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Temporal trauma

P Han, X R Niu, X Y Du, Z C Chen, Y Xu, Y Cheng, Y Gao, Q Zhang, M Xu
Cochlear implant (CI) is an artificial electronic device which can provide a sense of sound to a patient with severe or profound hearing loss. Pathological changes have been observed after CI surgery, which might influence the effectiveness of the CI procedure. In this review, we divided the postoperative pathological changes of the temporal bone into two categories according to different stages: immediate trauma and delayed side effects. Immediate trauma might arise from traumatic insertion of the electrode during CI surgery, which included trauma at cochleostomy site, lateral wall trauma, basilar membrane injury, osseous lamina fracture and modiolar injury...
October 7, 2016: Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery
Guy Bar-Klein, Rebecca Klee, Claudia Brandt, Marion Bankstahl, Pablo Bascuñana, Kathrin Töllner, Hotjensa Dalipaj, Jens P Bankstahl, Alon Friedman, Wolfgang Löscher
OBJECTIVE: Acquired epilepsy is a devastating long-term risk of various brain insults, including trauma, stroke, infections, and status epilepticus (SE). There is no preventive treatment for patients at risk. Due to the complex alterations involved in epileptogenesis, it is likely that multi-targeted approaches are required for epilepsy prevention. We report novel preclinical findings with isoflurane, which exerts various non-anesthetic effects that may be relevant for anti-epileptogenesis...
October 19, 2016: Annals of Neurology
Juul Verberne, Frank Risis, Luke Campbell, Scott Chambers, Stephen O'Leary
HYPOTHESIS: Scala tympani morphology influences the insertion dynamics and intra-scalar position of straight electrode arrays. BACKGROUND: Hearing preservation is the goal of cochlear implantation with current thin straight electrode arrays. These hug the lateral wall, facilitating full, atraumatic insertions. However, most studies still report some postoperative hearing loss. This study explores the influence of scala tympani morphology on array position relative to the basilar membrane and its possible contribution to postoperative hearing loss...
October 12, 2016: Otology & Neurotology
Priti Bandi, Diana Silver, Tod Mijanovich, James Macinko
BACKGROUND: In the past 40 years, a variety of factors might have impacted motor vehicle (MV) fatality trends in the US, including public health policies, engineering innovations, trauma care improvements, etc. These factors varied in their timing across states/localities, and many were targeted at particular population subgroups. In order to identify and quantify differential rates of change over time and differences in trend patterns between population subgroups, this study employed a novel analytic method to assess temporal trends in MV fatalities between 1968 and 2010, by age group and sex...
December 2015: Injury Epidemiology
Benjamin Johnstone, Dennis Velakoulis, Cheng Yi Yuan, Anthony Ang, Chris Steward, Patricia Desmond, Terence J O'Brien
OBJECTIVE: Exposure to early life childhood trauma has been implicated as resulting in a vulnerability to epileptic and psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES), hippocampal atrophy, and psychiatric disorders. This study aimed to explore the relationships between childhood trauma, epilepsy, PNES, and hippocampal volume in patients admitted to a video-electroencephalogram monitoring (VEM) unit. METHODS: One hundred thirty-one patients were recruited from the Royal Melbourne Hospital VEM unit...
October 12, 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Stella M Resko, Suzanne Brown, Natasha S Mendoza, Shantel Crosby, Antonio González-Prendes
OBJECTIVE: Perception of need is a key factor that influences decisions to seek help and complete treatment for substance use and mental health problems. In the current study, we examine patterns of perceived treatment needs among women with co-occurring substance use disorders and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and explore how these patterns are associated with demographics, psychosocial variables, and treatment-related factors. METHODS: Secondary data analysis of the Women and Trauma Study from the National Institute on Drug Abuse's Clinical Trial Network was conducted...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Dual Diagnosis
I M Villarreal, D Méndez, J M Duque Silva, P Ortega Del Álamo
Introduction. Labyrinthine concussion is a term used to describe a rare cause of sensorineural hearing loss with or without vestibular symptoms occurring after head trauma. Isolated damage to the inner ear without involving the vestibular organ would be designated as a cochlear labyrinthine concussion. Hearing loss is not a rare finding in head trauma that involves petrous bone fractures. Nevertheless it generally occurs ipsilateral to the side of the head injury and extraordinarily in the contralateral side and moreover without the presence of a fracture...
2016: Case Reports in Otolaryngology
Mustafa Özçetin, Mehmet Karacı, Ertuğ Toroslu, Nurullah Edebali
Pituitary adenomas usually arise from the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland and are manifested with hormonal disorders or mass effect. Mass effect usually occurs in nonfunctional tumors. Pituitary adenomas may be manifested with visual field defects or rarely in the form of total oculomotor palsy. Visual field defect is most frequently in the form of bitemporal hemianopsia and superior temporal defect. Sudden loss of vision, papilledema and ophthalmoplegia may be observed. Pituitary apoplexy is defined as an acute clinical syndrome characterized with headache, vomiting, loss of vision, ophthalmoplegia and clouding of consciousness...
September 2016: Türk Pediatri Arşivi
Emma L Houck, Krista A Keller, Michelle G Hawkins, Andrew G Burton, Keriann M Casey, Kevin Keel, Nathan Tong, David Sanchez-Migallon Guzman
A 28-year-old female Congo African grey parrot ( Psittacus erithacus erithacus) was evaluated because of a mass in the left external auditory meatus. Results of a computed tomography scan revealed an osteolytic left hemimandibular mass with irregular bone production and a soft tissue mass in the left external auditory meatus. Results of cytologic examination of fine needle aspirates of the hemimandible were interpreted as adenocarcinoma with reactive osteoblasts. The owner chose palliative treatment, and a debulking procedure was performed on the left external auditory meatus mass 52 days after initial presentation to control self-trauma...
September 2016: Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery
Tamaki Amano, Motomi Toichi
Psychotherapy is often effective for treating psychogenic disorders, but the changes that occur in the brain during such treatments remain unknown. To investigate this, we monitored cerebral activity throughout an entire session using a psychotherapeutic technique in healthy subjects. Since post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a typical psychogenic psychiatric disorder, we used PTSD-model volunteers who had experienced a moderately traumatic event. The technique used as psychotherapy was eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing (EMDR), a standard method for treating PTSD...
October 4, 2016: Scientific Reports
Shaojia Lu, Weijia Gao, Zhaoguo Wei, Dandan Wang, Shaohua Hu, Manli Huang, Yi Xu, Lingjiang Li
OBJECTIVE: Childhood trauma confers great risk for the development of multiple psychiatric disorders; however, the neural basis for this association is still unknown. The present resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging study aimed to detect the effects of childhood trauma on brain function in a group of young healthy adults. METHODS: In total, 24 healthy individuals with childhood trauma and 24 age- and sex-matched adults without childhood trauma were recruited...
September 30, 2016: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
Jonathan P Riley, Andrew B Boucher, Denise S Kim, Daniel L Barrow, Matthew R Reynolds
BACKGROUND: Transorbital intracranial penetrating trauma (TIPT) with a retained intracranial foreign body is a rare event lacking a widely-accepted diagnostic and therapeutic algorithm. Intraoperative catheter angiography (IOA) has been advocated by some authorities to rule out cerebrovascular injury prior and/or subsequent to removal of the object, but no standard of care currently exists. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 19-year-old male was involved in a construction site accident whereby a framing nail penetrated the left globe, traversed the lateral bony orbit, and terminated in the mid-temporal lobe...
September 28, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Ruth Defrin, Yael Lahav, Zahava Solomon
: Trauma survivors, and particularly torture survivors, suffer from high rates of chronic pain and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) for years afterwards, along with alterations in the function of the pain system. Based on longitudinal data on PTSD symptomatology, we tested whether exposure to torture, PTSD or PTSD trajectories accounted for chronic pain and altered pain perception. PARTICIPANTS: were 59 torture survivors and 44 age-matched healthy controls (HC)...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
Gianfranco Piccirillo, Federica Moscucci, Claudia Fiorucci, Claudia Di Iorio, Fabiola Mastropietri, Damiano Magrì
To seek possible differences in short-period temporal RR interval, P-wave and PR interval dispersion and spectral coherence in patients with a head-up tilt test positive for vasovagal syncope with or without prolonged asystole, severe symptoms and at high risk of trauma. We retrospectively reviewed 5 min ECG and blood pressure recordings obtained at baseline, at rest and during head-up tilt in 40 patients diagnosed as having recurrent vasovagal syncope confirmed at a head-up tilt test. We analysed autoregressive spectral power for all the ECG-derived variables, focusing on temporal P-wave and PR interval dispersion indexes as well as their spectral coherence calculated on the same 5 min recordings at rest and during tilt...
September 28, 2016: Physiological Measurement
A Nickerson, M Creamer, D Forbes, A C McFarlane, M L O'Donnell, D Silove, Z Steel, K Felmingham, D Hadzi-Pavlovic, R A Bryant
BACKGROUND: Although perceived social support is thought to be a strong predictor of psychological outcomes following trauma exposure, the temporal relationship between perceived positive and negative social support and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms has not been empirically established. This study investigated the temporal sequencing of perceived positive social support, perceived negative social support, and PTSD symptoms in the 6 years following trauma exposure among survivors of traumatic injury...
September 27, 2016: Psychological Medicine
R Skowronek, M Kobek, Z Jankowski, E Zielińska-Pająk, A Pałasz, J Pilch-Kowalczyk, R Kwarta, K Rygol, M Szczepański, C Chowaniec
Traumatic basal subarachnoid haemorrhage (TBSAH) represents only 1.8% of all subarachnoid haemorrhage cases diagnosed during autopsy. This report presents such a case from the current practice of the authors. Sixteen-year-old boy was beaten by the aggressors. Suddenly he lost his consciousness and fall after he received a single blow in the neck. He was resuscitated immediately, but died at the scene. During the external examination we did not find any significant external injuries. Autopsy revealed large contusion of right sternocleidomastoid muscle...
2016: Archiwum Medycyny Sa̧dowej i Kryminologii
Linghui Meng, Jing Jiang, Changfeng Jin, Jia Liu, Youjin Zhao, Weina Wang, Kaiming Li, Qiyong Gong
Previous studies have demonstrated that patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) caused by different types of trauma may show divergence in epidemiology, clinical manifestation and treatment outcome. However, it is still unclear whether this divergence has neuroanatomic correlates in PTSD brains. To elucidate the general and trauma-specific cortical morphometric alterations, we performed a meta-analysis of grey matter (GM) changes in PTSD (N = 246) with different traumas and trauma-exposed controls (TECs, N = 347) using anisotropic effect-size signed differential mapping and its subgroup analysis...
2016: Scientific Reports
L A Archer, A Furey
PURPOSE: Avascular necrosis (AVN) of the humeral head is a devastating complication of proximal humeral fracture (PHF) that often results in long-term morbidity for the patient. Rates of AVN depend on the number of fracture fragments and are highly variable. The literature suggests that timely stable and anatomic reduction may decrease the rate at which AVN develops after PHF. To our knowledge, there is no literature published investigating a temporal relationship between the timing of PHF fixation and rates of AVN...
September 20, 2016: Musculoskeletal Surgery
Lotta Fornander, Tom Brismar, Thomas Hansson, Heidi Wikström
We have previously shown age- and time-dependent effects on brain activity in the primary somatosensory cortex (SI), in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study of patients with median nerve injury. Whereas fMRI measures the hemodynamic changes in response to increased neural activity, magnetoencephalography (MEG) offers a more concise way of examining the evoked response, with superior temporal resolution. We therefore wanted to combine these imaging techniques to gain additional knowledge of the plasticity processes in response to median nerve injury...
September 20, 2016: Somatosensory & Motor Research
Inge Wegner, Mostafa M A S Eldaebes, Thomas G Landry, Wilko Grolman, Manohar L Bance
HYPOTHESIS: The use of larger-diameter pistons in stapedotomy leads to better hearing outcomes compared with the use of smaller-diameter pistons. There is an interaction between stapes piston diameter and fenestration diameter. BACKGROUND: Otosclerosis can be treated surgically by removing part of the stapes and bypassing the stapes footplate with a prosthesis. Available piston shaft diameters range between 0.3 and 0.8 mm. There has been a tendency toward the use of smaller-diameter pistons, because of a suspected decreased risk of cochlear trauma and subsequent sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) with smaller pistons...
September 16, 2016: Otology & Neurotology
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