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Hanna Ferløv Schwensen, Carol Kan, Janet Treasure, Niels Høiby, Magnus Sjögren
PURPOSE: Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a poorly understood and often chronic condition. Deviations in the gut microbiota have been reported to influence the gut-brain axis in other disorders. Therefore, if present in AN, it may impact on symptoms and illness progression. A review of the gut microbiota studies in AN is presented. METHOD: A literature search on PubMed yielded 27 articles; 14 were selected and based on relevance, 9 articles were included. The findings were interpreted in the larger context of preclinical research and clinical observations...
March 14, 2018: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
Nicolas Danylec, Andrea Göbl, Dominic A Stoll, Birgit Hetzer, Sabine E Kulling, Melanie Huch
Two novel, anaerobic, Gram-positive, rod-shaped bacterial strains, ResAG-85T and ResAG-96T , were isolated from a faecal sample of a male human. 16S rRNA gene sequences analyses indicated that these strains represent a distinct lineage within the family Eggerthellaceae. Strain ResAG-85T showed 92.3 % similarity to the type strains of the genera Eggerthella and Gordonibacter. Strain ResAG-96T clustered together with Paraeggerthella hongkongensis and the newly (but not validly) published genus 'Arabia massiliensis' (94...
March 14, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Samantha Mellen, Maria de Ferrars, Claire Louise Chapman, Sarah Bevan, James Turvill, Daniel Charles Turnock
BACKGROUND: Faecal immunochemical testing (FIT) is increasingly being used to triage symptomatic patients for suspected colorectal cancer. However, there are limited data on the effect of pre-analytical factors on faecal haemoglobin (f-Hb) when measured by FIT. The aim of this work was to evaluate the stability of f-Hb in faeces and to compare two methods of f-Hb sampling for FIT. METHODS: Six patients provided faeces for f-Hb measurement which were transferred into specialised collection devices at baseline and at 1, 2, 3 and 7 days after storage at either room temperature or 4°C...
January 1, 2018: Annals of Clinical Biochemistry
Breno C B Beirão, Max Ingberman, Celso Fávaro, Dany Mesa, Letícia C Bittencourt, Vitor B Fascina, Luiz Felipe Caron
Probiotics and immunization are being widely adopted by the poultry industry with the goal of controlling Salmonella enterica. However, the interaction between these two management protocols has been sparsely studied. The present study aimed to understand the role of an Enterococcus faecium probiotic in the production of salmonella-specific IgA in layers immunized with a live vaccine. Four groups were used: 'Control' (no vaccine or probiotic); 'Probiotic' (which received an E. faecium product); 'Vaccine' (immunized with two doses of a live attenuated S...
March 14, 2018: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Hong-Wei Wang, Jing Liu, Jing Zhao, Lin Lin, Wen-Peng Zhao, Pan-Pan Tan, Wei-Shun Tian, Bian-Hua Zhou
Our previous study indicated that excessive fluoride (F) induces ATP5J and ATP5H proactive expression by interfering cardiomyocyte mitochondrial dysfunction in mice. This study aimed to investigate underlying mechanisms of F¯ induced damage to cardiomyocytes. A total of 100 mg/L F¯ was added to distilled water to treat Kunming mice for 70 days. Pathological and morphological changes in myocardial tissues were observed under transmission electron microscope and light microscope. Content of ATP and ATP enzyme distributed in cardiomyocytes were determined by fluorescence and ATP enzyme staining...
March 7, 2018: Chemosphere
M Summa, H Henttonen, L Maunula
Human noroviruses (HuNoVs) are one of the leading global causes of diarrhoeal diseases and are transmitted mainly from person to person but also through contaminated food, water and fomites. The possible zoonotic nature of NoVs has occasionally been discussed, although the viruses are generally considered to be host-species-specific. We investigated whether wild birds and rodents could serve as carriers of HuNoVs, thereby transmitting the virus to humans directly or indirectly by contaminating foods. All samples, 115 avian and 100 rat faeces collected in springs 2009-2013 from dump sites, and 85 faeces from yellow-necked mice trapped in late autumn 2008 and 2009 after the rodents entered human settlements due to the first night frosts, were screened for HuNoV using real-time reverse transcription PCR...
March 12, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
Matthieu Bastien, Amelie Vaniscotte, Benoit Combes, Gerald Umhang, Estelle Germain, Valentin Gouley, Alice Pierlet, Thomas Quintaine, Marie-Amelie Forin-Wiart, Isabelle Villena, Dominique Aubert, Franck Boue, Marie-Lazarine Poulle
The faeces of the red fox, Vulpes vulpes (Linnaeus), and the domestic cat, Felis catus (Linnaeus), can be responsible for spreading eggs of Echinococcus multilocularis Leuckart, 1863 and oocysts of Toxoplasma gondii (Nicolle et Manceaux, 1908) into the environment. The accidental ingestion of these eggs or oocysts, through consumption of raw fruits or vegetables grown in or in contact with contaminated soil, can lead to alveolar echinococcosis (AE) or toxoplasmosis in humans. The present study provides a quantitative assessment of the faecal deposition by foxes and cats in kitchen gardens where fruits and vegetables are grown and its consequences for zoonosis transmission...
March 8, 2018: Folia Parasitologica
Maria Aponte, Francesca Ungaro, Ivana d'Angelo, Carmen De Caro, Roberto Russo, Giuseppe Blaiotta, Fabrizio Dal Piaz, Antonio Calignano, Agnese Miro
This study reports novel food-grade granules for co-delivery of L. plantarum 299v and a standardized extract of Olea europaea leaves (Phenolea®) as oral carrier of probiotics and hydroxytyrosol. Different granule formulations containing either L. plantarum 299v (Lac), or the olive leave extract (Phe) or their combination (Lac-Phe) have been successfully produced through wet granulation employing excipients generally regarded as safe as granulating/binding agents. L. plantarum cells withstood the manufacturing process and were stable upon storage at 4°C for more than 6 months...
March 8, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Simon Perrett, Sandrine Lesellier, Fiona Rogers, Gareth A Williams, Sonya Gowtage, Si Palmer, Deanna Dalley, Dipesh Davé, Ute Weyer, Emma Wood, Francisco J Salguero, Alex Nunez, Nick Reed, Mark A Chambers
European badgers (Meles meles) are a wildlife reservoir for Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) in parts of England, Wales and Ireland, constituting a potential source of tuberculosis (TB) infection for cattle. Vaccination of badgers against TB is one of the tools available for helping reduce the prevalence of bovine TB in badgers, made possible by the licensing in 2010 of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine for intramuscular administration to badgers (BadgerBCG). However, practical limitations associated with administering an injected vaccine to wild animals make an oral, bait-delivered form of the vaccine highly desirable...
March 7, 2018: Vaccine
Zora Váradyová, Dominika Mravčáková, Michal Babják, Magdalena Bryszak, Ľubomíra Grešáková, Klaudia Čobanová, Svetlana Kišidayová, Iveta Plachá, Alžbeta Königová, Adam Cieslak, Sylwester Slusarczyk, Lukasz Pecio, Mariusz Kowalczyk, Marián Várady
BACKGROUND: The gastrointestinal parasitic nematode Haemonchus contortus is a pathogenic organism resistant to several anthelmintics. This study assessed the efficacy of a medicinal herbal mixture (Herbmix) and organic zinc, as an essential trace element for the proper functioning of both unspecific and specific immune defensive mechanisms, against experimental infections with H. contortus in lambs. All lambs were infected orally with approximately 5000 third-stage larvae of a strain of H...
March 9, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Cliodna A M McNulty, Donna M Lecky, Li Xu-McCrae, Deborah Nakiboneka-Ssenabulya, Keun-Taik Chung, Tom Nichols, Helen Lucy Thomas, Mike Thomas, Adela Alvarez-Buylla, Kim Turner, Sahida Shabir, Susan Manzoor, Stephen Smith, Linda Crocker, Peter M Hawkey
Background: ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBLPE) are increasing in prevalence worldwide and are more difficult to treat than non-ESBLPE. Their prevalence in the UK general population is unknown, as the only previous UK ESBLPE faecal colonization study involved patients with diarrhoea. Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of CTX-M ESBLPE faecal colonization in the general adult population of England in 2014, and investigate risk factors. Methods: A stratified random sample of 58 337 registered patients from 16 general practices within four areas of England were invited to participate by returning faeces specimens and self-completed questionnaires...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Clare J Phythian, Kathryn D Stafford, Gerald C Coles, Eric R Morgan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 6, 2018: Veterinary Record
F J W C Schaafstra, D A van Doorn, J T Schonewille, E Roelfsema, C M Westermann, O Dansen, M Jacobs, J-Y Lee, E A Spronck, M C Blok, W H Hendriks
Exercise and physical training are known to affect gastrointestinal function and digestibility in horses and can lead to inaccurate estimates of nutrient and energy digestibility when markers are used. The effect of exercise on apparent nutrient digestibility and faecal recoveries of ADL and TiO2 was studied in six Welsh pony geldings subjected to either a low- (LI) or high-intensity (HI) exercise regime according to a cross-over design. Ponies performing LI exercise were walked once per day for 45 min in a horse walker (5 km/h) for 47 consecutive days...
March 7, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Paul Ogongo, Thomas M Kariuki, R Alan Wilson
The inadequacy of current diagnostics for the detection of low worm burdens in humans means that schistosomiasis mansoni is more widespread than previously acknowledged. With the inception of mass drug treatment programmes aimed at disease elimination and the advent of human vaccine trials, the need for more sensitive diagnostics is evident. In this review, we evaluate the merits and limitations of the principal diagnostic methods, namely detection of eggs in faeces; anti-schistosome antibodies in serum; parasite-derived proteins and glycans in serum or urine; parasite DNA in blood, faeces or urine...
March 6, 2018: Parasitology
Ueli Braun, Sonja Warislohner, Paul Torgerson, Karl Nuss, Christian Gerspach
BACKGROUND: The study evaluated the results of clinical examination and haematological and serum biochemical analyses in 503 cattle with traumatic reticuloperitonitis (TRP). RESULTS: The most common clinical findings were abnormal demeanour and general condition (87%), decreased rumen motility (72%), poorly digested faeces (57%), decreased rumen fill (49%), fever (43%) and tachycardia (26%). In 58% of the cattle, at least one of three tests for reticular foreign bodies (pinching of the withers, pressure on the xiphoid and percussion of the abdominal wall) was positive, and in 42% all three tests were negative...
March 5, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
M Giles, S A Cawthraw, M AbuOun, C M Thomas, D Munera, M K Waldor, R M La Ragione, J M Ritchie
Objectives: To assess stability and contribution of a large ESBL-encoding IncI1 plasmid to intestinal colonization by Escherichia coli O104:H4 in two different mammalian hosts. Methods: Specific-pathogen-free 3-4-day-old New Zealand White rabbits and conventionally reared 6-week-old weaned lambs were orally infected with WT E. coli O104:H4 or the ESBL-plasmid-cured derivative, and the recovery of bacteria in intestinal homogenates and faeces monitored over time...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Lu Zhang, Yuanyuan Ge, Jin Li, Jia Hao, Hui Wang, Jun He, Xiu-Mei Gao, Yan-Xu Chang
Columbianetin-β-d-glucopyranoside (CBG) and its metabolite columbianetin (CBN) are the bioactive constituents of Angelicae pubescentis radix (APR). They exhibit the anti-platelet aggregation, anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. The absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) of CBG has not been reported to date. Both high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection and ultra high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry methods were developed and validated for the study of ADME of CBG...
February 25, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Maria Giufrè, Giulia Errico, Marisa Accogli, Monica Monaco, Laura Villa, Maria Antonietta Distasi, Tito Del Gaudio, Annalisa Pantosti, Alessandra Carattoli, Marina Cerquetti
The emergence of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) is a critical concern worldwide. In Italy, CPE isolates are very frequent with the KPC types strongly predominant whereas the New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM) enzymes are extremely rare. In this study, we report the first detection of NDM-5-producing Escherichia coli sequence type (ST) 167 isolates from two patients with urinary tract infection (Ec001and Ec002 from urines) including one with colonization (Ec003 from faeces) admitted to the same hospital in 2017 two months apart...
February 28, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Sándor Hornok, Krisztina Szőke, Péter Estók, Aleksandra Krawczyk, Anne-Jifke Haarsma, Dávid Kováts, Sándor A Boldogh, Pál Morandini, Sándor Szekeres, Nóra Takács, Jenő Kontschán, Marina L Meli, Isabel G Fernández de Mera, José de la Fuente, Miklós Gyuranecz, Kinga M Sulyok, Beatrice Weibel, Enikő Gönczi, Arnout de Bruin, Hein Sprong, Regina Hofmann-Lehmann
In Europe, several species of bats, owls and kestrels exemplify highly urbanised, flying vertebrates, which may get close to humans or domestic animals. Bat droppings and bird pellets may have epidemiological, as well as diagnostic significance from the point of view of pathogens. In this work 221 bat faecal and 118 bird pellet samples were screened for a broad range of vector-borne bacteria using PCR-based methods. Rickettsia DNA was detected in 13 bat faecal DNA extracts, including the sequence of a rickettsial insect endosymbiont, a novel Rickettsia genotype and Rickettsia helvetica...
February 28, 2018: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Steven J Granger, Yuguo Yang, Verena Pfahler, Chris Hodgson, Andrew C Smith, Kate Le Cocq, Adrian L Collins, Martin S A Blackwell, Nicholas J K Howden
RATIONALE: Phosphorus losses from agriculture pose an environmental threat to watercourses. A new approach using the stable oxygen isotope ratio of oxygen in phosphate (δ18 OPO4 value) may help elucidate some phosphorus sources and cycling. Accurately determined and isotopically distinct source values are essential for this process. The δ18 OPO4 values of animal wastes have, up to now, received little attention. METHODS: Phosphate (PO4 ) was extracted from cattle faeces using anion resins and the contribution of microbial PO4 was assessed...
February 28, 2018: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
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