburgh and Ireland
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878401/enterocin-b3a-b3b-produced-by-lab-collected-from-infant-faeces-potential-utilization-in-the-food-industry-for-listeria-monocytogenes-biofilm-management
#13
Alaa Al-Seraih, Yanath Belguesmia, John Baah, Sabine Szunerits, Rabah Boukherroub, Djamel Drider
Enterococcus faecalis B3A-B3B produces the bacteriocin B3A-B3B with activity against Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Clostridium perfringens, but apparently not against fungi or Gram-negative bacteria, except for Salmonella Newport. B3A-B3B enterocin has two different nucleotides but similar amino acid composition to the class IIb MR10A-MR10B enterocin. B3A-B3B consists of two peptides of predicted molecular mass of 5176.31 Da (B3A) and 5182...
November 22, 2016: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876988/cryptosporidiosis-in-a-buffalo-calf-at-meerut-uttar-pradesh-and-its-successful-therapeutic-management
#14
P S Maurya, Shivani Sahu, N R Sudhakar, Vikas Jaiswal, D G Prashant, Shriya Rawat, Harshit Verma
Cryptosporidium spp. are recognized as one of the most important enteric pathogens causing enteritis and severe diarrhoea in calves up to 1 month of age. Although the infection may be responsible for some mortality, its impact is mainly associated with the impairment of gastrointestinal functions and lower performance of animals. A female buffalo calf of 25 days old was presented to OPD section, College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, SVPUA&T, Meerut, with the symptoms of severe voluminous watery cholera like diarrhea with mucous and blood tinge since 4-5 days...
December 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876975/detection-of-cryptosporidium-spp-in-free-ranging-animals-of-tehran-iran
#15
Mehran Mirzaghavami, Javid Sadraei, Mehdi Forouzandeh
Cryptosporidium is a world widely distributed parasite which comparatively has a high prevalence in developing countries. The zoonotic potential of some Cryptosporidium species has made the cryptosporidiosis a significant concern to physicians and veterinarians. The occurrence and zoonotic potential of Cryptosporidium species in probable reservoir hosts for man infections was determined by examining faeces of symptomatic and asymptomatic animals. The aim of this study is to screen the presence of Cryptosporidium in fecal sample of free ranging animals in Tehran using Ziehl-Neelsen staining method...
December 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876962/diagnosis-and-therapeutic-management-of-dipylidium-caninum-in-dogs-a-case-report
#16
Vijesh Kumar Saini, Snehil Gupta, Arjun Kasondra, R L Rakesh, A Latchumikanthan
The present study is related to Dipylidium caninum infection in dogs. Three dogs about 1 year of age with the history of scooting behaviour and passing diarrhoeic stool containing white specks were presented before the clinicians. Physical examination of dogs revealed flea infestation and faecal examination revealed the presence of gravid segments, which were confirmed microscopically to be of cestode, D. caninum. Dogs were treated with Praziquantel@5 mg/kg body wt. orally. Dogs showed marked recovery post treatment...
December 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876953/assessment-of-risk-factors-associated-with-prevalence-of-strongyle-infection-in-equines-from-central-plain-zone-punjab
#17
Gagandeep Singh, N K Singh, Harkirat Singh, S S Rath
A total of 311 equine faecal samples (190 horses and 121 mules) collected from six districts of Central Plain Zone, Punjab were examined using standard coprological methods. The results showed an overall prevalence of 27.33 % for strongyles with rare to mild type of infection as evident from egg per gram of faeces. In particular, amongst the examined samples, 17.90 % of horses and 42.14 % of mules were infected and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.01). Identification of the faecal culture harvested larval stages, showed 56 % and 46 % of horses and mules, respectively, positive for small strongyles (Cyathostomes)...
December 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876948/assessment-of-risk-factors-associated-with-prevalence-of-coccidiosis-in-dairy-animals-of-punjab
#18
Abhishek Gupta, N K Singh, Harkirat Singh, S S Rath
A total of 2089 faecal samples (956 buffaloes and 1133 cattle) were collected from 21 districts of five major agro-climatic zones of Punjab during April, 2013-May, 2014. An overall prevalence rate of 32.17 % (672/2089) was recorded for coccidiosis in dairy animals with a significantly higher (P < 0.01) infection rate in buffaloes (35.46 %) in comparison to cattle (29.39 %). Quantitative analysis revealed oocyst per gram of faeces ranging from 200 to 10,000 (1083.72 ± 227.20) and 100 to 2400 (748...
December 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876927/anticestodal-properties-of-hibiscus-rosa-sinensis-l-malvaceae-an-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-study-against-hymenolepis-diminuta-rudolphi-1819-a-zoonotic-tapeworm
#19
Purobi Nath, Arun K Yadav
The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro and in vivo anticestodal effects of methanol extract of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. (Malvaceae) leaf against Hymenolepis diminuta (Rudolphi, 1819), a zoonotic tapeworm. Under the in vitro study, H. diminuta worms were exposed to 10, 20 and 40 mg/ml concentrations of methanol leaf extract and the effects were judged on the basis of physical motility/mortality of worms. On the other hand, in the case of in vivo study, H. diminuta infected rats were treated individually with 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg doses of leaf extract for 5 days...
December 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872709/the-effect-of-sugar-cane-molasses-on-the-immune-and-male-reproductive-systems-using-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-methods
#20
Farzana Rahiman, Edmund John Pool
OBJECTIVES: Sugar cane molasses is a commonly used ingredient in several food products. Contrasting reports suggest that molasses may have potential adverse or beneficial effects on human health. However, little evidence exists that examines the effects of molasses on the different physiological systems. This study investigated the effects of sugar cane molasses on various physiological systems using in vivo and in vitro methods. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Molasses was administered orally to BALB/c, male mice and animals were randomly assigned into either a treatment or control group...
October 2016: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
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