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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924143/fructooligosaccharide-fos-and-galactooligosaccharide-gos-increase-bifidobacterium-but-reduce-butyrate-producing-bacteria-with-adverse-glycemic-metabolism-in-healthy-young-population
#1
Feitong Liu, Pan Li, Muxuan Chen, Yuemei Luo, M Prabhakar, Huimin Zheng, Yan He, Qi Qi, Haoyu Long, Yi Zhang, Huafang Sheng, Hongwei Zhou
The gut microbiota has been implicated in glucose intolerance and its progression towards type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Relevant randomized clinical trial with prebiotic intervention was inadequate. We sought to evaluate the impact of fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and galactooligosaccharides (GOS) on glycemia during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and intestinal microbiota. A randomized double-blind cross-over study was performed with 35 adults treated with FOS and GOS for 14 days (16 g/day). Faeces sampling, OGTT and anthropometric parameters were performed...
September 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923569/digestive-behavior-of-dendrobium-huoshanense-polysaccharides-in-the-gastrointestinal-tracts-of-mice
#2
Song-Zi Xie, Ji-Chun Ge, Fan Li, Jun Yang, Li-Hua Pan, Xue-Qiang Zha, Qiang-Ming Li, Jun Duan, Jian-Ping Luo
With fluorescent end-labeling method, a homogenous Dendrobium huoshanense polysaccharide (GXG) that was orally administrated to mice was found to be degraded into a stable fragment (dGXG) in the stomach, where dGXG was propelled into the small intestine and absorbed into the systemic circulation. The residual GXG in the stomach could pass through the gastrointestinal tract and was excreted into faeces with a very slow fermentation in the large intestine. The simulated digestion of GXG indicated that the acidic pH condition in the gastric fluid was responsible for GXG degradation, which was supported by the oral digestion of dGXG...
September 15, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922171/pancreatic-polypeptide-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-potential-marker-of-parasympathetic-denervation
#3
Karoline Knudsen, Bolette Hartmann, Tatyana D Fedorova, Karen Østergaard, Klaus Krogh, Niels Møller, Jens J Holst, Per Borghammer
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Parkinson's disease (PD) patients experience several non-motor symptoms from the gastrointestinal tract that may partly be caused by parasympathetic deficiency. The pancreas is densely innervated by the vagus nerve, which mediates early meal-induced secretion of pancreatic polypeptide (PP). Early secretion after sham feeding has been validated as a marker of vagal integrity. Thus, the aim was to evaluate the ratio of increased PP plasma levels after sham feeding in PD and correlate findings with gastrointestinal transit time (GITT)...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Parkinson's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919547/deep-sequencing-to-resolve-complex-diversity-of-apicomplexan-parasites-in-platypuses-and-echidnas-proof-of-principle-for-wildlife-disease-investigation
#4
Jan Šlapeta, Stefan Saverimuttu, Larry Vogelnest, Cheryl Sangster, Frances Hulst, Karrie Rose, Paul Thompson, Richard Whittington
The short-beaked echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus) and the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) are iconic egg-laying monotremes (Mammalia: Monotremata) from Australasia. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the utility of diversity profiles in disease investigations of monotremes. Using small subunit (18S) rDNA amplicon deep-sequencing we demonstrated the presence of apicomplexan parasites and confirmed by direct and cloned amplicon gene sequencing Theileria ornithorhynchi, Theileria tachyglossi, Eimeria echidnae and Cryptosporidium fayeri...
September 12, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918677/prevalence-of-anal-incontinence-in-a-working-population-within-a-healthcare-environment
#5
Carlos Cerdán Santacruz, Rocío Santos Rancaño, Marta Vigara García, Cristina Fernández Pérez, Mario Ortega López, Javier Cerdán Miguel
OBJECTIVES: Anal incontinence is a devastating affliction with several considerations that make it difficult to define in terms of epidemiology with good precision. The aim of the present work is to study the prevalence of an important disorder such as anal incontinence in a healthy working population within a sanitary environment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cluster of easy understanding and filling inquiry forms are distributed to 910 apparently healthy individuals at our hospital...
September 18, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903170/-salmonellosis-in-an-infant-as-a-result-of-indirect-contact-with-reptiles
#6
Zuzana Tomaštíková, Martina Mrázková, Marie Kaňáková, Renáta Karpíšková
Reported is a case of enteritis caused by Salmonella Oranienburg in an approximately one-month-old infant due to indirect contact with reptiles. An epidemiological investigation included tests of faeces of bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps) kept in the patient's household that revealed Salmonella Oranienburg. The comparison of Salmonella isolates obtained from the infant's stools and the reptiles' faeces using macrorestriction analysis showed 100% similarity, confirming that the reptiles were the source of the infection...
June 2017: Klinická Mikrobiologie a Infekc̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901895/agaribacterium-haliotis-gen-nov-sp-nov-isolated-from-abalone-faeces
#7
Zhaobin Huang, Qiliang Lai, Demin Zhang, Zongze Shao
A marine bacterium, named strain feces2T, was isolated from the excreted faeces of an abalone, Haliotis discus hannai. The bacterium was Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped and had a polar flagellum. It formed a white, small and crater-like colony on an agar plate, and had the capability of degrading agar. Activity of oxidase was positive and that of catalase was negative. Strain feces2T grew at 16 to 40 °C with an optimum of 28-30 °C. The nearly full-length 16S rRNA gene of strain feces2T had the greatest sequence similarity of 92...
September 13, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900158/dynamic-oropharyngeal-and-faecal-microbiota-during-treatment-in-infants-hospitalized-for-bronchiolitis-compared-with-age-matched-healthy-subjects
#8
Qian Hu, Wenkui Dai, Qian Zhou, Dan Fu, Yuejie Zheng, Wenjian Wang, Yanhong Liu, Qin Yang, Dongling Dai, Sixi Liu, Guosheng Liu, Shuaicheng Li, Feiqiu Wen
Bronchiolitis is one of the most severe diseases affecting infants worldwide. An imbalanced oropharynx (OP) microbiota has been reported in infants hospitalized with bronchiolitis; however, the microbiota dynamics in the OP and faeces during therapy remain unexplored. In total, 27 infants who were hospitalized with bronchiolitis were selected for this study, and sampling was conducted before therapy and after clinical recovery. We also recruited 22 age-matched healthy infants for this study. The faecal and OP microbiota diversity in the patients was lower than that in the healthy children...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899411/non-polio-enteroviruses-in-faeces-of-children-diagnosed-with-acute-flaccid-paralysis-in-nigeria
#9
T O C Faleye, M O Adewumi, M O Japhet, O M David, A O Oluyege, J A Adeniji, O Famurewa
BACKGROUND: The need to investigate the contribution of non-polio enteroviruses to acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) cannot be over emphasized as we move towards a poliovirus free world. Hence, we aim to identify non-polio enteroviruses recovered from the faeces of children diagnosed with AFP in Nigeria. METHODS: Ninety-six isolates, (95 unidentified and one previously confirmed Sabin poliovirus 3) recovered on RD cell culture from the stool of children <15 years old diagnosed with AFP in 2014 were analyzed...
September 12, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893355/bifidobacterium-vansinderenii-sp-nov-isolated-from-faeces-of-emperor-tamarin-saguinus-imperator
#10
Sabrina Duranti, Marta Mangifesta, Gabriele Andrea Lugli, Francesca Turroni, Rosaria Anzalone, Christian Milani, Leonardo Mancabelli, Maria Cristina Ossiprandi, Marco Ventura
A novel Bifidobacterium strain, Tam10BT, i.e. LMG 30126T, was isolated from emperor tamarin (Saguinus imperator). Cells were Gram-positive, non-motile, non-sporulating, non-haemolytic, facultative anaerobic and fructose 6-phosphate phosphoketolase-positive. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA genes as well as multilocus sequences (representing hsp60, rpoB, dnaJ, dnaG and clpC genes) and the core genome revealed that Bifidobacterium Tam10BT exhibited close phylogenetic relatedness to Bifidobacterium tissieri DSM 100201T...
September 12, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892179/behavioural-and-electrophysiological-responses-of%C3%A2-triatoma-dimidiata-nymphs-to-conspecific-faecal-volatiles
#11
Z Galvez-Marroquin, L Cruz-López, E A Malo, J M Ramsey, J C Rojas
The behavioural and electrophysiological (electroantennography) responses of the first two instars of Triatoma dimidiata (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) Latreille to fresh and dry faecal headspace volatile extracts from fifth instar conspecific nymphs and synthetic compounds were analysed in this study. Recently emerged nymphs (3-5 days) aggregated around filter paper impregnated with dry faeces and around filter paper impregnated with extracts from both fresh and dry faeces. Older first instars (10-15 days) and second instars aggregated around filter paper impregnated with fresh and dry faeces, and their respective headspace extracts...
September 11, 2017: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891678/prevalence-of-gastrointestinal-helminth-infections-in-free-range-laying-hens-under-mountain-farming-production-conditions
#12
K Wuthijaree, C Lambertz, M Gauly
1. A cross-sectional study was conducted from September 2015 to July 2016 in South Tyrol, Northern Italy to examine the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths in free-range laying hens under mountain farming production conditions. 2. A total of 280 laying hens from 14 free-range mountain farms (4 organic, 10 conventional) were randomly collected at the end of the laying period. Faecal samples were taken to analyse faecal egg counts (FEC) and faecal oocyst counts (FOC). The gastrointestinal tracts were removed post mortem and examined for the presence of helminths...
September 11, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888884/prevalence-of-antimicrobial-resistance-and-integron-gene-cassettes-in-escherichia-coli-isolated-from-yaks-poephagus-grunniens-in-aba-tibetan-autonomous-prefecture-china
#13
Xin Yang, Wencheng Zou, Jinxin Zeng, Shengze Xie, Tianwu An, Xiaolin Luo, Danyu Chen, Lan Feng, Guangyang Cheng, Run Cai, Qianru Huang, Hongning Wang
BACKGROUND: Escherichia coli (E. coli) is one of the most relevant opportunistic pathogenic bacteria as it may cause severe morbidity and mortality in yaks (poephagus grunniens). In recent years, several kinds of antibiotics have been widely used in Tibetan areas to treat the bacterial diseases, resulting in serious repercussions on the bacterial antibiotic resistance in yaks. This investigation was conducted in order to determine the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance and integron gene cassettes in E...
September 6, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888700/surgical-repair-of-rectovaginal-fistula-using-the-modified-martius-procedure-a-step-by-step-guide
#14
Dan Wang, Juan Chen, Lan Zhu, Mingchen Sang, Fan Yu, Qing Zhou
STUDY OBJECTIVE: to demonstrate the surgical repair of rectovaginal fistula by the modified Martius procedure. DESIGN: step by step presentation of the procedure using video. SETTING: Rectovaginal fistula (RVF) is abnormal epithelialized connections between the vagina and rectum. Causes of rectovaginal fistula include obstetrical trauma, Crohn disease, pelvic irradiation and postsurgical complications. Many surgical interventions have been developed, from laparoscopic technique to muscle transposition and even rectal resection...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888637/high-abundance-and-diversity-of-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-esbl-producing-escherichia-coli-in-faeces-and-tonsils-of-pigs-at-slaughter
#15
I Van Damme, C Garcia-Graells, W Biasino, T Gowda, N Botteldoorn, L De Zutter
This cross-sectional study investigates the abundance of cefotaxime-resistant Escherichia coli (CREC) in the faeces and tonsils of 96 pigs during slaughter. Moreover, different isolates from a selected number of pigs were tested to study the diversity of blaESBL genes within E. coli isolates from one pig. Cefotaxime-resistant bacteria (based on enumeration results on MacConkey agar supplemented with 1mg/L cefotaxime) were found in the faeces of 77 pigs (80%; 95% CI: 70-87%) and the tonsils of 91 pigs (95%; 95% CI: 88%-98%)...
September 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884754/bifidobacteria-exert-species-specific-effects-on-constipation-in-balb-c-mice
#16
Linlin Wang, Lujun Hu, Qi Xu, Tian Jiang, Shuguang Fang, Gang Wang, Jianxin Zhao, Hao Zhang, Wei Chen
Constipation is one of the most common gastrointestinal complaints worldwide. The aim of this study was to determine whether edible bifidobacteria (Bifidobacterium longum, B. infantis, B. animalis, B. bifidum, B. adolescentis or B. breve) exhibit interspecies differences in alleviating constipation induced by loperamide in BALB/c mice and to analyse the main reasons for the interspecies differences. BALB/c mice were given bifidobacteria by gavage once per day for 8 days. The primary outcome measures, which included related constipation indicators, and the secondary outcome measures, which included changes in the concentration of short-chain fatty acids in faeces and changes in the faecal flora, were used to evaluate the therapeutic effects of the edible bifidobacteria on constipation...
September 8, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882675/gold-nanoparticles-distribution-bioaccumulation-and-toxicity-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-studies
#17
Carlos Lopez-Chaves, Juan Soto-Alvaredo, Maria Montes-Bayon, Jörg Bettmer, Juan Llopis, Cristina Sanchez-Gonzalez
Concerns about the bioaccumulation and toxicity of gold nanoparticles inside humans have recently risen. HT-29 and HepG2 cell lines and Wistar rats were exposed to 10, 30 or 60nm gold nanoparticles to determine their tissue distribution, subcellular location and deleterious effects. Cell viability, ROS production and DNA damage were evaluated in vitro. Lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation were determined in liver. ICP-MS measurements showed the presence of gold in intestine, kidney, liver, spleen, faeces and urine...
September 4, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877248/flying-foxes-create-extensive-seed-shadows-and-enhance-germination-success-of-pioneer-plant-species-in-deforested-madagascan-landscapes
#18
Ryszard Oleksy, Luca Giuggioli, Thomas J McKetterick, Paul A Racey, Gareth Jones
Seed dispersal plays a significant role in forest regeneration and maintenance. Flying foxes are often posited as effective long-distance seed dispersers due to their large home ranges and ability to disperse seeds when flying. We evaluate the importance of the Madagascan flying fox Pteropus rufus in the maintenance and regeneration of forests in one of the world's priority conservation areas. We tested germination success of over 20,000 seeds from the figs Ficus polita, F. grevei and F. lutea extracted from bat faeces and ripe fruits under progressively more natural conditions, ranging from petri-dishes to outdoor environments...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875544/identification-and-characterization-of-vilazodone-metabolites-in-rats-and-microsomes-by-uhplc-q-tof-ms-ms
#19
Balasaheb B Chavan, Pradipbhai D Kalariya, Shristy Tiwari, Rakesh D Nimbalkar, Prabha Garg, R Srinivas, M V N Kumar Talluri
RATIONALE: Vilazodone is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) used for the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD). Extensive literature search indicated scarce reports on in vivo and in vitro metabolism of vilazodone. Therefore, we report a comprehensive in vivo and in vitro metabolite identification and structural characterization of vilazodone using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (LC/Q-TOF/MS/MS) and in silico toxicity study of the metabolites...
September 5, 2017: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873547/towards-an-improved-global-antioxidant-response-method-gar-physiological-resembling-in-vitro-digestion-fermentation-method
#20
S Pérez-Burillo, J A Rufián-Henares, S Pastoriza
The antioxidant capacity of food influences its shelf life and human health. To determine this parameter, the corresponding antioxidant species must first be extracted. Current methods don't adequately address this issue since they rely on extractions with organic solvents or on in vitro digestion without a subsequent fermentation. We present an improved protocol to determine the global antioxidant response of foods (GAR+) including both in vitro digestion and fermentation. All samples should be fermented with the same fresh faecal inoculum in order to decrease variability...
January 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
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