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Le Zhang, Yunshan Zhao, Zhipeng A Wang, Kunhua Wei, Bin Qiu, Chunhong Zhang, QiYan Wang-Müller, Minhui Li
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: As a group of important medicine plants, Boschniakia rossica (Cham. et Schltdl) Fedtsch. and B. himalaica Thoms, which are the only two species in the genus Boschniakia (Orobanchaceae), have long been used in traditional Chinese medicine for their multiple therapeutic uses related to enhanced renal function, erectile dysfunction, defaecate and hepatoprotective. Additionally, the two species are also used as dietary supplements in wine, cosmetics, and other healthy food...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Alfred Maroyi
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Crinum macowanii is a deciduous bulbous plant which grows in east, central and southern Africa. Crinum macowanii has been used as herbal medicine by the indigenous people of east and southern Africa has for several centuries. The bulb, leaves and roots of C. macowanii are reported to possess diverse medicinal properties and used to treat or manage various human and animal diseases and ailments throughout its distributional range. Crinum macowanii is used traditionally as a remedy for boils, diarrhoea, fever, inflammation, respiratory system problems, skin rashes, tuberculosis, wounds and urinary tract problems...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Daniel A Beller, David R Nelson
Tubular crystals, two-dimensional lattices wrapped into cylindrical topologies, arise in many contexts, including botany and biofilaments, and in physical systems such as carbon nanotubes. The geometrical principles of botanical phyllotaxis, describing the spiral packings on cylinders commonly found in nature, have found application in all these systems. Several recent studies have examined defects in tubular crystals associated with crystalline packings that must accommodate a fixed tube radius. Here we study the mechanics of tubular crystals with variable tube radius, with dislocations interposed between regions of different phyllotactic packings...
September 2016: Physical Review. E
Ghulam Dastagir, Muhammad Afzal Rizvi
Medicinal plants are being used for treating various diseases. According to World Health Organization 80% of the world population depends on indigenous medicinal plant remedies. Herbal medicine employs fruits, vegetables, as dry materials or their extracts for the treatment of different diseases and health maintenance. Glycyrrhiza glabra (Liquorice) has been used in Europe since prehistoric times. It is well documented in written form starting with the ancient Greeks. Glycyrrhizin is the major active constituent obtained from liquorice roots, one of the most widely used in herbal preparations for the treatment of liver complaints...
September 2016: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Hajer Taleb, Sarah E Maddocks, R Keith Morris, Ara D Kanekanian
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Date fruit, Phoenix dactylifera L. has traditionally been used as a medicine in many cultures for the treatment of a range of ailments such as stomach and intestinal disorders, fever, oedema, bronchitis and wound healing. AIM OF THE REVIEW: The present review aims to summarise the traditional use and application of Phoenix dactylifera date fruit in different ethnomedical systems, additionally the botany and phytochemistry are identified...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Katalin Solymosi, Attila Köfalvi
Cannabis is one of the earliest cultivated plants. Cannabis of industrial utility and culinary value is generally termed as hemp. Conversely, cannabis that is bred for medical, spiritual and recreational purposes is called marijuana. The female marijuana plant produces a significant quantity of bio- and psychoactive phytocannabinoids, which regained the spotlight with the discovery of the endocannabinoid system of the animals in the early 90's. Nevertheless, marijuana is surrounded by controversies, debates and misconceptions related to its taxonomic classification, forensic identification, medical potential, legalization and its long-term health consequences...
October 4, 2016: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
Maria Lucia Carneiro Vieira, Luciane Santini, Augusto Lima Diniz, Carla de Freitas Munhoz
Microsatellites or Single Sequence Repeats (SSRs) are extensively employed in plant genetics studies, using both low and high throughput genotyping approaches. Motivated by the importance of these sequences over the last decades this review aims to address some theoretical aspects of SSRs, including definition, characterization and biological function. The methodologies for the development of SSR loci, genotyping and their applications as molecular markers are also reviewed. Finally, two data surveys are presented...
July 2016: Genetics and Molecular Biology
Maria Lucia Carneiro Vieira, Luciane Santini, Augusto Lima Diniz, Carla de Freitas Munhoz
Microsatellites or Single Sequence Repeats (SSRs) are extensively employed in plant genetics studies, using both low and high throughput genotyping approaches. Motivated by the importance of these sequences over the last decades this review aims to address some theoretical aspects of SSRs, including definition, characterization and biological function. The methodologies for the development of SSR loci, genotyping and their applications as molecular markers are also reviewed. Finally, two data surveys are presented...
August 4, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Biology
Friedrich-Wilhelm Bentrup
The cohesion-tension theory of water ascent (C-T) has been challenged over the past decades by a large body of experimental evidence obtained by means of several minimum or non-invasive techniques. The evidence strongly suggests that land plants acquire water through interplay of several mechanisms covered by the multi-force theory of (U. Zimmermann et al. New Phytologist 162: 575-615, 2004). The diversity of mechanisms includes, for instance, water acquisition by inverse transpiration and thermodynamically uphill transmembrane water secretion by cation-chloride cotransporters (L...
August 4, 2016: Protoplasma
J B Li
The original plants of Shan biandou, first seen in Jiu huang ben cao (Materia Medica for Relief of Famines), include the plants of Astragalusgenus, such as A. scaberrimus and/or A. complanatus in the Ming and Qing Dynasties. But Cassia mimosoides was named as Shan biandou by Japanese scholars in the 19th century. This mistaken identification and misnaming, still in use today in Chinese and Japanese circles of botany and materia medica, did cause some confusion. The merits and demerits of using the plant names in Chinese characters from the Japanese language by Chinese botanists were analyzed, the disadvantages of which should be well avoided...
May 2016: Zhonghua Yi Shi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Medical History
Zachariah Gompert, C Alex Buerkle
Hybridization is a potent evolutionary process that can affect the origin, maintenance, and loss of biodiversity. Because of its ecological and evolutionary consequences, an understanding of hybridization is important for basic and applied sciences, including conservation biology and agriculture. Herein, we review and discuss ideas that are relevant to the recognition of hybrids and hybridization. We supplement this discussion with simulations. The ideas we present have a long history, particularly in botany, and clarifying them should have practical consequences for managing hybridization and gene flow in plants...
August 2016: Evolutionary Applications
Pranjul Arora, Dhirender Kaushik
Benincasa cerifera (Savi.), belonging to Cucurbitaceae, is an annual creepy wine that posses highm edicinal value and istraditionally used as fruit and medicine throughout India. In Indian system of medicine, its fruit is used as nutritive, tonic, diuretic, aphrodisiac, styptic, vermifuge and in various diseases and disorders like asthma, bronchitis, insanity, epilepsy, dry cough, fever, urethrorrhea, syphilis, hyperdipsia and vitiated conditions of pitta, etc. Phytochemically the plant is found to contain lupeol, β-sitosterol, cucurbitacin B, iso-vitexin, etc...
July 28, 2016: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine
Kaoutar Aboukhalid, Abdeslam Lamiri, Monika Agacka-Mołdoch, Teresa Doroszewska, Ahmed Douaik, Mohamed Bakha, Joseph Casanova, Félix Tomi, Nathalie Machon, Chaouki Al Faiz
Origanum compactum L. (Lamiaceae) is one of the most important medicinal species in term of ethnobotany in Morocco. It is considered as a very threatened species as it is heavily exploited. Its domestication remains the most efficient way to safeguard it for future generations. For this purpose, wide evaluation of the existing variability in all over the Moroccan territory is required. The essential oils of 527 individual plants belonging to 88 populations collected from the whole distribution area of the species in Morocco were analyzed by GC/MS...
September 2016: Chemistry & Biodiversity
Roger Tsobou, Pierre Marie Mapongmetsem, Patrick Van Damme
Medicinal Plants Used for Treating Reproductive Health Care Problems in Cameroon, Central Africa. Approximately 80% of the African population uses traditional plants to deal with health problems, basically because of their easy accessibility and affordability. This study was carried out to document indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants used by traditional healers and elders in the treatment of reproductive health care in the Bamboutos Division of the West Region in Cameroon, Central Africa. The research methods used included semi-structured interviews and participative field observations...
2016: Economic Botany
Mark F Watson, Henry J Noltie
During his 20-year career as a surgeon-naturalist with the British East India Company, Francis Buchanan (later Hamilton, known in botany as Buchanan-Hamilton and in ichthyology as Hamilton-Buchanan) undertook pioneering survey explorations in several diverse regions of the Indian subcontinent. A naturalist at heart, his collections of plants and animals are often the first from such regions, notably Nepal, Burma (Myanmar) and Bangladesh. Buchanan had wide-ranging interests beyond natural history, using his talent for observation and meticulous recording to amass a huge body of information on the lands and peoples he encountered...
July 11, 2016: Annals of Science
Bettina Dietz
In this essay, translations of Linnaeus' Systema naturae into various European languages will be placed into the context of successively expanded editions of Linnaeus' writings. The ambition and intention of most translators was not only to make the Systema naturae accessible for practical botanical use by a wider readership, but also to supplement and correct it, and thus to shape it. By recruiting more users, translations made a significant contribution to keeping the Systema up to date and thus maintaining its practical value for decades...
April 2016: Annals of Science
Anna Elisa Verzì, Francesco Lacarrubba, Giuseppe Micali
Affordable (USD ∼30) handheld USB digital microscopes, or videomicroscopes (VMs), that provide ×10-200 magnification are available on the web for nonmedical uses such as in botany, entomology, microelectronics or, recently, for hair/scalp evaluation. The aim of this study was to compare the reliability of low-cost VMs versus standard, medically marketed videodermatoscopes (VDs) in trichoscopy. Twenty-five patients affected by different types of hair loss were enrolled in a controlled, blinded noninferiority trial...
May 2016: Skin Appendage Disorders
Hong-Dan Zhan, Hai-Yu Zhou, Yun-Peng Sui, Xin-Liang Du, Wei-Hao Wang, Li Dai, Feng Sui, Hai-Ru Huo, Ting-Liang Jiang
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Gastrodia elata Blume (Orchidaceae) is commonly called Tian ma in Chinese and mainly distributed in the mountainous areas of eastern Asia, such as China, Korea, Japan and India. It is an extensively used traditional Chinese herbal medicine in the clinical practice of traditional Chinese medicine, to treat headache, migraine, dizziness, epilepsy, infantile convulsion, tetany and so on. The present paper reviews the advancements in investigation of botany and ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, pharmacology, toxicology and quality control of Gastrodia elata Blume...
August 2, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Sara Manafzadeh, Yannick M Staedler, Elena Conti
Ever since the 19th century, the immense arid lands of the Orient, now called the Irano-Turanian (IT) floristic region, attracted the interest of European naturalists with their tremendous plant biodiversity. Covering approximately 30% of the surface of Eurasia (16000000 km(2) ), the IT region is one of the largest floristic regions of the world. The IT region represents one of the hotspots of evolutionary and biological diversity in the Old World, and serves as a source of xerophytic taxa for neighbouring regions...
June 28, 2016: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
Mark R Wick
Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was introduced by Ruska and Knoll as a laboratory technique in 1933. Thereafter, several decades passed before the methods required for its optimal implementation were fully developed. Early uses of TEM were in Botany, rather than in Medicine; however, isolated publications did catalog the ultrastructural characteristics of several individual human tumor types. Finally, in 1968, Rosai and Rodriguez authored an important article, introducing the concept that TEM could be used for the differential diagnosis of histologically similar neoplasms...
September 2016: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
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