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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106797/the-complex-relationship-between-virulence-and-antibiotic-resistance
#1
REVIEW
Meredith Schroeder, Benjamin D Brooks, Amanda E Brooks
Antibiotic resistance, prompted by the overuse of antimicrobial agents, may arise from a variety of mechanisms, particularly horizontal gene transfer of virulence and antibiotic resistance genes, which is often facilitated by biofilm formation. The importance of phenotypic changes seen in a biofilm, which lead to genotypic alterations, cannot be overstated. Irrespective of if the biofilm is single microbe or polymicrobial, bacteria, protected within a biofilm from the external environment, communicate through signal transduction pathways (e...
January 18, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106651/evaluating-the-impact-of-intraoperative-surgical-team-handoffs-on-patient-outcomes
#2
Lauren E Giugale, Sarah Sears, Erin S Lavelle, Charelle M Carter-Brooks, Michael Bonidie, Jonathan P Shepherd
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to assess the impact of intraoperative personnel handoffs on clinical outcomes in patients undergoing minimally invasive sacrocolpopexy (SCP). METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed SCPs performed at an academic center between 2009 and 2014. We analyzed the number of staff handoffs, defined as any instance a scrub technician (tech) or circulating nurse handed off responsibility for a break or shift change. Outcomes included operative (OR) time and composite variables for major complications (conversion to an open procedure, bladder injury, bowel injury, blood transfusion, infection, ileus, bowel obstruction, readmission, or mesh complication) and prolapse recurrence (prolapse at or beyond the hymen or retreatment)...
January 18, 2017: Female Pelvic Medicine & Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106607/individualized-venous-thromboembolism-risk-stratification-using-the-2005-caprini-score-to-identify-the-benefits-and-harms-of-chemoprophylaxis-in-surgical-patients-a-meta-analysis
#3
Christopher J Pannucci, Lukasz Swistun, John K MacDonald, Peter K Henke, Benjamin S Brooke
OBJECTIVE: We performed a meta-analysis to investigate benefits and harms of chemoprophylaxis among surgical patients individually risk stratified for venous thromboembolism (VTE) using Caprini scores. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Individualized VTE risk stratification may identify high risk surgical patients who benefit from peri-operative chemoprophylaxis. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library (CENTRAL) databases were queried...
January 19, 2017: Annals of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105680/are-hybrids-between-atlantic-salmon-and-brown-trout-suitable-long-term-hosts-of-gyrodactylus-salaris-during-winter
#4
R Knudsen, E H Henriksen, K Ø Gjelland, H Hansen, D K Hendrichsen, R Kristoffersen, K Olstad
The monogenean parasite Gyrodactylus salaris poses serious threats to many Atlantic salmon populations and presents many conservation and management questions/foci and challenges. It is therefore critical to identify potential vectors for infection. To test whether hybrids of native Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) × brown trout (Salmo trutta) are suitable as reservoir hosts for G. salaris during winter, infected hybrid parr were released into a natural subarctic brook in the autumn. Six months later, 23.9% of the pit-tagged fish were recaptured...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Fish Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105548/brief-report-the-preliminary-psychometric-properties-of-the-social-communication-checklist
#5
Allison L Wainer, Natalie I Berger, Brooke R Ingersoll
Despite the expansion of early intervention approaches for young children with ASD, investigators have struggled to identify measures capable of assessing social communication change in response to these interventions. Addressing recent calls for efficient, sensitive, and reliable social communication measures, the current paper outlines the refinement and validation of the Social Communication Checklist (SCC). We discuss two small studies exploring the psychometric properties of the SCC and the SCC-R (revised Social Communication Checklist), including sensitivity to change, inter-rater reliability, and test-retest reliability, in two samples of children with ASD and one sample of typically-developing children...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104660/draft-genome-sequence-of-the-methane-oxidizing-bacterium-candidatus-methylomonas-sp-lwb-isolated-from-movile-cave
#6
Jason Stephenson, Deepak Kumaresan, Alexandra M Hillebrand-Voiculescu, Elliot Brooks, Andrew S Whiteley, J Colin Murrell
We describe the draft genome sequence of "Candidatus Methylomonas sp. LWB" isolated from Movile Cave microbial mat samples. The genome contains both the soluble and particular methane monooxygenase; however, one of the putative particulate methane monooxygenase gene clusters is ordered pmoABC rather than in the canonical gene arrangement of pmoCAB.
January 19, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103940/methodological-choices-affect-cancer-incidence-rates-a-cohort-study
#7
Hannah L Brooke, Mats Talbäck, Maria Feychting, Rickard Ljung
BACKGROUND: Incidence rates are fundamental to epidemiology, but their magnitude and interpretation depend on methodological choices. We aimed to examine the extent to which the definition of the study population affects cancer incidence rates. METHODS: All primary cancer diagnoses in Sweden between 1958 and 2010 were identified from the national Cancer Register. Age-standardized and age-specific incidence rates of 29 cancer subtypes between 2000 and 2010 were calculated using four definitions of the study population: persons resident in Sweden 1) based on general population statistics; 2) with no previous subtype-specific cancer diagnosis; 3) with no previous cancer diagnosis except non-melanoma skin cancer; and 4) with no previous cancer diagnosis of any type...
January 19, 2017: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103705/exploring-the-impact-of-dementia-friendly-ward-environments-on-the-provision-of-care-a-qualitative-thematic-analysis
#8
Joanne Brooke, Joanna Semlyen
Dementia-friendly wards are recent developments to improve care for patients with dementia in acute hospitals. This qualitative study used focus groups to understand the impact of dementia friendly ward environments on nurses experiences of caring for acutely unwell patients with dementia. Qualified nurses and health care assistants working in an acute NHS Trust in England discussed their perceptions and experiences of working in a dementia-friendly ward environment. Four themes developed from the thematic analysis: (1) 'It doesn't look like a hospital': A changed environment, (2) 'More options to provide person-centred care': No one size fits all, (3) 'Before you could not see the patients': A constant nurse presence and (4) 'The ward remains the same': Resistance to change...
January 1, 2017: Dementia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103288/child-staff-ratios-in-early-childhood-education-and-care-settings-and-child-outcomes-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#9
Michal Perlman, Brooke Fletcher, Olesya Falenchuk, Ashley Brunsek, Evelyn McMullen, Prakesh S Shah
Child-staff ratios are a key quality indicator in early childhood education and care (ECEC) programs. Better ratios are believed to improve child outcomes by increasing opportunities for individual interactions and educational instruction from staff. The purpose of this systematic review, and where possible, meta-analysis, was to evaluate the association between child-staff ratios in preschool ECEC programs and children's outcomes. Searches of Medline, PsycINFO, ERIC, websites of large datasets and reference sections of all retrieved articles were conducted up to July 3, 2015...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102412/organobase-catalyzed-1-2-brook-rearrangement-of-silyl-glyoxylates
#10
Man-Yi Han, Fei-Yan Yang, Di Zhou, Zhigang Xu
A highly efficient [1,2]-Brook rearrangement of silyl glyoxylates has been developed using DBU as the organobase-catalyst. This [1,2]-Brook rearrangement is applicable to a number of thiols and secondary phosphine oxides containing acidic protons. These nucleophiles afford the corresponding Brook products in high yields. Using this methodology, a formal synthesis of anti-HIV drug compound lamivudine was realized.
January 19, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101924/effects-of-differential-rates-of-alternative-reinforcement-on-resurgence-of-human-behavior
#11
Brooke M Smith, Gregory S Smith, Timothy A Shahan, Gregory J Madden, Michael P Twohig
Despite the success of exposure-based psychotherapies in anxiety treatment, relapse remains problematic. Resurgence, the return of previously eliminated behavior following the elimination of an alternative source of reinforcement, is a promising model of operant relapse. Nonhuman resurgence research has shown that higher rates of alternative reinforcement result in faster, more comprehensive suppression of target behavior, but also in greater resurgence when alternative reinforcement is eliminated. This study investigated rich and lean rates of alternative reinforcement on response suppression and resurgence in typically developing humans...
January 2017: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101609/patient-preparation-for-transitions-of-surgical-care-is-failing-to-prepare-surgical-patients-preparing-them-to-fail
#12
Luke A Martin, Samuel R G Finlayson, Benjamin S Brooke
BACKGROUND: Transitions of care before and after surgery are critical for patient preparation. We sought to determine whether the degree of exposure to health information resources before and after surgery increases preparedness and decreases hospital readmission. METHODS: A national Web-based, cross-sectional survey was conducted of 1917 patients and caregivers who had a recent surgical encounter. Health information resources used before and after surgery were correlated with patient level of preparedness...
January 18, 2017: World Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100830/neural-bases-of-recommendations-differ-according-to-social-network-structure
#13
Matthew Brook O'Donnell, Joseph B Bayer, Christopher N Cascio, Emily B Falk
Ideas spread across social networks, but not everyone is equally positioned to be a successful recommender. Do individuals with more opportunities to connect otherwise unconnected others-high information brokers-use their brains differently than low information brokers when making recommendations? We test the hypothesis that those with more opportunities for information brokerage may use brain systems implicated in considering the thoughts, perspectives, and mental states of others (i.e. 'mentalizing') more when spreading ideas...
January 18, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100726/decreased-intestinal-acetylcholinesterase-in-early-parkinson-disease-an-11c-donepezil-pet-study
#14
Tatyana D Fedorova, Louise B Seidelin, Karoline Knudsen, Anna C Schacht, Jacob Geday, Nicola Pavese, David J Brooks, Per Borghammer
OBJECTIVE: To investigate systemic levels of acetylcholinesterase in early Parkinson disease (PD) with (11)C-donepezil PET, a potential marker of parasympathetic innervation. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study with 19 patients with early-stage PD (disease duration 1.5 ± 0.6 years) and 16 age-matched controls who had clinical assessments, olfaction tests, and (11)C-donepezil PET to measure acetylcholinesterase density in peripheral organs. RESULTS: The patients with PD showed significantly reduced (11)C-donepezil uptake in the small intestine (-14%, p = 0...
January 18, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100474/regional-diaphragm-volume-displacement-is-heterogeneous-in-dog
#15
Brooke Greybeck, Raymond Lu, Arvind Ramanujam, Mary Adeyeye, Matthew Wettergreen, Shari Wynd, Aladin M Boriek
Muscle shortening and volume displacement are critical determinants of the pressure generating capacity of the diaphragm. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that diaphragm volume displacement is heterogeneous and distribution of volume displacement is dependent on regional muscle shortening, posture and level of muscle activation. Radio opaque markers were sutured along muscle bundles of the peritoneal surface of the crural muscle, dorsal costal, mid-costal, and ventral costal regions of the left hemi-diaphragm in four dogs...
January 18, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099554/no-correlation-was-observed-between-vitamin-d-levels-and-disability-of-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis-between-latitudes-18%C3%A2-and-30%C3%A2-south
#16
Yara Dadalti Fragoso, Tarso Adoni, Soniza Vieira Alves-Leon, Samira L Apostolos-Pereira, Walter Oleschko Arruda, Joseph B Bidin Brooks, Henrique S Rodrigues Cal, Carlos A Albuquerque Damasceno, Paulo Diniz Gama, Marcus V Magno Goncalves, Carlos A da Silva de Jesus, Suzana C Nunes Machado, Letícia Fezer Mansur, Andre P da Cunha Matta, Maria Fernanda Mendes, Rogerio Rizo Morales, Adaucto Wanderley da Nobrega-Jr, Monica K Fiuza Parolin, Mario Pietro Peres, Marlise de Castro Ribeiro, Heloisa Helena Ruocco, Simone Scherpenhuijzen, Fabio Siquinelli, Patrick N Stoney, Daniel Lima Varela, Audred Cristina Biondo Eboni, Caroline Vieira Spessotto, Elisa Teixeira da Rocha, Pamela Emanuele Lacerda
Objective: Vitamin D has taken center stage in research and treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS). The objective of the present study was to assess the serum vitamin D levels of a large population of patients with MS and controls living in a restricted tropical area. Methods: Data from 535 patients with MS and 350 control subjects were obtained from 14 cities around the Tropic of Capricorn. Results: The mean serum 25-OH vitamin D level was 26...
January 2017: Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099414/neurotoxic-reactive-astrocytes-are-induced-by-activated-microglia
#17
Shane A Liddelow, Kevin A Guttenplan, Laura E Clarke, Frederick C Bennett, Christopher J Bohlen, Lucas Schirmer, Mariko L Bennett, Alexandra E Münch, Won-Suk Chung, Todd C Peterson, Daniel K Wilton, Arnaud Frouin, Brooke A Napier, Nikhil Panicker, Manoj Kumar, Marion S Buckwalter, David H Rowitch, Valina L Dawson, Ted M Dawson, Beth Stevens, Ben A Barres
Reactive astrocytes are strongly induced by central nervous system (CNS) injury and disease, but their role is poorly understood. Here we show that a subtype of reactive astrocytes, which we termed A1, is induced by classically activated neuroinflammatory microglia. We show that activated microglia induce A1 astrocytes by secreting Il-1α, TNF and C1q, and that these cytokines together are necessary and sufficient to induce A1 astrocytes. A1 astrocytes lose the ability to promote neuronal survival, outgrowth, synaptogenesis and phagocytosis, and induce the death of neurons and oligodendrocytes...
January 18, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098597/sporadic-trichoblastomas-and-those-occurring-in-the-setting-of-multiple-familial-trichoepithelioma-brooke-spiegler-syndrome-show-no-bap1-loss
#18
Liubov Kyrpychova, Denisa Kacerovska, Michal Michal, Dmitry V Kazakov
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 12, 2017: American Journal of Dermatopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098158/pericytes-from-mesenchymal-stem-cells-as-a-model-for-the-blood-brain-barrier
#19
Xiaohe Tian, Oliver Brookes, Giuseppe Battaglia
Blood brain-barrier (BBB) in vitro models have been widely reported in studies of the BBB phenotype. However, established co-culture systems involve brain endothelial cells, astrocytes, neurons and pericytes, and therefore are often consuming and technically challenging. Here we use mesenchymal system cells (MSC) as a potential substitute for pericytes in a BBB model. Both MSC and pericyte markers in 2D culture environment were evaluated on different extracellular matrix compositions. Further experiments indicated that MSC contributed in a similar manner to pericytes in a co-cultured 3D model on increasing trans-endothelial electric resistance (TEER) and decreasing permeability against macromolecules...
January 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098051/chronic-fatigue-syndrome-cognitive-behavioural-and-emotional-processing-vulnerability-factors
#20
Samantha K Brooks, Trudie Chalder, Katharine A Rimes
BACKGROUND: Cognitive-behavioural models of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) suggest that personality factors such as perfectionism and high moral standards may contribute to the development of CFS. AIMS: To investigate cognitive, behavioural and emotional processing risk factors for CFS. METHOD: CFS patients (n = 67) at a UK specialist clinic completed questionnaires about psychological characteristics both currently and retrospectively (6 months pre-CFS onset)...
January 18, 2017: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
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