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Temporal bone fracture

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523266/stimulating-fracture-healing-in-ischemic-environments-does-oxygen-direct-stem-cell-fate-during-fracture-healing
#1
REVIEW
Katherine R Miclau, Sloane A Brazina, Chelsea S Bahney, Kurt D Hankenson, Thomas K Hunt, Ralph S Marcucio, Theodore Miclau
Bone fractures represent an enormous societal and economic burden as one of the most prevalent causes of disability worldwide. Each year, nearly 15 million people are affected by fractures in the United States alone. Data indicate that the blood supply is critical for fracture healing; as data indicate that concomitant bone and vascular injury are major risk factors for non-union. However, the various role(s) that the vasculature plays remains speculative. Fracture stabilization dictates stem cell fate choices during repair...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472361/energy-metabolism-of-the-osteoblast-implications-for-osteoporosis
#2
Wen-Chih Lee, Anyonya R Guntur, Fanxin Long, Clifford J Rosen
Osteoblasts, the bone forming cells of the remodeling unit, are essential for growth and maintenance of the skeleton. Clinical disorders of substrate availability (e.g. diabetes mellitus, anorexia nervosa and aging) cause osteoblast dysfunction ultimately leading to skeletal fragility and osteoporotic fractures. Conversely, anabolic treatments for osteoporosis enhance the work of the osteoblast by altering osteoblast metabolism. Emerging evidence supports glycolysis as the major metabolic pathway to meet ATP demand during osteoblast differentiation...
May 1, 2017: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448419/venous-sinus-thrombosis-in-blunt-trauma-incidence-and-risk-factors
#3
Shira E Slasky, Yayone Rivaud, Matthew Suberlak, Oluwole Tairu, Adam D Fox, Pamela Ohman-Strickland, Esther Bilinisky
PURPOSE: The aim of our study was to determine the incidence and risk factors of dural venous sinus thrombosis and epidural hemorrhage in the setting of a blunt trauma causing a calvarial fracture crossing a dural venous sinus. METHODS: A retrospective review of 472 blunt trauma patients with calvarial fracture crossing a dural venous sinus was performed. Two hundred ten patients who underwent computed tomography venography were identified and evaluated for the presence of dural venous sinus thrombosis and/or epidural hemorrhage...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447646/a-130-000-year-old-archaeological-site-in-southern-california-usa
#4
Steven R Holen, Thomas A Deméré, Daniel C Fisher, Richard Fullagar, James B Paces, George T Jefferson, Jared M Beeton, Richard A Cerutti, Adam N Rountrey, Lawrence Vescera, Kathleen A Holen
The earliest dispersal of humans into North America is a contentious subject, and proposed early sites are required to meet the following criteria for acceptance: (1) archaeological evidence is found in a clearly defined and undisturbed geologic context; (2) age is determined by reliable radiometric dating; (3) multiple lines of evidence from interdisciplinary studies provide consistent results; and (4) unquestionable artefacts are found in primary context. Here we describe the Cerutti Mastodon (CM) site, an archaeological site from the early late Pleistocene epoch, where in situ hammerstones and stone anvils occur in spatio-temporal association with fragmentary remains of a single mastodon (Mammut americanum)...
April 26, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414141/temporal-role-of-macrophages-in-cancellous-bone-healing
#5
Olof Helge Sandberg, Love Tätting, Magnus Erik Bernhardsson, Per Aspenberg
Macrophages are important phagocytosing and cytokine producing cells with effects on fracture healing. We used clodronate-containing liposomes to reduce the number of macrophages, in order to study their role in the early phases of cancellous bone healing. Holes were drilled bilaterally into the cancellous bone of the proximal metaphysis of the tibia of 60 mice. A screw was inserted in the hole in the right tibia. The day of surgery was day 0. Clodronate-containing liposomes were injected intraperitoneally as a single injection either day -4 or -1 (before surgery) or day 1 or 3 (after surgery)...
April 14, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394900/acute-development-of-cortical-porosity-and-endosteal-na%C3%A3-ve-bone-formation-from-the-daily-but-not-weekly-short-term-administration-of-pth-in-rabbit
#6
Hiroshi Yamane, Aya Takakura, Yukari Shimadzu, Toshiyuki Kodama, Ji-Won Lee, Yukihiro Isogai, Toshinori Ishizuya, Ryoko Takao-Kawabata, Tadahiro Iimura
Teriparatide [human parathyroid hormone (1-34)], which exerts an anabolic effect on bone, is used for the treatment of osteoporosis in patients who are at a high risk for fracture. That the once-daily administration of teriparatide causes an increase in cortical porosity in animal models and clinical studies has been a matter of concern. However, it is not well documented that the frequency of administration and/or the total dose of teriparatide affect the cortical porosity. The present study developed 4 teriparatide regimens [20 μg/kg/day (D20), 40 μg/kg/day (D40), 140 μg/kg/week (W140) and 280 μg/kg/week (W280)] in the rabbit as a model animal with a well-developed Haversian system and osteons...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382185/isolated-fracture-of-lateral-pterygoid-plate-by-penetrating-foreign-body-a-rarity-indeed
#7
Mukesh Surya, Pawan Soni, Ramesh Bharti, Ira Jamwal
BACKGROUND: Fractures of mid-face were first described by Le Fort and are classified into three categories - Le Fort I, Le Fort II and Le Fort III. The pterygoid processes of the sphenoid bone are fractured in all the three categories of Le Fort fractures as the sphenoid bone connects the cranium vault to the facial bones. Fractures of the pterygoid processes without associated Le Fort fractures are rare and are usually associated with fractures of the mandible, temporal bone or other facial bones...
2017: Polish Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374140/revisiting-the-indirect-signs-of-a-temporal-bone-fracture-air-air-everywhere
#8
Adam C Ulano, Srinivasan Vedantham, Deepak Takhtani
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The standard head CT protocol makes detection of a temporal bone fracture difficult. The purposes of our study are to revisit the finding of air in various locations around the temporal bone as an indirect sign of fracture and determine if findings could predict fracture pattern. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We searched the radiology reports for the keyword "temporal bone fracture." We recorded the presence of air in multiple locations around the temporal bone and pneumocephalus, opacification of the mastoid air cells or the middle ear cavity, and dominant fracture pattern...
April 3, 2017: Emergency Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349533/subtotal-petrosectomy-surgical-technique-indications-outcomes-and-comprehensive-review-of-literature
#9
Sampath Chandra Prasad, Valeria Roustan, Gianluca Piras, Antonio Caruso, Lorenzo Lauda, Mario Sanna
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: To describe the technique of subtotal petrosectomy (STP), to analyze the outcomes, and to review the literature STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective review. METHODS: Four hundred sixty cases of STP performed for various indications were included in the study, which was conducted at a quaternary referral center for otology and skull base surgery. Surgical and audiological parameters, and complications were evaluated. Our results were compared with the existing literature on the subject...
March 27, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320600/tympanometry-and-isolated-fracture-of-the-stapes
#10
C Aussedat, C Bobiller, K Gaillot, E Lescanne, D Bakhos
INTRODUCTION: Temporal bone fractures are frequently associated with ossicular dislocations or fractures, most commonly involving the incus. To our knowledge, isolated fracture of the posterior crus of the stapes has not been previously reported. CASE REPORT: A 20-year-old man consulted for persistent left hypoacusis several months after a head injury. Initial computed tomography of the temporal bone showed a simple temporal bone fracture with no other associated abnormalities...
March 17, 2017: European Annals of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314420/sport-injuries-of-the-ear-and-temporal-bone
#11
REVIEW
L Mariel Osetinsky, Grant S Hamilton, Matthew L Carlson
In cases of head trauma, the ear should be evaluated in all of its components. A good understanding of otologic and skull base anatomy enables a thorough trauma assessment of this complex anatomic region. Auricular laceration, abrasion, avulsion, hematoma, frostbite, otitis externa, exostosis, tympanic membrane perforation, ossicular discontinuity, perilymphatic fistula, labyrinthine concussion, temporal bone fracture, facial nerve paresis, and sensorineural hearing loss are a few of the more common otologic injuries seen in active patients...
April 2017: Clinics in Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298577/trauma-imaging-a-literature-review
#12
Jason Heath Vela, Christopher Ira Wertz, Kimberly L Onstott, Joss R Wertz
PURPOSE: To inform radiologic technologists about which imaging modalities and examinations are best suited for evaluating specific anatomical structures in patients who have sustained a traumatic injury. METHODS: Two scholarly research databases were searched to identify articles focused on trauma imaging of the head, cervical spine, thorax, abdomen, and pelvis. Articles focused on trauma diagnosis were excluded. Thirty-two articles were selected for analysis. DISCUSSION: Physical examination and plain-film radiographs typically are used to assess nasal bone fracures...
January 2017: Radiologic Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216124/the-pattern-and-degree-of-capsular-fibrous-sheaths-surrounding-cochlear-electrode-arrays
#13
Reuven Ishai, Barbara S Herrmann, Joseph B Nadol, Alicia M Quesnel
An inflammatory tissue reaction around the electrode array of a cochlear implant (CI) is common, in particular at the electrode insertion region (cochleostomy) where mechanical trauma often occurs. However, the factors determining the amount and causes of fibrous reaction surrounding the stimulating electrode, especially medially near the perimodiolar location, are unclear. Temporal bone (TB) specimens from patients who had undergone cochlear implantation during life with either Advanced Bionics (AB) Clarion ™ or HiRes90K™ (Sylmar, CA, USA) devices that have a half-band and a pre-curved electrode, or Cochlear ™ Nucleus (Sydney, Australia) device that have a full-band and a straight electrode were evaluated...
May 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215222/nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-as-a-therapeutic-target-in-inflammatory-associated-bone-diseases
#14
T-H Lin, J Pajarinen, L Lu, A Nabeshima, L A Cordova, Z Yao, S B Goodman
Inflammation is a defensive mechanism for pathogen clearance and maintaining tissue homeostasis. In the skeletal system, inflammation is closely associated with many bone disorders including fractures, nonunions, periprosthetic osteolysis (bone loss around orthopedic implants), and osteoporosis. Acute inflammation is a critical step for proper bone-healing and bone-remodeling processes. On the other hand, chronic inflammation with excessive proinflammatory cytokines disrupts the balance of skeletal homeostasis involving osteoblastic (bone formation) and osteoclastic (bone resorption) activities...
2017: Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124635/clinical-features-and-radiological-evaluation-of-otic-capsule-sparing-temporal-bone-fractures
#15
S W Song, B C Jun, H Kim
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical and radiological aspects of otic capsule sparing temporal bone fractures. METHODS: Using medical records, 188 temporal bones of 173 patients with otic capsule sparing temporal bone fractures were evaluated. Otoscopic findings and symptoms, facial paralysis, and hearing loss were assessed. RESULTS: Using regional analysis, 7 fractures were classified as type I, 85 as type II, 169 as type III and 114 as type IV...
March 2017: Journal of Laryngology and Otology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120741/impact-of-age-on-human-adipose-stem-cells-for-bone-tissue-engineering
#16
Denis Dufrane
Bone non-union is a pathological condition in which all bone healing processes have stopped, resulting in abnormal mobility between two bone segments. The incidence of bone-related injuries will increase in an aging population, leading to such injuries reaching epidemic proportions. Tissue engineering and cell therapy using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have raised the possibility of implanting living tissue for bone reconstruction. Bone marrow was first proposed as the source of stem cells for bone regeneration...
January 24, 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114180/is-serial-electroneuronography-indicated-following-temporal-bone-trauma
#17
Aaron Kyle Remenschneider, Suzanne Michalak, Elliott D Kozin, Samuel Barber, Ronald K De Venecia, Tessa A Hadlock, David H Jung
OBJECTIVE: Contemporary guidelines advise facial nerve (FN) decompression within 2 weeks of temporal bone trauma if a single electroneuronography (ENoG) demonstrates more than 90% degeneration of the FN. We report a case series demonstrating the potential of serial ENoG to guide FN management more than 2 weeks following injury. PATIENTS: Adults with traumatic temporal bone fractures and resultant ipsilateral FN paresis. INTERVENTION: Serial ENoG followed by observation or decompression of the FN...
April 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099983/-the-relevance-of-abducent-nerve-palsy-in-ent
#18
Veit Maria Hofmann, Stephan M Niehues, Annett Pudszuhn
Patients suffering from abducent nerve palsy are usually primary seen by a conservative medical Specialist. In most cases the ENT specialist is secondary involved for treatment. In the majority of cases abducent nerve palsy is a temporary symptom associated with neurologic or vascular diseases. Rarely inflammation, neoplasm or fracture of the skull base cause this symptom and lead to an intervention done by the ENT surgeon. This case series describes retrospectively the abducent palsy seen through the eyes of an ENT surgeon...
May 2017: Laryngo- Rhino- Otologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067182/successful-conservative-treatment-of-an-intracranial-pneumatocele-with-post-traumatic-hypoglossal-nerve-palsy-secondary-to-diffuse-temporal-bone-pneumocele-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#19
REVIEW
M A Taube, G M Potter, S K Lloyd, S R Freeman
BACKGROUND: A pneumocele occurs when an aerated cranial cavity pathologically expands; a pneumatocele occurs when air extends from an aerated cavity into adjacent soft tissues forming a secondary cavity. Both pathologies are extremely rare with relation to the mastoid. This paper describes a case of a mastoid pneumocele that caused hypoglossal nerve palsy and an intracranial pneumatocele. CASE REPORT: A 46-year-old man presented, following minor head trauma, with hypoglossal nerve palsy secondary to a fracture through the hypoglossal canal...
February 2017: Journal of Laryngology and Otology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042220/internal-carotid-artery-fibromuscular-dysplasia-in-a-child-incidental-postmortem-finding-after-head-injury
#20
Arulselvi Subramanian, Garima Aggarwal, Deepak Agarwal, Sanjeev Lalwani
Fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) is a rare, segmental, nonatheromatous, and noninflammatory arterial disease of unknown etiology. It predominantly involves renal artery (60-75%) followed by extracranial part of the internal carotid artery and vertebral arteries (25-30%). The disease typically affects middle-aged women and involves intermediate-sized arteries throughout the body. There are rare case reports of extracranial FMD compounding a trauma case. A patient was brought to trauma center emergency with a history of fall from height...
January 2017: Journal of Laboratory Physicians
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