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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333678/supplementary-feeding-as-a-source-of-multiresistant-salmonella-in-endangered-egyptian-vultures
#1
Guillermo Blanco
Wild birds have repeatedly been highlighted as vectors in the dissemination of livestock and human pathogens. Here, the occurrence, serotypes and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella were assessed in adult Egyptian vultures (Neophron percnopterus), to test the hypothesis that infection is associated with the consumption of swine carcasses provided at supplementary feeding stations (SFSs). Faeces of year-round resident griffon vultures (Gyps fulvus) were also tested to assess whether infection was acquired in the breeding grounds of both species or in the African wintering quarters of Egyptian vultures...
January 14, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332150/ectoparasite-activity-during-incubation-increases-microbial-growth-on-avian-eggs
#2
G Tomás, D Martín-Gálvez, C Ruiz-Castellano, M Ruiz-Rodríguez, J M Peralta-Sánchez, M Martín-Vivaldi, J J Soler
While direct detrimental effects of parasites on hosts are relatively well documented, other more subtle but potentially important effects of parasitism are yet unexplored. Biological activity of ectoparasites, apart from skin injuries and blood-feeding, often results in blood remains, or parasite faeces that accumulate and modify the host environment. In this way, ectoparasite activities and remains may increase nutrient availability that may favour colonization and growth of microorganisms including potential pathogens...
January 13, 2018: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331910/review-of-synthetic-human-faeces-and-faecal-sludge-for-sanitation-and-wastewater-research
#3
REVIEW
Roni Penn, Barbara J Ward, Linda Strande, Max Maurer
Investigations involving human faeces and faecal sludge are of great importance for urban sanitation, such as operation and maintenance of sewer systems, or implementation of faecal sludge management. However, working with real faecal matter is difficult as it not only involves working with a pathogenic, malodorous material but also individual faeces and faecal sludge samples are highly variable, making it difficult to execute repeatable experiments. Synthetic faeces and faecal sludge can provide consistently reproducible substrate and alleviate these challenges...
December 30, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330494/characterizing-the-bacterial-microbiota-in-different-gastrointestinal-tract-segments-of-the-bactrian-camel
#4
Jing He, Li Yi, Le Hai, Liang Ming, Wanting Gao, Rimutu Ji
The bacterial community plays important roles in the gastrointestinal tracts (GITs) of animals. However, our understanding of the microbial communities in the GIT of Bactrian camels remains limited. Here, we describe the bacterial communities from eight different GIT segments (rumen, reticulum, abomasum, duodenum, ileum, jejunum, caecum, colon) and faeces determined from 11 Bactrian camels using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. Twenty-seven bacterial phyla were found in the GIT, with Firmicutes, Verrucomicrobia and Bacteroidetes predominating...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329626/applicability-of-flotac%C3%A2-technique-in-recovering-equine-strongyle-larvae-in-the-pasture-a-comparison-study
#5
Ingrid Carla do Nascimento Ramos, Rafael Antonio do Nascimento Ramos, Victor Fernando de Santana Lima, Alessio Giannelli, Irma Yaneth Torres López, Leucio Câmara Alves
The FLOTAC® technique represents a highly sensitive method for the isolation of oocysts, eggs, and larvae of parasites in faeces. This assay could be used for detecting free-living stages of nematodes in the pasture but no attempt has been assessed so far. Therefore, the performance of FLOTAC® technique for isolating infective larvae of nematodes in the environment was investigated and compared with the spontaneous sedimentation (SST) and centrifugal sedimentation (CST) techniques. The study was conducted in a horse farm located in northeastern Brazil, where the occurrence of strongyle larvae had been previously reported...
January 30, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325326/-investigation-of-colistin-resistance-gene-mcr-in-gut-bacteria-from-patients-with-acute-diarrheal
#6
Y Li, W J Yan, S Q Liu
Objective: To investigate the presence of colistin resistance gene mcr in gut bacteria from patients with acute diarrhea. Methods: Fresh stool samples were collected from 150 outpatients with acute diarrhea in the intestinal clinic of Henan Provincial People's Hospital, and were directly detected for the presence of mcr by PCR after enrichment in the broth.The mcr-producing bacteria were further isolated and identified by MALDI-TOF MS (Bruker Biotyper). Antimicrobial susceptibility of these isolates was conducted by micro-broth dilution method...
December 19, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322653/viruses-associated-with-congenital-tremor-and-high-lethality-in-piglets
#7
F Possatti, S A Headley, R A Leme, A M Dall Agnol, E Zotti, T E S de Oliveira, A F Alfieri, A A Alfieri
The recently described atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV) has been associated with congenital tremor (CT) type A-II in piglets in different countries. Another important neurological pathogen of pigs is porcine teschovirus (PTV), which has been associated with non-suppurative encephalomyelitis in pigs with severe or mild neurological disorders. There have been no reports of APPV and/or PTV coinfection associated with CT or encephalomyelitis in Brazilian pig herds. The aim of this study was to describe the pathological and molecular findings associated with simultaneous infection of APPV and PTV in piglets with clinical manifestations of CT that were derived from a herd with high rates of CT-associated lethality...
January 10, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319525/physiological-effects-of-whey-and-milk-based-probiotic-yogurt-in-rats
#8
Judit Szabó-Fodor, András Bónai, Brigitta Bóta, Linda Szommerné Egyed, Ferenc Lakatos, Gréta Pápai, Attila Zsolnai, Róbert Glávits, Katalin Horvatovich, Melinda Kovács
In an in vitro experiment commercially available probiotic products were tested for the survival of bacteria under conditions of simulated human digestion either when used alone or mixed into yogurt. In the in vivo experiment the effects of feeding a whey- and milk-based yogurt prepared with the probiotic strain showing adequate survival in the in vitro experiment, was measured on body weight, feed con¬sumption and immune response of rats (IgG and IgA level after immunisation), on the composition and volatile fatty acid production of the intestinal microbiota and on the structure of intestinal villi...
December 4, 2017: Polish Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312660/high-prevalence-of-esbl-producing-e-coli-in-private-and-shared-latrines-in-an-informal-urban-settlement-in-dar-es-salaam-tanzania
#9
Stefan Erb, Lauren D'Mello-Guyett, Hamisi M Malebo, Robert M Njee, Fatuma Matwewe, Jeroen Ensink, Vladimira Hinic, Andreas Widmer, Reno Frei
Background: Data about the burden of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing microorganisms in Africa are limited. Our study aimed to estimate the prevalence of human faecal ESBL carriage in the community of an informal urban settlement in Dar es Salaam (Tanzania, East Africa) by using environmental contamination of household latrines with ESBL as a surrogate marker. Methods: Within the context of a large survey in February 2014 assessing 636 randomly selected household latrines for faecal contamination by the detection of growth of E...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306352/porcine-commensal-escherichia-coli-a-reservoir-for-class-1-integrons-associated-with-is26
#10
Cameron J Reid, Ethan R Wyrsch, Piklu Roy Chowdhury, Tiziana Zingali, Michael Liu, Aaron E Darling, Toni A Chapman, Steven P Djordjevic
Porcine faecal waste is a serious environmental pollutant. Carriage of antimicrobial-resistance genes (ARGs) and virulence-associated genes (VAGs), and the zoonotic potential of commensal Escherichia coli from swine are largely unknown. Furthermore, little is known about the role of commensal E. coli as contributors to the mobilization of ARGs between food animals and the environment. Here, we report whole-genome sequence analysis of 103 class 1 integron-positive E. coli from the faeces of healthy pigs from two commercial production facilities in New South Wales, Australia...
December 2017: Microbial Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306350/effect-of-condensed-tannins-in-rations-of-lactating-dairy-cows-on-production-variables-and-nitrogen-use-efficiency
#11
K Gerlach, M Pries, E Tholen, A J Schmithausen, W Büscher, K-H Südekum
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of supplemented condensed tannins (CT) from the bark of the Black Wattle tree (Acacia mearnsii) on production variables and N use efficiency in high yielding dairy cows. A feeding trial with 96 lactating German Holstein cows was conducted for a total of 169 days, divided into four periods. The animals were allotted to two groups (control (CON) and experimental (EXP) group) according to milk yield in previous lactation, days in milk (98), number of lactations and BW...
January 8, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305515/sapovirus-in-wastewater-treatment-plants-in-tunisia-prevalence-removal-and-genetic-characterization
#12
Miguel F Varela, Imen Ouardani, Tsuyoshi Kato, Syunsuke Kadoya, Mahjoub Aouni, Daisuke Sano, Jesús L Romalde
Sapovirus (SaV), from the Caliciviridae family, are enteric viruses that cause acute gastroenteritis. SaV are shed at high concentrations with faeces to wastewater, which are usually discharged at the aquatic environments or reused for irrigation without efficient treatments. This study analyzed the incidence of human SaV in four wastewater treatment plants from Tunisia during a period of 13 months (December 2009 to December 2010). Detection and quantification were carried out using RT-qPCR methods, obtaining a prevalence of 39...
January 5, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304858/the-recovery-of-added-nematode-eggs-from-horse-and-sheep-faeces-by-three-methods
#13
Antonio Bosco, Maria Paola Maurelli, Davide Ianniello, Maria Elena Morgoglione, Alessandra Amadesi, Gerald C Coles, Giuseppe Cringoli, Laura Rinaldi
BACKGROUND: Nematode infections in horses are widespread across the world. Increasing levels of anthelmintic resistance, reported worldwide in equine parasites, have led to the creation of programs for the control of nematodes based on faecal egg counts (FEC). To improve nematode egg counting in equine faecal samples and establish whether the matrix of equine faeces or the eggs affect the counts, the analytical sensitivity, accuracy and precision of Mini-FLOTAC (combined with Fill-FLOTAC), McMaster and Cornell-Wisconsin techniques were compared...
January 5, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301814/eosinophilia-a-marker-of-asymptomatic-strongyloides-infection-in-a-young-patient-with-extrapulmonary-tuberculosis
#14
Hirotomo Yamanashi, Sinsuke Kanbara, Kunihiko Murase, Takahiro Maeda
Strongyloides stercoralis infection is a common and neglected public health problem in many areas of the world. Here we report the case of a 21-year-old woman who emigrated from Cambodia to Japan and presented with swelling of the right supraclavicular region of 2 months' duration. She had no other symptoms. Tuberculous lymphadenitis was diagnosed based on a fine-needle aspiration biopsy of the right supraclavicular lymph node. The laboratory examination revealed mild eosinophilia (eosinophils 1348/µL).S. stercoralis and Hymenolepis nana were detected serologically and in faeces examination...
January 4, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301443/softened-food-reduces-weight-loss-in-the-streptozotocin-induced-male-mouse-model-of-diabetic-nephropathy
#15
Sisse A Nørgaard, Fredrik W Sand, Dorte B Sørensen, Klas Sp Abelson, Henrik Søndergaard
The streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mouse is a widely used model of diabetes and diabetic nephropathy (DN). However, it is a well-known issue that this model is challenged by high weight loss, which despite supportive measures often results in high euthanization rates. To overcome these issues, we hypothesized that supplementing STZ-induced diabetic mice with water-softened chow in addition to normal chow would reduce weight loss, lower the need for supportive treatment, and reduce the number of mice reaching the humane endpoint of 20% weight loss...
January 1, 2018: Laboratory Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300153/bifidobacterium-catulorum-sp-nov-a-novel-taxon-from-the-faeces-of-the-baby-common-marmoset-callithrix-jacchus
#16
Monica Modesto, Samanta Michelini, Kaihei Oki, Bruno Biavati, Koichi Watanabe, Paola Mattarelli
In our previous study based on hsp60 PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism and 16S rRNA gene sequencing, we stated that the bifidobacterial strains isolated from the individual faecal samples of five baby common marmosets constituted different phylogenetically isolated groups of the genus Bifidobacterium. In that study, we also proposed that these isolated groups potentially represented novel species of the genus Bifidobacterium. Out of them, Bifidobacterium aesculapii, Bifidobacterium myosotis, Bifidobacterium tissieri and Bifidobacterium hapali, have been described recently...
January 4, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300135/non-clinical-pharmacokinetic-profiles-of-rovatirelin-an-orally-available-thyrotropin-releasing-hormone-analogue
#17
Kaoru Kobayashi, Yoshikazu Abe, Hiroshi Harada, Emiko Oota, Takuro Endo, Hiroo Takeda
The non-clinical pharmacokinetic profiles of rovatirelin, a novel thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) analogue, were investigated in vivo and in vitro. Rovatirelin orally administered to rats and dogs was rapidly absorbed and bioavailability was estimated to be 7.3% and 41.3%, respectively. The extent of plasma protein binding of rovatirelin in rats, dogs, and humans was low in all species (∼15%). The permeability of rovatirelin from blood to brain (permeability-surface area) ranged from 1.04 ± 0.14 to 1...
January 4, 2018: Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291090/avoidance-of-biological-contaminants-through-sight-smell-and-touch-in-chimpanzees
#18
Cecile Sarabian, Barthelemy Ngoubangoye, Andrew J J MacIntosh
Avoiding biological contaminants is a well-known manifestation of the adaptive system of disgust. In theory, animals evolved with such a system to prevent pathogen and parasite infection. Bodily products are human-universal disgust elicitors, but whether they also elicit avoidance behaviour in non-human primates has yet to be tested. Here, we report experimental evidence that potential exposure to biological contaminants (faeces, blood, semen), as perceived via multiple sensory modalities (visual, olfactory, tactile), might influence feeding decisions in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes)-our closest phylogenetic relatives...
November 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289923/stormwater-constructed-wetlands-a-source-or-a-sink-of-campylobacter-spp
#19
Ze Meng, Gayani Chandrasena, Rebekah Henry, Ana Deletic, Peter Kolotelo, David McCarthy
Stormwater constructed wetlands are not well characterised for their ability to remove pathogens which can pose public health risks during stormwater harvesting activities. This study investigated the behaviour of faecal indicator organism Escherichia coli (E. coli) and reference pathogen Campylobacter spp. in stormwater constructed wetlands, using a case study system located in Melbourne, Australia. Grab sampling and event-based monitoring revealed influent concentrations of E. coli were typical of other urban stormwater studies, yet Campylobacter concentrations were orders of magnitude above those urban stormwater studies used to develop the Australian Guidelines for Water Recycling, reached levels typical of raw domestic wastewater...
December 21, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286013/outbreak-of-severe-hepatitis-a-in-eastern-piedmont-italy
#20
Antonella Rossati, Olivia Bargiacchi, Vesselina Kroumova, Claudio Nebbiolo, Maria Grazia Tacca, Sonia Pratillo, Pietro Luigi Garavelli
Hepatitis A (HA) is caused by a hepatovirus from the family Picornaviridae (Hepatitis A Virus, HAV). Transmission occurs mainly by the orofaecal route through food or water contaminated by faeces. Sexual transmission has also been reported among men who have sex with men (MSM). From February to May 2017, 14 patients with HA were hospitalized at the University Hospital "Maggiore della Carità", Novara (Eastern Piedmont), Italy. One patient was two years old and was therefore admitted to the Paediatric Unit, the remaining 13 to the Infectious Disease Unit...
December 1, 2017: Le Infezioni in Medicina
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