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In the context of the White Book of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (PRM) in Europe, this paper deals with the history of the PRM medical specialty. The specialty evolved in different European countries, and sometimes also into the single countries, from different medical streams that finally joined. These included among others: balneology, gymnastic, use of physical agents (water, heat, cold, massage, joint manipulations, physical exercise, etc.). Another important role has been played by the increasing number of people experiencing or likely to experience disability due to improvement of medicine and consequent survivals from wars, accidents and/or big infective epidemics (like polio); these evolutions happened in strict relationship with other specialties like cardiology, neurology, orthopaedics, pneumology, rheumatology, traumatology, creating a knowledge transversal to all of them...
April 2018: European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
K Vienola, G Jurgens, J Vuorenmaa, J Apajalahti
1. Studies were conducted with tall oil fatty acids (TOFA) to determine their effect on broiler chicken performance and ileal microbiota. TOFA, a product originating from coniferous trees and recovered by fractional distillation of side-streams from pulp production, mainly comprises free long-chain fatty acids (~90%) and resin acids (~8%). Conjugated linolenic acids and pinolenic acid are characteristic fatty acid components of TOFA. 2. TOFA products at 750 mg/kg feed were tested in two 35-day broiler chicken trials, each using a wheat soya-based diet and with 12 replicate pens per treatment...
March 22, 2018: British Poultry Science
Chase B Hellmer, Tomomi Ichinose
Retinal first-order neurons, photoreceptors, receive visual inputs and convert them to neural signals. The second-order neurons, bipolar cells then sort out the visual signals and encode them through multiple neural streams. Approximately 15 morphological types of bipolar cells have been identified, which are thought to encode different aspects of visual signals such as motion and color (Ichinose et al. J Neurosci 34(26):8761-8771, 2014; Euler et al. Nat Rev Neurosci 15(8):507-519, 2014). To investigate functional aspects of OFF bipolar cells, single cell recordings are preferred; however, bipolar cells in the mouse retina are small and hard to distinguish from other types of cells...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Niels R Disbergen, Giancarlo Valente, Elia Formisano, Robert J Zatorre
Polyphonic music listening well exemplifies processes typically involved in daily auditory scene analysis situations, relying on an interactive interplay between bottom-up and top-down processes. Most studies investigating scene analysis have used elementary auditory scenes, however real-world scene analysis is far more complex. In particular, music, contrary to most other natural auditory scenes, can be perceived by either integrating or, under attentive control, segregating sound streams, often carried by different instruments...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Naoki Kobayashi, Shoko Kawasaki-Nishi, Masato Otsuka, Yu Hisano, Akihito Yamaguchi, Tsuyoshi Nishi
Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is an intercellular signaling molecule present in blood. Erythrocytes have a central role in maintaining the S1P concentration in the blood stream. We previously demonstrated that S1P is exported from erythrocytes by a glyburide-sensitive S1P transporter. However, the gene encoding the S1P transporter in erythrocytes is unknown. In this study, we found that the mouse erythroid cell line, MEDEP-E14, has S1P export activity and exhibits properties that are consistent with those of erythrocytes...
March 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
Lilian Vieira Oliveira, Thais Souza Maia, Karla Zancopé, Murilo de Souza Menezes, Carlos José Soares, Camilla Christian Gomes Moura
The presence of residues within the root canal after post-space preparation can influence the bond strength between resin cement and root dentin when using fiberglass posts (FGPs). Currently, there is no consensus in the literature regarding what is the best solution for the removal of debris after post-space preparation. This systematic review involved "in vitro" studies to investigate if cleaning methods of the root canal after post-space preparation can increase the retention of FGPs evaluated by the push-out test...
March 15, 2018: Brazilian Oral Research
Steffen Engelbrecht, Mohammad Mozooni, Kristina Rathsack, Jörg Böllmannm, Marion Martienssen
The Anammox process is an efficient low energy alternative for the elimination of nitrogen from wastewater. The process is already in use for side stream applications. However, some industrial wastewaters e.g. from textile industry are highly saline. This may be a limit for the application of the Anammox process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different NaCl concentrations to the efficiency of adapted and non-adapted Anammox biofilms. The tested NaCl concentrations ranged from 0 to 50 g NaCl*L-1 ...
March 21, 2018: Environmental Technology
Zheyuan Wang, S Abdollah Mirbozorgi, Maysam Ghovanloo
A rodent behavior analysis system is presented, capable of automated tracking, pose estimation, and recognition of nine behaviors in freely moving animals. The system tracks three key points on the rodent body (nose, center of body, and base of tail) to estimate its pose and head rotation angle in real time. A support vector machine (SVM)-based model, including label optimization steps, is trained to classify on a frame-by-frame basis: resting, walking, bending, grooming, sniffing, rearing supported, rearing unsupported, micro-movements, and "other" behaviors...
March 21, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Jolien Fleur Leijenaar, Geert Jan Groeneveld, Wiesje Maria van der Flier, Philip Scheltens, Erica Surya Klaassen, Henry Chanoch Weinstein, Geert Jan Biessels, Frederik Barkhof, Niels Daniël Prins
BACKGROUND: People with vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) constitute a clinically heterogeneous group, but previous symptomatic drug trials in VCI did not take this clinical heterogeneity into account. Executive dysfunction and memory impairment are the cognitive domains that are most frequently impaired in VCI, and these impairments are likely to reflect vascular damage to specific neurotransmitter systems, which opens the possibility for targeted symptomatic treatment directed at specific neurotransmitters...
March 20, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
Yukun Liu, Ran Zhao, Yanmei Wei, Mengna Li, Heran Wang, Weihong Niu, Yao Zhou, Yuanzheng Qiu, Songqing Fan, Yihao Zhan, Wei Xiong, Yanhong Zhou, Xiaoling Li, Zheng Li, Guiyuan Li, Ming Zhou
BACKGROUND: miR-141 is up-regulated and plays crucial roles in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). However, the molecular mechanism underlying the dysregulation of miR-141 is still obscure. METHODS: Thus, the ChIP-PCR was performed to identify the c-Myc-binding sites in miR-141 and BRD7. qRT-PCR, western blot and immunohistochemistry assays were used to detect the expression of miR-141 and its up/down stream molecules. The rescue experiments on the c-Myc/miR-141 axis were performed in vitro and in vivo...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
Xiaofei Zeng, Abhijeet P Borole, Spyros G Pavlostathis
Furanic and phenolic compounds are problematic compounds resulting from the pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass for biofuel production. Microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) is a promising technology to convert furanic and phenolic compounds to renewable H2 . The objective of the research presented here was to elucidate the processes and electron equivalents flow during the conversion of two furanic (furfural, FF; 5-hydroxymethyl furfural, HMF) and three phenolic (syringic acid, SA; vanillic acid, VA; 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, HBA) compounds in the MEC bioanode...
March 20, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Li-Ping Hou, Hongxing Chen, Chang-En Tian, Ye Liang, Rong-Rong Wu, Xing-Mei Zhang, Xu-Wen Fang, Cui-Ping Zhang, Jun-Jie Hu, Li-Ying Song, Yan-Qiu Liang, Daniel Schlenk, Lingtian Xie
Synthetic hormones in wastewater effluents released into the aquatic environments may interfere with the normal endocrine systems of fish in receiving streams. Norgestrel (NGT) is a synthetic progestin widely used in oral contraceptives and frequently detected in wastewater effluents. In this study, adult female mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) were exposed to three environmentally relevant concentrations of norgestrel (NGT) (i.e., 3.6, 35.8, and 368.0 ng L-1) for 42 d, fin morphology, histology of the ovary, and reproductive behaviors were evaluated...
March 13, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Khurram Ashfaq Qazi, Tabassam Nawaz, Zahid Mehmood, Muhammad Rashid, Hafiz Adnan Habib
Recent research on speech segregation and music fingerprinting has led to improvements in speech segregation and music identification algorithms. Speech and music segregation generally involves the identification of music followed by speech segregation. However, music segregation becomes a challenging task in the presence of noise. This paper proposes a novel method of speech segregation for unlabelled stationary noisy audio signals using the deep belief network (DBN) model. The proposed method successfully segregates a music signal from noisy audio streams...
2018: PloS One
Elena Okada, Débora Pérez, Eduardo De Gerónimo, Virginia Aparicio, Héctor Massone, José Luis Costa
We measured the occurrence and seasonal variations of glyphosate and its metabolite, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), in different environmental compartments within the limits of an agricultural basin. This topic is of high relevance since glyphosate is the most applied pesticide in agricultural systems worldwide. We were able to quantify the seasonal variations of glyphosate that result mainly from endo-drift inputs, that is, from direct spraying either onto genetically modified (GM) crops (i.e., soybean and maize) or onto weeds in no-till practices...
March 20, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Linda Wegley Kelly, Andreas F Haas, Craig E Nelson
Over the past 2 decades, molecular techniques have established the critical role of both free-living and host-associated microbial partnerships in the environment. Advancing research to link microbial community dynamics simultaneously to host physiology and ecosystem biogeochemistry is required to broaden our understanding of the ecological roles of environmental microbes. Studies on coral reefs are actively integrating these data streams at multiple levels, from the symbiotic habitat of the coral holobiont to microbially mediated interactions between corals and algae to the effects of these interactions on the microbial community structure, metabolism, and organic geochemistry of the reef ecosystem...
March 2018: MSystems
Rainer Kurmayer, Guntram Christiansen, Andreas Holzinger, Eugen Rott
In order to understand Chamaesiphon spp. evolution and ecological diversification, we investigated the phylogenetic differentiation of three morphospecies from field samples by means of single colony genetics. Individual colonies of three different morphospecies ( C. starmachii, C. polonicus, C. geitleri, ) were isolated from lotic gravel streams and their 16S rDNA nucleotide variability was analyzed. For a number of individual colonies, microscopical and ultrastructural analysis was also performed. A phylogenetic tree of all major lineages of the phylum of Cyanobacteria assigned all Chamaesiphon genotypes (1149-1176 bp) most closely with the family of Gomontiellaceae of the order Oscillatoriales...
April 2018: Hydrobiologia
Lengshi Dai, Virginia Best, Barbara G Shinn-Cunningham
Listeners with sensorineural hearing loss often have trouble understanding speech amid other voices. While poor spatial hearing is often implicated, direct evidence is weak; moreover, studies suggest that reduced audibility and degraded spectrotemporal coding may explain such problems. We hypothesized that poor spatial acuity leads to difficulty deploying selective attention, which normally filters out distracting sounds. In listeners with normal hearing, selective attention causes changes in the neural responses evoked by competing sounds, which can be used to quantify the effectiveness of attentional control...
March 19, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
V Moalic-Allain
Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is a common procedure potentially beneficial to many individuals with cancer, hematological, or inherited disorders, and has highlighted the need of related or unrelated donors to perform allograft. Donation of hematopoietic stem cells, either through bone marrow harvest or peripheral blood stem cell collection, is well-established and widespread. Over the past two decades, the peripheral blood stem cell collection by aphaeresis has become the main source of hematopoietic stem cells for transplantation, due to faster engraftment and practicability and lower risk of relapse for high-risk patients...
March 16, 2018: Transfusion Clinique et Biologique: Journal de la Société Française de Transfusion Sanguine
Saskia Knillmann, Polina Orlinskiy, Oliver Kaske, Kaarina Foit, Matthias Liess
The agricultural use of pesticides leads to environmentally relevant pesticide concentrations that cause adverse effects on stream ecosystems. These effects on invertebrate community composition can be identified by the bio-indicator SPEARpesticides . However, refuge areas have been found to partly confound the indicator. On the basis of three monitoring campaigns of 41 sites in Central Germany, we identified 11 refuge taxa. The refuge taxa, mainly characterized by dispersal-based resilience, were observed only nearby uncontaminated stream sections and independent of the level of pesticide pressure...
March 9, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Mingguo Zheng
Sediment rating curves have long been used as a tool for predicting sediment yield. In this study, the spatial and temporal variations of rating curves were examined in the loess area (~15,000km2 ) of the Wuding River basin of the Chinese Loess Plateau. Data of mean daily water discharge per unit area, Qd (m3 s-1 km2 ), and mean daily sediment discharge per unit area, SDd (kgs-1 km2 ), were compiled for three periods of 1959-1971, 1972-1989, and 2006-2013. Soil conservation measures were rarely implemented for the pre-1971 period but were intensively implemented for the latter periods...
March 3, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
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