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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109842/reverse-transcriptase-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification-for-the-detection-of-feline-coronavirus
#1
Angelica Stranieri, Stefania Lauzi, Alessia Giordano, Saverio Paltrinieri
The Feline coronavirus (FCoV) is the etiological agent of feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), a lethal disease of felids. The role of molecular methods is controversial for the diagnosis of FIP, while essential for the identification of the shedders. Thus, a fast and inexpensive method for the detection of FCoV could be beneficial, especially in multicat environments. A reverse transcription loop mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay was developed. RNA extraction and RT-nPCR for FCoV were performed on thirty-two samples (11 faeces, 9 blood, 8 effusions, and 4 lymph nodes) collected from 27 cats...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107878/effect-of-strategic-administration-of-an-encapsulated-blend-of-formic-acid-citric-acid-and-essential-oils-on-salmonella-carriage-seroprevalence-and-growth-of-finishing-pigs
#2
Kavita Walia, Hector Argüello, Helen Lynch, Finola C Leonard, Jim Grant, Dermot Yearsley, Sinead Kelly, Geraldine Duffy, Gillian E Gardiner, Peadar G Lawlor
Controlling Salmonella at farm level can act as the first line of defence in reducing salmonellosis from pork. This study investigated the efficacy of an encapsulated blend of formic acid, citric acid, and essential oils (FormaXOL™) administered to finisher pigs for 28days prior to slaughter in controlling Salmonella shedding on a commercial farm with a history of high Salmonella seroprevalence. Fourteen pens of 8-10 pigs/pen were randomly assigned to a control (finisher diet without additive) or a treatment group (the same diet with 4kg/t of FormaXOL™) for 28 days...
February 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105732/comparison-of-the-proliferation-and-excretion-of-bartonella-quintana-between-body-and-head-lice-following-oral-challenge
#3
J H Kim, D J Previte, K S Yoon, E Murenzi, J E Koehler, B R Pittendrigh, S H Lee, J M Clark
Human body and head lice are highly related haematophagous ectoparasites but only the body louse has been shown to transmit Bartonella quintana, the causative agent of trench fever. The mechanisms by which body lice became a vector for B. quintana, however, are poorly understood. Following oral challenge, green fluorescent protein-expressing B. quintana proliferated over 9 days postchallenge with the number of bacteria being significantly higher in whole body vs. head lice. The numbers of B. quintana detected in faeces from infected lice, however, were approximately the same in both lice...
January 20, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101710/effect-of-different-sulfadimidine-addition-methods-on-its-degradation-behaviour-in-swine-manure
#4
Tian-Tian Ren, Xiao-Yang Li, Yan Wang, Yong-De Zou, Xin-Di Liao, Juan-Boo Liang, Yin-Bao Wu
Sulfadimidine (SM2) is commonly used in the swine industry and enters the environment via faeces. In recent years, advances in the ecotoxicology of SM2 have become a popular research interest with two common research methods including swine manure collection from swine fed with a diet containing SM2 and directly adding SM2. The purpose of this experiment was to compare SM2 degradation behaviour in pig manure with two different SM2 addition methods. The results showed that the degradation half-lives of SM2 in manure from SM2-fed swine treatment were 33...
January 18, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097956/biohydrogen-production-from-used-diapers-evaluation-of-effect-of-temperature-and-substrate-conditioning
#5
P X Sotelo-Navarro, H M Poggi-Varaldo, S J Turpin-Marion, A Vázquez-Morillas, M Beltrán-Villavicencio, R M Espinosa-Valdemar
This research assessed the viability to use disposable diapers as a substrate for the production of biohydrogen, a valuable clean-energy source. The important content of cellulose of disposable diapers indicates that this waste could be an attractive substrate for biofuel production. Two incubation temperatures (35 °C and 55 °C) and three diaper conditioning methods (whole diapers with faeces, urine, and plastics, WD; diapers without plastic components, with urine and faeces, DWP; diapers with urine but without faeces and plastic, MSD) were tested in batch bioreactors...
January 1, 2017: Waste Management & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094284/the-composition-of-human-milk-and-infant-faecal-microbiota-over-the-first-three-months-of-life-a-pilot-study
#6
Kiera Murphy, David Curley, Tom F O'Callaghan, Carol-Anne O'Shea, Eugene M Dempsey, Paul W O'Toole, R Paul Ross, C Anthony Ryan, Catherine Stanton
Human milk contains a diverse array of bioactives and is also a source of bacteria for the developing infant gut. The aim of this study was to characterize the bacterial communities in human milk and infant faeces over the first 3 months of life, in 10 mother-infant pairs. The presence of viable Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus in human milk was also evaluated. MiSeq sequencing revealed a large diversity of the human milk microbiota, identifying over 207 bacterial genera in milk samples. The phyla Proteobacteria and Firmicutes and the genera Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus and Streptococcus were the predominant bacterial groups...
January 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093104/faecal-shedding-of-canine-parvovirus-after-modified-live-vaccination-in-healthy-adult-dogs
#7
M Freisl, S Speck, U Truyen, S Reese, A-L Proksch, K Hartmann
Since little is known about the persistence and faecal shedding of canine parvovirus (CPV) in dogs after modified-live vaccination, diagnostic tests for CPV can be difficult to interpret in the post-vaccination period. The primary aim of this study was to determine the incidence, duration and extent of CPV vaccine virus shedding in adult dogs and to investigate related factors, including the presence of protective antibodies, increase in anti-CPV antibody titres and development of any gastrointestinal side-effects...
January 2017: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093009/genetic-identification-of-prey-species-from-teeth-in-faeces-from-the-endangered-leopard-cat-prionailurus-bengalensis-using-mitochondrial-cytochrome-b-gene-sequence
#8
Tae-Wook Kim, Hwa-Jin Lee, Yoo-Kyung Kim, Hong-Shik Oh, Sang-Hyun Han
To understand the dietary ecology of the leopard cat (Prionailurus bengalensis), DNA analysis was performed to identify prey species using DNA isolated from teeth harvested from the faeces of this feline species. From 70 DNA samples, a total of 52 mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cytochrome b (cytb) gene sequences of mammals were identified. The results of a sequence identity test indicated that those sequences were derived from four rodent species (Apodemus agrarius, Apodemus peninsulae, Eothenomys regulus and Tamias sibiricus) and two shrew species (Crocidura lasiura and Crocidura shantungensis)...
January 17, 2017: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A. DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091678/pepsin-egg-white-hydrolysate-modulates-gut-microbiota-in-zucker-obese-rats
#9
Teresa Requena, Marta Miguel, Marta Garcés-Rimón, M Carmen Martínez-Cuesta, Rosina López-Fandiño, Carmen Peláez
There is limited information that relates the intake of food-derived bioactive peptides and the gut microbiota. We have previously described a pepsin hydrolysate of egg white (EWH) that ameliorates fat accumulation and dyslipidemia, while reducing oxidative stress and inflammation markers in obese Zucker rats. The aim of this study was to associate the beneficial effects of EWH with gut microbiota changes in these animals. Obese Zucker rats received daily 750 mg kg(-1) EWH in drinking water for 12 weeks and faeces were analysed for microbial composition and metabolic compounds in comparison with Zucker lean rats and obese controls...
January 16, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089535/farmer-attitudes-and-perceptions-to-the-re-use-of-fertiliser-products-from-resource-oriented-sanitation-systems-the-case-of-vellore-south-india
#10
Prithvi Simha, Cecilia Lalander, Björn Vinnerås, M Ganesapillai
Relatively little research has been conducted to date on farmer attitudes towards the use of fertilisers from resource-oriented sanitation systems. This study employed a psycho-sociological approach to identify factors that encourage, or discourage, negative and positive attitudes to human waste recycling among farmers in southern India. A survey involving face-to-face interviews was performed with 120 randomly sampled farmers, taking into account the following factors: gender, age, religion, caste, type of farming, farm size, annual income and farming history...
January 12, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076773/thymol-detection-and-quantitation-by-solid-phase-microextraction-in-faeces-and-egg-yolk-of-japanese-quail
#11
María E Fernandez, Marcela A Palacio, María C Labaque
To measure bioavailability of the active ingredients of phytogenic feed additives in poultry products and subproducts is a key element for developing a rational understanding of its mode of action and biological effects. Hence, we validated a headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) technique followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as an analytical extraction procedure and as method for detection and quantitation of 2-Isopropyl-5-methylphenol (thymol) in faeces and egg yolk of quail. The suitability of this method for thymol analysis in both matrices was first proved via linearity, limit of detection, limit of quantification, and recovery using m-cresol as internal standard...
December 31, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075589/water-soluble-ruthenium-ii-chiral-heteroleptic-complexes-with-amoebicidal-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-activity
#12
Yanis Toledano-Magaña, Juan Carlos García-Ramos, Carolina Torres-Gutiérrez, Cristina Vázquez-Gasser, José Manuel Esquivel-Sánchez, Marcos Flores-Alamo, Luis Ortiz-Frade, Rodrigo Galindo-Murillo, Mario Nequiz, Marco Gudiño-Zayas, Juan Pedro Laclette, Julio César Carrero, Lena Ruiz-Azuara
Three novel water soluble Ru(II) chiral heteroleptic coordination compounds [Ru(en)(pdto)]Cl2 (1), [Ru(gly)(pdto)]Cl (2) and [Ru(acac)(pdto)]Cl (3) where pdto= 1,8-bis-(2-pyridyl)-3,6-dithioctane, en= ethylendiamine, gly= glycinate and acac= acetylacetonate have been synthesised and have shown remarkable amoebicidal activity in vitro and in vivo. The crystal structures of compounds 1-3 are described. The in vitro IC50 values found are within nanomolar range (0.14, 0.12 and 0.06 µM for compounds 1, 2 and 3, respectively)...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073307/effect-of-sample-storage-temperature-and-buffer-formulation-on-faecal-immunochemical-test-haemoglobin-measurements
#13
Erin L Symonds, Stephen R Cole, Dawn Bastin, Robert Jl Fraser, Graeme P Young
Objectives Faecal immunochemical test accuracy may be adversely affected when samples are exposed to high temperatures. This study evaluated the effect of two sample collection buffer formulations (OC-Sensor, Eiken) and storage temperatures on faecal haemoglobin readings. Methods Faecal immunochemical test samples returned in a screening programme and with ≥10 µg Hb/g faeces in either the original or new formulation haemoglobin stabilizing buffer were stored in the freezer, refrigerator, or at room temperature (22℃-24℃), and reanalysed after 1-14 days...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Medical Screening
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072880/characterisation-of-early-life-fecal-microbiota-in-susceptible-and-healthy-pigs-to-post-weaning-diarrhoea
#14
Samir Dou, Pascale Gadonna-Widehem, Véronique Rome, Dounia Hamoudi, Larbi Rhazi, Lyes Lakhal, Thibaut Larcher, Narges Bahi-Jaber, Arturo Pinon-Quintana, Alain Guyonvarch, Isabelle L E Huërou-Luron, Latifa Abdennebi-Najar
Early-life microbial exposure is of particular importance to growth, immune system development and long-lasting health. Hence, early microbiota composition is a promising predictive biomarker for health and disease but still remains poorly characterized in regards to susceptibility to diarrhoea. In the present study, we aimed to assess if gut bacterial community diversity and composition during the suckling period were associated with differences in susceptibility of pigs to post-weaning diarrhoea. Twenty piglets from 5 sows (4 piglets / litter) were weaned in poor housing conditions to challenge their susceptibility to post-weaning diarrhoea...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065211/faecal-parameters-as-biomarkers-of-the-equine-hindgut-microbial-ecosystem-under-dietary-change
#15
P Grimm, C Philippeau, V Julliand
Faeces could be used for evaluating the balance of the equine hindgut microbial ecosystem, which would offer a practical method for assessing gut health and how this relates to disease. However, previous studies concluded that faeces microbial ecosystem was not representative of the proximal hindgut (caecum and ventral colon). This study aimed to evaluate if variations of the faecal microbial ecosystem were similar to those observed in the proximal hindgut. Six horses, fistulated in the caecum and right ventral (RV) colon, were subjected to a gradual change of diet, from a 100% hay (high fibre) diet (2...
January 9, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064049/anti-diarrhoeal-therapeutic-potential-and-safety-assessment-of-sulphated-polysaccharide-fraction-from-gracilaria-intermedia-seaweed-in-mice
#16
Ana Carolina M Leódido, Luis E C Costa, Thiago S L Araújo, Douglas S Costa, Nayara A Sousa, Luan K M Souza, Francisca B M Sousa, Manoel D S Filho, Daniel F P Vasconcelos, Felipe R P Silva, Kerolayne M Nogueira, Alyne R Araújo, Francisco Clark N Barros, Ana Lúcia P Freitas, Jand Venes R Medeiros
Sulphated polysaccharides extracted from algae have been extensively studied for their diverse biological activities. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition, the anti-diarrhoeal effect and acute toxicity of a sulphated polysaccharide fraction obtained from Gracilaria intermedia (SP-Gi). Initially, the FT-IR of SP-Gi revealed to be an agaran with sulphation at C-6 of the l-galactosyl residues. The anti-diarrhoeal activity of SP-Gi was evaluated in a castor oil-induced diarrhoea model...
January 5, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061872/amoebic-liver-abscess-in-northern-sri-lanka-first-report-of-immunological-and-molecular-confirmation-of-aetiology
#17
Selvam Kannathasan, Arumugam Murugananthan, Thirunavukarasu Kumanan, Devika Iddawala, Nilanthi Renuka de Silva, Nadarajah Rajeshkannan, Rashidul Haque
BACKGROUND: Since 1985, amoebic liver abscess (ALA) has been a public health problem in northern Sri Lanka. Clinicians arrive at a diagnosis based on clinical and ultrasonographic findings, which cannot differentiate pyogenic liver abscess (PLA) from ALA. As the treatment and outcome of the ALA and PLA differs, determining the etiological agent is crucial. METHODS: All clinically diagnosed ALA patients admitted to the Teaching Hospital (TH) in Jaffna during the study period were included and the clinical features, haematological parameters, and ultrasound scanning findings were obtained...
January 7, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060808/steroid-biomarkers-revisited-improved-source-identification-of-faecal-remains-in-archaeological-soil-material
#18
Katharina Prost, Jago Jonathan Birk, Eva Lehndorff, Renate Gerlach, Wulf Amelung
Steroids are used as faecal markers in environmental and in archaeological studies, because they provide insights into ancient agricultural practices and the former presence of animals. Up to now, steroid analyses could only identify and distinguish between herbivore, pig, and human faecal matter and their residues in soils and sediments. We hypothesized that a finer differentiation between faeces of different livestock animals could be achieved when the analyses of several steroids is combined (Δ5-sterols, 5α-stanols, 5β-stanols, epi-5β-stanols, stanones, and bile acids)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057560/predictors-of-failure-after-single-faecal-microbiota-transplantation-in-patients-with-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infection-results-from-a-three-year-single-centre-cohort-study
#19
Gianluca Ianiro, Luca Valerio, Luca Masucci, Silvia Pecere, Stefano Bibbò, Gianluca Quaranta, Brunella Posteraro, Diego Currò, Maurizio Sanguinetti, Antonio Gasbarrini, Giovanni Cammarota
OBJECTIVES: Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an effective treatment for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). Although a single faecal infusion is usually sufficient to eradicate CDI, a considerable rate of patients needs multiple infusions to be cured. The aim of this study was to identify predictors of failure after single faecal infusion in patients with recurrent CDI. METHODS: We included patients with recurrent CDI prospectively treated with FMT by colonoscopy...
January 2, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056844/hepatitis-e-virus-seroprevalence-among-the-general-population-in-a-livestock-dense-area-in-the-netherlands-a-cross-sectional-population-based-serological-survey
#20
Arianne B van Gageldonk-Lafeber, Wim van der Hoek, Floor Borlée, Dick J J Heederik, Sofie H Mooi, Catharina B M Maassen, C Joris Yzermans, Barry Rockx, Lidwien A M Smit, Johan H J Reimerink
BACKGROUND: Recent serological studies indicate that hepatitis E virus (HEV) is endemic in industrialised countries. The increasing trend in the number of autochthonous cases of HEV genotype 3 in Western European countries, stresses the importance to get insight in the exact routes of exposure. Pigs are the main animal reservoir, and zoonotic food-borne transmission of HEV is proven. However, infected pigs can excrete large amounts of virus via their faeces enabling environmental transmission of HEV to humans...
January 5, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
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