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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089421/microbiology-and-treatment-of-brain-abscess
#1
REVIEW
Itzhak Brook
Brain abscess is a focal pyogenic infection of the brain's parenchyma. The most frequent intracranial locations (in descending order of frequency) are: frontal-temporal, frontal-parietal, partial, cerebellar, and occipital lobes. The major predisposing factors are: an associated contiguous focus of infection, trauma, and hematogenous spread from a distant focus. The microbial etiology depends on the site of the primary infection; the patient's age, underlying condition, and immune status; and the geographic location...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074638/clinical-management-of-candida-albicans-keratomycosis-in-a-bottlenose-dolphin-tursiops-truncatus
#2
Claire A Simeone, John P Traversi, Jenny M Meegan, Carolina LeBert, Carmen M H Colitz, Eric D Jensen
OBJECTIVE: Corneal ulceration secondary to trauma commonly affects marine mammals, often with opportunistic secondary bacterial or fungal infections. This report characterizes the combined use of auriculopalpebral and ophthalmic nerve blocks, adipose-derived stem cells, and subconjunctival injections for successful treatment of corneal trauma and infection in dolphins. ANIMAL STUDIED: An 11-year-old, female bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) presented with bilateral diffuse corneal opacities, which progressed to keratomycosis caused by Candida albicans...
January 11, 2017: Veterinary Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072467/a-cross-lagged-panel-study-of-dissociation-and-posttraumatic-stress-in-a-treatment-seeking-sample-of-survivors-of-childhood-sexual-abuse
#3
Siobhan Murphy, Ask Elklit, Jamie Murphy, Philip Hyland, Mark Shevlin
OBJECTIVE: The current prospective study assessed the temporal relations between dissociation and posttraumatic stress (PTS) in a sample of treatment-seeking female survivors of childhood sexual abuse. PTS refers to symptoms associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the absence of a clinical diagnosis of PTSD. METHOD: Initial assessment was on average 23 years after the onset of abuse (N = 405), and participants were followed-up after 6 months (N = 245) and 12 months (N = 119)...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070973/dissociation-between-amygdala-and-bed-nucleus-of-the-stria-terminalis-during-threat-anticipation-in-female-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-patients
#4
Leonie Brinkmann, Christine Buff, Paula Neumeister, Sara V Tupak, Michael P I Becker, Martin J Herrmann, Thomas Straube
Feelings of uncontrollability and anxiety regarding possibly harmful events are key features of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology. Due to a lack of studies, the neural correlates of anticipatory anxiety in PTSD are still poorly understood. During functional magnetic resonance imaging, female PTSD patients with interpersonal violence trauma and healthy controls (HC) anticipated the temporally unpredictable presentation of aversive (human scream) or neutral sounds. Based on separate analysis models, we investigated phasic and sustained brain activations...
January 10, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067182/successful-conservative-treatment-of-an-intracranial-pneumatocele-with-post-traumatic-hypoglossal-nerve-palsy-secondary-to-diffuse-temporal-bone-pneumocele-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#5
M A Taube, G M Potter, S K Lloyd, S R Freeman
BACKGROUND: A pneumocele occurs when an aerated cranial cavity pathologically expands; a pneumatocele occurs when air extends from an aerated cavity into adjacent soft tissues forming a secondary cavity. Both pathologies are extremely rare with relation to the mastoid. This paper describes a case of a mastoid pneumocele that caused hypoglossal nerve palsy and an intracranial pneumatocele. CASE REPORT: A 46-year-old man presented, following minor head trauma, with hypoglossal nerve palsy secondary to a fracture through the hypoglossal canal...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Laryngology and Otology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056123/the-interface-of-mechanics-and-nociception-in-joint-pathophysiology-insights-from-the-facet-temporomandibular-joints
#6
Megan M Sperry, Meagan E Ita, Sonia Kartha, Sijia Zhang, Ya-Hsin Yu, Beth Winkelstein
Chronic joint pain is a widespread problem that frequently occurs with aging and trauma. Pain occurs most often in synovial joints, the body's load bearing joints. The mechanical and molecular mechanisms contributing to synovial joint pain are reviewed using two examples, the cervical spinal facet joints and temporomandibular joint. Although much work has focused on the macroscale mechanics of joints in health and disease, the combined influence of tissue mechanics, molecular processes, and nociception in joint pain has only recently become a focus...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045786/three-dimensional-force-profile-during-cochlear-implantation-depends-on-individual-geometry-and-insertion-trauma
#7
Ersin Avci, Tim Nauwelaers, Volkmar Hamacher, Andrej Kral
OBJECTIVES: To preserve the acoustic hearing, cochlear implantation has to be as atraumatic as possible. Therefore, understanding the impact of the cochlear geometry on insertion forces and intracochlear trauma might help to adapt and improve the electrode insertion and reduce the probability of intracochlear trauma. DESIGN: The study was conducted on 10 fresh-frozen human temporal bones. The inner ear was removed from the temporal bone. The bony capsule covering the scala vestibuli was removed and the dissected inner ear was mounted on the three-dimensional (3D) force measurement system (Agilent technologies, Nano UTM, Santa Clare, CA)...
December 27, 2016: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042220/internal-carotid-artery-fibromuscular-dysplasia-in-a-child-incidental-postmortem-finding-after-head-injury
#8
Arulselvi Subramanian, Garima Aggarwal, Deepak Agarwal, Sanjeev Lalwani
Fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) is a rare, segmental, nonatheromatous, and noninflammatory arterial disease of unknown etiology. It predominantly involves renal artery (60-75%) followed by extracranial part of the internal carotid artery and vertebral arteries (25-30%). The disease typically affects middle-aged women and involves intermediate-sized arteries throughout the body. There are rare case reports of extracranial FMD compounding a trauma case. A patient was brought to trauma center emergency with a history of fall from height...
January 2017: Journal of Laboratory Physicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039763/spatial-and-temporal-arrangement-of-neuronal-intrinsic-and-extrinsic-mechanisms-controlling-axon-regeneration
#9
REVIEW
Andrea Tedeschi, Frank Bradke
Axon regeneration and neuronal tissue repair varies across animal lineages as well as in the mammalian central and peripheral nervous systems. While the peripheral nervous system retains the ability to self-repair, the majority of axons in the adult mammalian central nervous system (CNS) fail to reactivate intrinsic growth programs after injury. Recent findings, however, suggest that long-distance axon regeneration, neuronal circuit assembly and recovery of functions in the adult mammalian CNS are possible...
December 28, 2016: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039596/optic-neuritis-secondary-to-antiandrogen-therapy
#10
REVIEW
Á Ní Mhéalóid, G Cunniffe
BACKGROUND: Optic neuropathy is a disorder characterised by dysfunction or destruction of the optic nerve tissues. Acquired causes include interruption in the blood supply, nutritional deficiency, compression by a tumour or aneurysm, trauma, and toxic types (Ambizas and Patel In US Pharm 36(4):HS2-HS6, 1). Drug-induced optic neuropathy is of the toxic type and can be defined as a clinical syndrome characterised by papillomacular bundle damage, central, or cecocentral scotoma, and reduced colour vision (Ambizas and Patel In US Pharm 36(4):HS2-HS6, 2011; Sharma and Sharma In Indian J Ophthalmol 59(2):137-141, 2)...
December 30, 2016: Irish Journal of Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28010723/evaluation-of-the-microgrinding-procedure-for-the-microscopic-analysis-of-temporal-bones
#11
J C Cisneros, R de Brito, G S de Martins, N Candido, R Ferraz, R Bento
INTRODUCTION: The microgrinding technique is used to study cochlear implant electrode positioning and cochlear trauma. It may be argued that this technique might cause damage to inner cochlear structures even without a cochlear implant insertion and thus it should not be recommended. Most papers do not explain how microgrinding is performed, referring to older papers for its description. Properly describing the technique and re-evaluating its safety may reassure researchers of their findings when studying trauma after cochlear implant insertion...
December 23, 2016: Cochlear Implants International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005808/spontaneous-epidural-pneumocephalus
#12
Serap Yucel, Hediye Pinar Gunbey, Gökhan Kutlar, Mustafa Ozdemir, Kerim Aslan, Lutfi Incesu
Spontaneous epidural pneumocephalus is a rare condition. The authors reported a 35-year-old male patient with tinnutus, dull headache, and swelling on his head. Patient had a history of head trauma and skull fracture from when he was 5 years old. Cranial computed tomography revealed increase in pneumatization of right mastoid air cells and large epidural air in temporoparietal region. Inner table of right temporal bone got thinner, causing communication of mastoid air cells with epidural space. Epidural air had septations and exerted mass effect on the right parietal lobe with minimal midline shift...
November 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998319/leading-indicators-of-community-based-violent-events-among-adults-with-mental-illness
#13
R A Van Dorn, K J Grimm, S L Desmarais, S J Tueller, K L Johnson, M S Swartz
BACKGROUND: The public health, public safety and clinical implications of violent events among adults with mental illness are significant; however, the causes and consequences of violence and victimization among adults with mental illness are complex and not well understood, which limits the effectiveness of clinical interventions and risk management strategies. This study examined interrelationships between violence, victimization, psychiatric symptoms, substance use, homelessness and in-patient treatment over time...
December 21, 2016: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990193/does-weather-matter-the-effect-of-weather-patterns-and-temporal-factors-on-pediatric-orthopedic-trauma-volume
#14
Kristin S Livingston, Patricia E Miller, Anneliese Lierhaus, Travis H Matheney, Susan T Mahan
OBJECTIVES: Orthopaedists often speculate how weather and school schedule may influence pediatric orthopedic trauma volume, but few studies have examined this. This study aims to determine: how do weather patterns, day, month, season and public school schedule influence the daily frequency of pediatric orthopedic trauma consults and admissions? METHODS: With IRB approval, orthopedic trauma data from a level 1 pediatric trauma center, including number of daily orthopedic trauma consults and admissions, were collected from July 2009 to March 2012...
2016: Open Orthopaedics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27975020/divided-and-sliding-superficial-temporal-artery-flap-for-primary-donor-site-closure
#15
Yuta Sugio, Tateki Kubo, Shien Seike, Ko Hosokawa
Superficial temporal artery (STA) flaps are often used for reconstruction of hair-bearing areas. However, primary closure of the donor site is not easy when the size of the necessary skin island is relatively large. In such cases, skin grafts are needed at the donor site, resulting in baldness. We have solved this issue by applying the divided and sliding flap technique, which was first reported for primary donor-site closure of a latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous flap. We applied this technique to the hair-bearing STA flap, where primary donor-site closure is extremely beneficial for preventing baldness consequent to skin grafting...
November 2016: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974711/skin-wound-healing-an-update-on-the-current-knowledge-and-concepts
#16
Heiko Sorg, Daniel J Tilkorn, Stephan Hager, Jörg Hauser, Ursula Mirastschijski
BACKGROUND: The integrity of healthy skin plays a crucial role in maintaining physiological homeostasis of the human body. The skin is the largest organ system of the body. As such, it plays pivotal roles in the protection against mechanical forces and infections, fluid imbalance, and thermal dysregulation. At the same time, it allows for flexibility to enable joint function in some areas of the body and more rigid fixation to hinder shifting of the palm or foot sole. Many instances lead to inadequate wound healing which necessitates medical intervention...
December 15, 2016: European Surgical Research. Europäische Chirurgische Forschung. Recherches Chirurgicales Européennes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960582/ultrasound-biomicroscopy-in-pseudophakic-patients-with-unexplained-recurrent-hyphema-or-vitreous-hemorrhage
#17
Saba T Alniemi, Sejal R Amin, Luanne Sculley, Sophie J Bakri
PURPOSE: To describe IOL haptic with iris or ciliary body touch on ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) in pseudophakic patients with unexplained recurrent hyphema or vitreous hemorrhage. METHODS: Retrospective chart review of 10 patients who presented with unexplained recurrent hyphema and or vitreous hemorrhage. RESULTS: There were eight posterior chamber intraocular lenses (PCIOL) and two sulcus lenses. Four cases had a history of glaucoma; two cases which had a history of trabeculectomy were found to have some bridging vessels along the sclerostomy requiring argon laser gonioplasty...
December 14, 2016: Seminars in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957380/palpable-mass-on-the-head-after-minor-trauma
#18
K M Nikolakopoulos, C P Papageorgopoulou, I G Ntouvas, S Kakkos, I Tsolakis
Temporal artery is superficially exhibited and easily traumatized. Rarely, a minor and blunt trauma, especially in elderly who are under anticoagulants, can cause a pseudoaneurysm. Diagnosis should be based, primarily, on history and physical examination and secondarily on duplex ultrasound scanning which will lead to confirmation and preoperative planning. The therapeutical plan consists of surgical ligation and excision of the aneurysm. Surgery can be performed under local anesthesia with no postoperative major or minor complications...
2016: Case Reports in Vascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928405/trauma-associated-leber-hereditary-optic-neuropathy
#19
Supanut Apinyawasisuk, Jane W Chan, Anthony C Arnold
A 19-year-old man developed visual loss in the left eye 1 day following a martial arts kick to the head. Vision worsened over a week, when visual loss was noted in the right eye without further trauma. The fundus was initially normal, but visual field testing showed temporal depression right eye with diffuse depression left eye, and traumatic chiasmopathy was suspected. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain demonstrated an enlarged chiasm with intrinsic signal abnormality, but no enhancement. Treatment with intravenous corticosteroids and hyperbaric oxygen therapy did not result in visual improvement...
August 2016: Neuro-ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913365/portable-mtbi-assessment-using-temporal-and-frequency-analysis-of-speech
#20
Louis Daudet, Nikhil Yadav, Matthew Perez, Christian Poellabauer, Sandra Schneider, Alan Huebner
This paper shows that extraction and analysis of various acoustic features from speech using mobile devices can allow the detection of patterns that could be indicative of neurological trauma. This may pave the way for new types of biomarkers and diagnostic tools. Toward this end, we created a mobile application designed to diagnose mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBI) such as concussions. Using this application, data was collected from youth athletes from 47 high schools and colleges in the the Midwestern United States...
December 1, 2016: IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics
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