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omega-3, DHA, EPA

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441337/a-study-of-the-differential-effects-of-eicosapentaenoic-acid-epa-and-docosahexaenoic-acid-dha-on-gene-expression-profiles-of-stimulated-thp-1-macrophages
#1
Bénédicte Allam-Ndoul, Frédéric Guénard, Olivier Barbier, Marie-Claude Vohl
Background: An appropriate intake of omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids (FAs) such as eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid (EPA/DHA) from marine sources is known to have anti-inflammatory effects. However, molecular mechanisms underlying their beneficial effects on health are not fully understood. The aim of the present study was to characterize gene expression profiles of THP-1 macrophages, incubated in either EPA or DHA and stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a pro-inflammatory agent. Methods: THP-1 macrophages were incubated into 10, 50 and 75 µM of EPA or DHA for 24 h, and 100 nM of LPS was added to the culture media for 18 h...
April 25, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433363/the-molecular-impact-of-omega-3-fatty-acids-on-hepatic-pro-inflammatory-cytokine-signaling
#2
George J Ventro, Yingkui Yang, Min Chen, Carroll M Harmon
PURPOSE: Parenteral nutrition associated liver disease (PNALD) develops in a subset of children receiving parenteral nutrition for intestinal failure. Omegaven™ is an omega-3 fatty acid (Ω3FA) lipid emulsion high in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) that can lessen PNALD. Inflammatory cytokines (IL-1, TNF-α, TGF-β) are elevated in PNALD and can decrease paraoxonase 1 protein expression (PON1). We sought to determine the effect of Omegaven™, EPA, and DHA on inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1, and TGF-β via ERK1/2 and p-Smad2/3 signaling pathways as well as the changes in intracellular PON1 protein expression as a potential mechanism explaining the protective effects of Omegaven™ and Ω3FA...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427779/fish-oil-lc-pufas-do-not-affect-blood-coagulation-parameters-and-bleeding-manifestations-analysis-of-8-clinical-studies-with-selected-patient-groups-on-omega-3-enriched-medical-nutrition
#3
Stephanie Jeansen, Renger F Witkamp, Jossie A Garthoff, Ardy van Helvoort, Philip C Calder
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The increased consumption of fish oil enriched-products exposes a wide diversity of people, including elderly and those with impaired health to relatively high amounts of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFAs). There is an ongoing debate around the possible adverse effects of n-3 LC-PUFAs on bleeding risk, particularly relevant in people with a medical history of cardiovascular events or using antithrombotic drugs. METHODS: This analysis of 8 clinical intervention studies conducted with enteral medical nutrition products containing fish oil as a source of n-3 LC-PUFAs addresses the occurrence of bleeding-related adverse events and effects on key coagulation parameters (Prothrombin Time [PT], (activated) and Partial Thromboplastin Time [(a)PTT])...
March 29, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424185/very-long-chain-%C3%AF-3-fatty-acid-supplements-and-adipose-tissue-functions-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#4
Kazanna C Hames, Maria Morgan-Bathke, Debra A Harteneck, Lendia Zhou, John D Port, Ian R Lanza, Michael D Jensen
Background: Increased omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid consumption is reported to benefit patients with metabolic syndrome, possibly due to improved adipose tissue function.Objective: We tested the effects of high-dose, very-long-chain ω-3 fatty acids on adipose tissue inflammation and insulin regulation of lipolysis.Design: A double-blind, placebo-controlled study compared 6 mo of 3.9 g eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)/d (4.2 g total ω-3/d; n = 12) with a placebo (4.2 g oleate/d; n = 9) in insulin-resistant adults...
April 19, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410668/lipid-correlates-of-antidepressant-response-to-omega-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-supplementation-a-pilot-study
#5
Licinia Ganança, Hanga C Galfalvy, Maria A Oquendo, Adrienne Hezghia, Thomas B Cooper, J John Mann, M Elizabeth Sublette
Low omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) levels are seen in major depression. We examined effects of six weeks of fish oil supplementation on clinical characteristics in 16 patients with symptomatic major depressive disorder, and tested plasma phospholipid levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) as correlates of clinical response. Depression symptoms improved after supplementation (p=0.007). The reduction in depression severity was not predicted by baseline PUFA levels but did exhibit a relationship with endpoint PUFAs, correlating negatively with DHA as a percentage of plasma phospholipids (DHA%; R(2)=0...
April 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410665/impact-of-dietary-precursor-ala-versus-preformed-dha-on-fatty-acid-profiles-of-eggs-liver-and-adipose-tissue-and-expression-of-genes-associated-with-hepatic-lipid-metabolism-in-laying-hens
#6
M Neijat, P Eck, J D House
Dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), including alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) and preformed longer chain PUFA (LCPUFA, particularly docosahexaenoic acid, DHA) differ in their egg LCPUFA enrichment efficiency. However, mechanisms leading to these differences are unclear. To this end, omega-3 PUFA contents in different lipid classes, including triacylglycerol (TAG) and total phospholipid (PL) in yolk, liver and adipose, as well as the expression of key hepatic enzymes in lipid metabolism were evaluated in laying hens in response to changes in dietary supply...
April 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410617/treatment-with-high-dose-n-3-pufas-has-no-effect-on-platelet-function-coagulation-metabolic-status-or-inflammation-in-patients-with-atherosclerosis-and-type-2-diabetes
#7
Malgorzata Poreba, Magdalena Mostowik, Aleksander Siniarski, Renata Golebiowska-Wiatrak, Krzysztof Piotr Malinowski, Maciej Haberka, Ewa Konduracka, Jadwiga Nessler, Anetta Undas, Grzegorz Gajos
BACKGROUND: Despite numerous studies on cardioprotective effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs), there is limited evidence for n-3 PUFA-mediated effects, especially at its higher dose, on cardiovascular risk in patients with type 2 diabetes (DM2) and established atherosclerosis. PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of daily treatment with a higher dose (2 g) of n-3 PUFAs on platelet function, coagulation parameters, fibrin clot properties, markers of systemic inflammation and metabolic status, in patients with atherosclerotic vascular disease and DM2 who receive optimal medical therapy...
April 14, 2017: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403232/an-oil-containing-epa-and-dha-from-transgenic-camelina-sativa-to-replace-marine-fish-oil-in-feeds-for-atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar-l-effects-on-intestinal-transcriptome-histology-tissue-fatty-acid-profiles-and-plasma-biochemistry
#8
Mónica B Betancor, Keshuai Li, Matthew Sprague, Tora Bardal, Olga Sayanova, Sarah Usher, Lihua Han, Kjell Måsøval, Ole Torrissen, Johnathan A Napier, Douglas R Tocher, Rolf Erik Olsen
New de novo sources of omega 3 (n-3) long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) are required as alternatives to fish oil in aquafeeds in order to maintain adequate levels of the beneficial fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic (EPA and DHA, respectively). The present study investigated the use of an EPA+DHA oil derived from transgenic Camelina sativa in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) feeds containing low levels of fishmeal (35%) and fish oil (10%), reflecting current commercial formulations, to determine the impacts on tissue fatty acid profile, intestinal transcriptome, and health of farmed salmon...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394002/supplementation-with-omega-3-acids-after-myocardial-infarction-and-modification-of-inflammatory-markers-in-light-of-the-patients-diet-a-preliminary-study
#9
Magdalena Makarewicz-Wujec, Gabriela Parol, Andrzej Parzonko, Małgorzata Kozłowska-Wojciechowska
BACKGROUND: Neuroendocrine activation, activation of proinflammatory cytokines and platelets, and endothelial dysfunction play a significant role in development of heart failure. AIM: The aim of the work was to assess the effect of supplementation with EPA and DHA in adaily dose of 1g on selected inflammatory markers and platelet activation in patients with heart failure after recent myocardial infarction in light of their diet. M ETHODS: This preliminary study was arandomised, double-blind trial involving 30patients with post-infarction heart failure...
April 10, 2017: Kardiologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391893/red-blood-cell-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-and-mortality-in-the-women-s-health-initiative-memory-study
#10
William S Harris, Juhua Luo, James V Pottala, Mark A Espeland, Karen L Margolis, Joann E Manson, Lu Wang, Theodore M Brasky, Jennifer G Robinson
BACKGROUND: The prognostic value of circulating polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) levels is unclear. OBJECTIVES: To determine the associations between red blood cell (RBC) PUFA levels and risk for death. METHODS: This prospective cohort study included 6501 women aged 65 to 80 years who participated in the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study (enrolment began 1996). RBC PUFA levels were measured at baseline and expressed as a percent of total RBC PUFAs...
January 2017: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379169/intake-of-marine-derived-omega-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-and-mortality-in-renal-transplant-recipients
#11
António W Gomes Neto, Camilo G Sotomayor Campos, Ilse G Pranger, Else van den Berg, Rijk O B Gans, Sabita S Soedamah-Muthu, Gerjan J Navis, Stephan J L Bakker
The effect of marine-derived omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) on long-term outcome in renal transplant recipients (RTR) remains unclear. We investigated whether marine-derived n-3 PUFA intake is associated with all-cause and cardiovascular (CV) mortality in RTR. Intake of eicosapentaenoic acid plus docosahexaenoic acid (EPA-DHA) was assessed using a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire. Cox regression analyses were performed to evaluate the associations of EPA-DHA intake with all-cause and CV mortality...
April 5, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379067/mercury-omega-3-fatty-acids-and-seafood-intake-are-not-associated-with-heart-rate-variability-or-qt-interval
#12
Charles Miller, Roxanne Karimi, Susan Silbernagel, Danielle Kostrubiak, Frederick Schiavone, Qiao Zhang, Jie Yang, Eric Rashba, Jaymie R Meliker
Mercury (Hg), eicosapentanoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) concentrations differ across seafood types. Our aim was to investigate the association of Hg, EPA and DHA, as well as avid consumption of diverse seafood types on cardiovascular variables heart rate variability (HRV) and QT interval duration (QTc) in a contemporary population. We measured HRV and QTc by Holter monitor, EPA and DHA in plasma, total Hg in whole blood, and possible confounders in ninety-four avid seafood consumers from Long Island, NY...
April 5, 2017: Archives of Environmental & Occupational Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374923/oral-fish-oil-positively-influences-nutritional-inflammatory-risk-in-patients-with-haematological-malignancies-during-chemotherapy-with-an-impact-on-long-term-survival-a-randomised-clinical-trial
#13
T R Chagas, D S Borges, P F de Oliveira, M C Mocellin, A M Barbosa, C Q Camargo, J Â G Del Moral, A Poli, P C Calder, E B S M Trindade, E A Nunes
BACKGROUND: Studies suggest that the ingestion of fish oil (FO), a source of the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), can reduce the deleterious side-effects of chemotherapy. The aim of this randomised clinical trial was to evaluate the effect of supplementation with oral FO for 9 weeks on nutritional parameters and inflammatory nutritional risk in patients with haematological malignancies during the beginning of chemotherapy...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics: the Official Journal of the British Dietetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359716/pretreatment-with-and-ongoing-use-of-omega-3-fatty-acid-ethyl-esters-reduce-the-slow-flow-phenomenon-and-prevent-in-stent-restenosis-in-patients-undergoing-carotid-artery-stenting
#14
Ichiro Nakagawa, Hun Soo Park, Shohei Yokoyama, Takeshi Wada, Syuichi Yamada, Yasushi Motoyama, Kimihiko Kichikawa, Hiroyuki Nakase
OBJECTIVE: Carotid artery stenting (CAS) is a less invasive alternative to carotid endarterectomy, but it is essential to prevent thromboembolic complications during CAS and to suppress in-stent restenosis (ISR) after CAS because of the relatively high risk of periprocedural and follow-up stroke events. Clinical trials have demonstrated the strong relationship of carotid plaque vulnerability with the subsequent risk of ipsilateral ischemic stroke and thromboembolic complications during CAS...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344197/effects-of-food-on-the-pharmacokinetics-of-omega-3-carboxylic-acids-in-healthy-japanese-male-subjects-a-phase-i-randomized-open-label-three-period-crossover-trial
#15
Hitoshi Shimada, Catarina Nilsson, Yoshinori Noda, Hyosung Kim, Torbjörn Lundström, Toshitaka Yajima
AIMS: Omega-3-carboxylic acids (OM3-CA) contain omega-3 free fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), as carboxylic acids. Food intake is known to affect the bioavailability of ethyl ester fatty acid formulations. We conducted a phase I study to investigate the effects of the timing of OM3-CA administration relative to food intake on the pharmacokinetics of EPA and DHA. METHODS: In this randomized, open-label, three-period crossover study, Japanese healthy male subjects were administered 4×1 g OM3-CA capsules with continued fasting, before a meal, or after a meal...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344195/significance-of-serum-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-level-imbalance-in-patients-with-acute-venous-thromboembolism
#16
Masaru Hiki, Tetsuro Miyazaki, Kazunori Shimada, Yurina Sugita, Megumi Shimizu, Tatsuro Aikawa, Shohei Ouchi, Tomoyuki Shiozawa, Kiyoshi Takasu, Shuhei Takahashi, Atsutoshi Takagi, Katsumi Miyauchi, Hiroyuki Daida
AIM: Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) take part in various biological events linked to the pathogenesis of venous thromboembolism (VTE), including inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, and hypercoagulability. Several studies have demonstrated the association between PUFAs and the occurrence of VTE. However, the role of PUFAs in the pathogenesis of VTE remains unclear. METHODS: We enrolled 45 patients with acute VTE and 37 age-, gender-, and body mass index-matched healthy volunteers to examine their PUFA levels...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341437/lipid-functions-in-skin-differential-effects-of-n-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-on-cutaneous-ceramides-in-a-human-skin-organ-culture-model
#17
Alexandra C Kendall, Magdalena Kiezel-Tsugunova, Luke C Brownbridge, John L Harwood, Anna Nicolaou
Ceramides are important for skin health, with a multitude of species found in both dermis and epidermis. The epidermis contains linoleic acid-Ester-linked Omega-hydroxylated ceramides of 6-Hydroxy-sphingosine, Sphingosine and Phytosphingosine bases (CER[EOH], CER[EOS] and CER[EOP], respectively), that are crucial for the formation of the epidermal barrier, conferring protection from environmental factors and preventing trans-epidermal water loss. Furthermore, a large number of ceramides, derivatives of the same sphingoid bases and various fatty acids, are produced by dermal and epidermal cells and perform signalling roles in cell functions ranging from differentiation to apoptosis...
March 21, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338369/dha-rich-fish-oil-increases-the-omega-3-index-and-lowers-the-oxygen-cost-of-physiologically-stressful-cycling-in-trained-individuals
#18
Lachlan Hingley, Michael J Macartney, Marc A Brown, Peter L McLennan, Gregory E Peoples
Dietary fish oil, providing docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) modulates oxygen consumption and fatigue in animal models. However, in humans predominately supplemented with high eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), there is no evidence of endurance performance enhancement. Therefore, this study examined if DHA-rich fish oil could improve repeated bouts of physiologically stressful cycling and a subsequent time trial in a state of fatigue. Twenty-six trained males took part in a double-blind study and were supplemented with either 2x1g/day soy oil (Control) or DHA-rich tuna fish oil (Nu-Mega) (FO) (560mg DHA / 140mg eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)) for eight weeks...
March 24, 2017: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331158/low-serum-levels-of-epa-are-associated-with-the-size-and-growth-rate-of-abdominal-aortic-aneurysm
#19
Tatsuro Aikawa, Tetsuro Miyazaki, Kazunori Shimada, Yurina Sugita, Megumi Shimizu, Shohei Ouchi, Tomoyasu Kadoguchi, Yasutaka Yokoyama, Tomoyuki Shiozawa, Masaru Hiki, Shuhei Takahashi, Hamad Al Shahi, Shizuyuki Dohi, Atsushi Amano, Hiroyuki Daida
AIM: Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have been reported to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. However, whether omega-3 PUFAs are involved in the pathogenesis of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) remains unclear. METHODS: We analyzed 67 consecutive patients admitted for the elective surgical repair of AAA. We investigated the association of serum EPA and DHA levels as well as the EPA/AA ratio with the size of AAA assessed using three-dimensional reconstructed computed tomography images...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330470/involvement-of-apoptotic-pathways-in-docosahexaenoic-acid-induced-benefit-in-prostate-cancer-pathway-focused-gene-expression-analysis-using-rt-2-profile-pcr-array-system
#20
Yanan Sun, Xiaopeng Jia, Lianguo Hou, Xing Liu, Qiang Gao
BACKGROUND: Present study aimed to better understand the potential apoptotic pathways that involved in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-induced apoptosis of prostate cancer cells. METHODS: Human prostate cancer DU145 cells were treated with different concentrations of fish oil, omega-3 PUFA (DHA, and Eicosapentaenoic acid, EPA), or omega-6 PUFA (Arachidonic acid, AA). Cell viability and apoptosis were evaluated by MTT assay and Hoechst staining. Pathway-focused gene expression profiling of DU145 cells was analyzed with the RT(2) Profile PCR Array System...
March 23, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
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