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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447216/highly-divergent-cyclo-like-virus-in-a-great-roundleaf-bat-hipposideros-armiger-in-vietnam
#1
Gábor Kemenesi, Kornélia Kurucz, Brigitta Zana, Vuong Tan Tu, Tamás Görföl, Péter Estók, Fanni Földes, Katalin Sztancsik, Péter Urbán, Enikő Fehér, Ferenc Jakab
Members of the viral family Circoviridae are increasingly recognized worldwide. Bats seem to be natural reservoirs or dietary-related dispensers of these viruses. Here, we report a distantly related member of the genus Cyclovirus detected in the faeces of a great roundleaf bat (Hipposideros armiger). Interestingly, the novel virus lacks a Circoviridae-specific stem-loop structure, although a Geminiviridae-like nonamer sequence was detected in the large intergenic region. Based on these differences and its phylogenetic position, we propose that our new virus represents a distant and highly divergent member of the genus Cyclovirus...
April 26, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446233/no-impact-of-strongylid-infections-on-the-detection-of-plasmodium-spp-in-faeces-of-western-lowland-gorillas-and-eastern-chimpanzees
#2
Mwanahamisi I Mapua, Barbora Pafčo, Jade Burgunder, Ilona Profousová-Pšenková, Angelique Todd, Chie Hashimoto, Moneeb A Qablan, David Modrý, Klára J Petrželková
BACKGROUND: Although a high genetic diversity of Plasmodium spp. circulating in great apes has been revealed recently due to non-invasive methods enabling detection in faecal samples, little is known about the actual mechanisms underlying the presence of Plasmodium DNA in faeces. Great apes are commonly infected by strongylid nematodes, including hookworms, which cause intestinal bleeding. The impact of strongylid infections on the detection of Plasmodium DNA in faeces was assessed in wild, western, lowland gorillas from Dzanga Sangha Protected Areas, Central African Republic and eastern chimpanzees from Kalinzu Forest Reserve, Uganda...
April 26, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446227/pattern-analysis-of-schistosomiasis-prevalence-by-exploring-predictive-modeling-in-jiangling-county-hubei-province-p-r-china
#3
Shang Xia, Jing-Bo Xue, Xia Zhang, He-Hua Hu, Eniola Michael Abe, David Rollinson, Robert Bergquist, Yibiao Zhou, Shi-Zhu Li, Xiao-Nong Zhou
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of schistosomiasis remains a key public health issue in China. Jiangling County in Hubei Province is a typical lake and marshland endemic area. The pattern analysis of schistosomiasis prevalence in Jiangling County is of significant importance for promoting schistosomiasis surveillance and control in the similar endemic areas. METHODS: The dataset was constructed based on the annual schistosomiasis surveillance as well the socio-economic data in Jiangling County covering the years from 2009 to 2013...
April 26, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444752/prevalence-and-pathogen-load-of-campylobacter-spp-salmonella-enterica-and-escherichia-coli-o157-o145-serogroup-in-sheep-faeces-collected-at-sale-yards-and-in-abattoir-effluent-in-western-australia
#4
R Yang, S Abraham, G E Gardner, U Ryan, C Jacobson
OBJECTIVE: Develop a multiplex quantitative PCR assay to investigate the prevalence and shedding of Escherichia coli O157/O145, Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. in sheep at sale yards and abattoirs. METHODS: A qPCR for E. coli O157/O145 was developed, validated and multiplexed with an existing qPCR for Campylobacter and Salmonella enterica. The absolute numbers of E. coli O157/O145, Campylobacter and Salmonella in control samples was determined using droplet digital PCR...
May 2017: Australian Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443982/enzyme-linked-immunosorbent-assay-for-diagnosis-of-amphimerus-spp-liver-fluke-infection-in-humans
#5
William Cevallos, Manuel Calvopiña, Victoria Nipáz, Belén Vicente-Santiago, Julio López-Albán, Pedro Fernández-Soto, Ángel Guevara, Antonio Muro
BACKGROUND: Amphimerus spp. is a liver fluke that infects humans and domestic animals. It is highly prevalent in some Ecuadorian communities. Currently, diagnosis is based on the microscopic observation of eggs in faeces, but this has variable sensitivity. More sensitive methods are needed for diagnostic testing. OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this work was to develop an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using crude antigens from Amphimerus spp. adult worms to detect anti-Amphimerus IgG in human sera...
May 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443847/the-impact-of-dietary-sn-2-palmitic-triacylglycerols-in-combination-with-docosahexaenoic-acid-or-arachidonic-acid-on-lipid-metabolism-and-host-faecal-microbiota-composition-in-sprague-dawley-rats
#6
Jianchun Wan, Songyou Hu, Jörg J Jacoby, Jie Liu, Yaqiong Zhang, Liangli Lucy Yu
Sn-2 palmitic acid triacylglycerols (sn2PA fat) and polyunsaturated fatty acids are thought to influence the metabolic status and intestinal bacterial population of the host. In this study, the impact of sn2PA fat in combination with DHA or ARA in the diet on lipid metabolism in the liver and faecal microbiota composition were investigated in rats fed diets containing sn2PA fat, 90% sn2PA fat + 10% DHA oil (wt%), or 90% sn2PA fat + 10% ARA oil (wt%). Tissue fatty acid composition was measured using gas chromatography (GC), whereas the faecal microbial composition was assessed using 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing technology...
April 26, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443823/gene-expression-oxidative-stress-and-apoptotic-changes-in-rabbit-ileum-experimentally-infected-with-eimeria-intestinalis
#7
Heba M Abdel-Haleem, Shawky M Aboelhadid, Thabet Sakran, Gamal El-Shahawy, Huda El-Fayoumi, Saleh Al-Quraishy, Abdel-Azeem S Abdel-Baki
Coccidiosis is a parasitic disease caused by protists (apicomplexans) of the genus Eimeria Schneider, 1875 and is considered to be the most important disease faced by rabbit breeders due to its high morbidity. In the present study, the antioxidant status and changes in apoptosis and in the expression of some genes were quantified in rabbits' ilea following infection with Eimeria intestinalis Cheissin, 1948. Rabbits, orally infected with 1 × 10(5) sporulated oocysts of E. intestinalis, started to shed oocysts in their faeces on 8 days post infection (dpi) and reached maximum excretion on 10 dpi, with approximately 5 million oocysts...
April 19, 2017: Folia Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443385/pseudomonas-aeruginosa-prevalence-antibiotic-resistance-and-antimicrobial-use-in-chinese-burn-wards-from-2007-to-2014
#8
Yi Dou, Jingning Huan, Feng Guo, Zengding Zhou, Yan Shi
Objective To assess the application of antibacterial agents, alongside pathogen prevalence and Pseudomonas aeruginosa drug resistance, with the aim of understanding the impact of inappropriate antibacterial use. Methods This retrospective study assessed bacteria from wounds, catheters, blood, faeces, urine and sputum of hospitalized patients in burn wards between 2007 and 2014. The intensity of use of antibacterial agents and resistance of P. aeruginosa to common anti-Gram-negative antibiotics were measured...
January 1, 2017: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438225/meta-analysis-of-the-parasitic-phase-traits-of-haemonchus-contortus-infection-in-sheep
#9
Mathilde Saccareau, Guillaume Sallé, Christèle Robert-Granié, Tom Duchemin, Philippe Jacquiet, Alexandra Blanchard, Jacques Cabaret, Carole R Moreno
BACKGROUND: The parasitic nematode Haemonchus contortus shows highly variable life history traits. This highlights the need to have an average estimate and a quantification of the variation around it to calibrate epidemiological models. METHODS: This paper aimed to quantify the main life history traits of H. contortus and to identify explanatory factors affecting these traits using a powerful method based on a systematic review and meta-analysis of current literature...
April 24, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426407/helminth-cestoda-nematoda-and-coccidian-apicomplexa-eimeriidae-parasites-of-the-eastern-small-footed-myotis-myotis-leibii-chiroptera-vespertilionidae-from-arkansas-with-a-description-of-a-new-species-of-eimeria
#10
Chris T McAllister, R Scott Seville, Charles R Bursey
During May and July 2016, 32 eastern small-footed myotis (Myotis leibii) were collected from five counties of northwestern Arkansas and their faeces examined for coccidian parasites. Four of 32 (13%) M. leibii harboured an eimerian that we describe here as new. Oocysts of Eimeria sassei sp. n. were ovoidal to ellipsoidal with a bi-layered wall and measured (length × width, L × W) 18.3 × 15.2 µm, with an L/W ratio of 1.2. A micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent but 1-2 polar granules were present. Sporocysts were ovoidal, 9...
June 1, 2017: Acta Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424091/investigations-into-the-association-between-soil-transmitted-helminth-infections-haemoglobin-and-child-development-indices-in-manufahi-district-timor-leste
#11
Suzy J Campbell, Susana V Nery, Catherine A D'Este, Darren J Gray, James S McCarthy, Rebecca J Traub, Ross M Andrews, Stacey Llewellyn, Andrew J Vallely, Gail M Williams, Archie C A Clements
BACKGROUND: Timor-Leste has a high prevalence of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections. High proportions of the population have been reported as being anaemic, and extremely high proportions of children as stunted or wasted. There have been no published analyses of the contributions of STH to these morbidity outcomes in Timor-Leste. METHODS: Using baseline cross-sectional data from 24 communities (18 communities enrolled in a cluster randomised controlled trial, and identically-collected data from six additional communities), analyses of the association between STH infections and community haemoglobin and child development indices were undertaken...
April 19, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422089/thermogenic-adipocytes-promote-hdl-turnover-and-reverse-cholesterol-transport
#12
Alexander Bartelt, Clara John, Nicola Schaltenberg, Jimmy F P Berbée, Anna Worthmann, M Lisa Cherradi, Christian Schlein, Julia Piepenburg, Mariëtte R Boon, Franz Rinninger, Markus Heine, Klaus Toedter, Andreas Niemeier, Stefan K Nilsson, Markus Fischer, Sander L Wijers, Wouter van Marken Lichtenbelt, Ludger Scheja, Patrick C N Rensen, Joerg Heeren
Brown and beige adipocytes combust nutrients for thermogenesis and through their metabolic activity decrease pro-atherogenic remnant lipoproteins in hyperlipidemic mice. However, whether the activation of thermogenic adipocytes affects the metabolism and anti-atherogenic properties of high-density lipoproteins (HDL) is unknown. Here, we report a reduction in atherosclerosis in response to pharmacological stimulation of thermogenesis linked to increased HDL levels in APOE*3-Leiden.CETP mice. Both cold-induced and pharmacological thermogenic activation enhances HDL remodelling, which is associated with specific lipidomic changes in mouse and human HDL...
April 19, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415978/bacterial-communities-and-metabolic-activity-of-faecal-cultures-from-equol-producer-and-non-producer-menopausal-women-under-treatment-with-soy-isoflavones
#13
Lucía Guadamuro, Anja B Dohrmann, Christoph C Tebbe, Baltasar Mayo, Susana Delgado
BACKGROUND: Isoflavones are polyphenols with estrogenic activity found mainly in soy and soy-derived products that need to be metabolised in the intestine by the gut bacteria to be fully active. There is little knowledge about isoflavone bioconversion and equol production in the human intestine. In this work, we developed an in vitro anaerobic culture model based on faecal slurries to assess the impact of isoflavone supplementation on the overall intestinal bacterial composition changes and associated metabolic transformations...
April 17, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414918/frogs-host-faecal-bacteria-typically-associated-with-humans
#14
Karen Gibb, Xavier Schobben, Keith Christian
Tree frogs commonly access drinking water tanks, which may have human health implications. Although amphibians might not be expected to host mammalian faecal indicator bacteria (FIB), it is possible that they may have human FIB on their skin after exposure to human waste. We collected faeces and skin wash from green tree frogs (Litoria caerulea) from a natural environment, a suburban site, and a suburban site near a creek occasionally contaminated with sewage effluent. We used molecular techniques to test for FIB that are routinely used to indicate human faecal contamination...
April 17, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412989/evaluation-of-methodological-aspects-of-digestibility-measurements-in-ponies-fed-different-haylage-to-concentrate-ratios
#15
F J W C Schaafstra, D A van Doorn, J T Schonewille, M M J van Riet, P Visser, M C Blok, W H Hendriks
Methodological aspects of digestibility measurements were studied in four Welsh pony geldings consuming haylage-based diets with increasing proportions of a pelleted concentrate according to a 4×4 Latin square design experiment. Ponies were fed four experimental, iso-energetic (net energy (NE) basis) diets (i.e. 22 MJ NE/day) with increasing proportions of a pelleted concentrate (C) in relation to haylage (H). The absolute amounts of diet dry matter fed per day were 4.48 kg of H (100H), 3.36 and 0.73 kg of H and C (75H25C), 2...
April 17, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412380/colonization-by-multidrug-resistant-organisms-in-long-term-care-facilities-in-italy-a-point-prevalence-study
#16
Maria Giufrè, Enrico Ricchizzi, Marisa Accogli, Fabrizio Barbanti, Monica Monaco, Fernanda Pimentel de Araujo, Claudio Farina, Paolo Fazii, Romano Mattei, Mario Sarti, Agostino Barozzi, Rossella Buttazzi, Marina Cosentino, Maria Nardone, Vincenzo Savini, Patrizia Spigaglia, Annalisa Pantosti, Maria Luisa Moro, Marina Cerquetti
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine prevalence and risk factors for colonization by multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) in long-term care facility (LTCF) residents in Italy. Genotypes of MDRO isolates were investigated. METHODS: A point-prevalence study was conducted at 12 LTCFs located in 4 Italian cities (2 February-14 March 2015). Rectal swabs, faeces and nasal/auxiliary swabs were cultured for extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)- and/or carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae, Clostridium difficile and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), respectively...
April 12, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404985/culture-independent-analysis-using-gnd-as-a-target-gene-to-assess-escherichia-coli-diversity-and-community-structure
#17
Adrian L Cookson, Patrick J Biggs, Jonathan C Marshall, Angela Reynolds, Rose M Collis, Nigel P French, Gale Brightwell
Current culture methods to investigate changes in Escherichia coli community structure are often slow and laborious. Genes such as gnd (6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase) have a highly variable nucleotide sequence and may provide a target for E. coli microbiome analysis using culture-independent methods. Metabarcoded PCR primers were used to generate separate libraries from calf faecal samples for high throughput sequencing. Although a total of 348 separate gnd sequence types (gSTs) were identified, 188 were likely to be due to sequencing errors...
April 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400002/salmonella-weltevreden-in-integrated-and-non-integrated-tilapia-aquaculture-systems-in-guangdong-china
#18
Kang Li, Gitte Petersen, Lisa Barco, Kristian Hvidtfeldt, Liping Liu, Anders Dalsgaard
Integrated tilapia-pig farming, which uses manure from pigs as fertilizers in fish pond, is a traditional and common production system practised by small-scale farmers in South-east Asia. Although such systems may be environmentally sustainable, they also pose potential food safety hazards including transmission of faecal zoonotic pathogens and accumulation of antimicrobial and other chemical residues. This study aimed to determine differences in occurrence and characteristics of Salmonella spp. isolated from tilapia-pig and non-integrated aquaculture systems in Guangdong province, China...
August 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398347/microbial-shifts-and-signatures-of-long-term-remission-in-ulcerative-colitis-after-faecal-microbiota-transplantation
#19
Susana Fuentes, Noortje G Rossen, Mirjam J van der Spek, Jorn Ha Hartman, Laura Huuskonen, Katri Korpela, Jarkko Salojärvi, Steven Aalvink, Willem M de Vos, Geert R D'Haens, Erwin G Zoetendal, Cyriel Y Ponsioen
Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) may contribute towards disease remission in ulcerative colitis (UC), but it is unknown which factors determine long-term effect of treatment. Here, we aimed to identify bacterial signatures associated with sustained remission. To this end, samples from healthy donors and UC patients-grouped into responders and non-responders at a primary end point (week 12) and further stratified by sustained clinical remission and relapse assessed at ⩾1-year follow-up were analysed, comparing the efficacy of FMT from either a healthy donor or autologous faeces...
April 11, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393631/prebiotic-evaluation-of-red-seaweed-kappaphycus-alvarezii-using-in-vitro-colon-model
#20
Dayang Marshitah Bajury, Muhamad Hanif Rawi, Iqbal Hakim Sazali, Aminah Abdullah, Shahrul Razid Sarbini
Red seaweed (Kappaphycus alvarezii) cultivated from Sabah (RSS) and Langkawi (RSL) were digested using in vitro mouth, gastric and duodenal model. The digested seaweed then fermented in a pH-controlled batch culture system inoculated with human faeces to mimic the distal colon. Bacterial enumeration were monitored using fluorescent in situ hybridisation, and the fermentation end products, the short chain fatty acids (SCFA), were analysed using HPLC. Both RSS and RSL showed significant increase of Bifidobacterium sp...
April 10, 2017: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
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