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omega-3, DHA, EPA

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916893/the-interaction-between-dietary-fiber-and-fat-and-risk-of-colorectal-cancer-in-the-women-s-health-initiative
#1
Sandi L Navarro, Marian L Neuhouser, Ting-Yuan David Cheng, Lesley F Tinker, James M Shikany, Linda Snetselaar, Jessica A Martinez, Ikuko Kato, Shirley A A Beresford, Robert S Chapkin, Johanna W Lampe
Combined intakes of specific dietary fiber and fat subtypes protect against colon cancer in animal models. We evaluated associations between self-reported individual and combinations of fiber (insoluble, soluble, and pectins, specifically) and fat (omega-6, omega-3, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), specifically) and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk in the Women's Health Initiative prospective cohort (n = 134,017). During a mean 11.7 years (1993-2010), 1952 incident CRC cases were identified...
November 30, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902774/intravenous-treatment-with-a-long-chain-omega-3-lipid-emulsion-provides-neuroprotection-in-a-murine-model-of-ischemic-stroke-a-pilot-study
#2
Dirk Berressem, Konrad Koch, Nicole Franke, Jochen Klein, Gunter P Eckert
Single long-chain omega-3 fatty acids (e.g. docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) or eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)) are known for their neuroprotective properties associated with ischemic stroke. This pilot study aimed to test the effectiveness of an acute treatment with a long-chain omega-3 lipid emulsion (Omegaven 10%®, OGV) that contains fish oil (DHA 18 mg/ml; EPA 21 mg/ml) and α-tocopherol (0.2 mg/ml) in a transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model of ischemic stroke in mice. For this purpose, female CD-1 mice were anesthetized and subjected to 90 minutes of MCAO...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880795/the-association-of-fatty-acid-levels-and-gleason-grade-among-men-undergoing-radical-prostatectomy
#3
Zhiguo Zhao, Lael Reinstatler, Zachary Klaassen, Yi Xu, Xiaoyu Yang, Rabii Madi, Martha K Terris, Steven Y Qian, Uddhav Kelavkar, Kelvin A Moses
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological data suggest that omega-6 (ω-6) fatty acids (FAs) may be associated with cancer incidence and/or cancer mortality, whereas ω-3 FAs are potentially protective. We examined the association of the ratio of ω-6 to ω-3 FA (ω-6:ω-3) and individual FA components with pathological results among men with prostate cancer (PCa) undergoing radical prostatectomy. METHODS: Sixty-nine men were included in the study. Components of ω-6 (linoleic acid (LA), arachidonic acid (AA), and dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (DGLA)) and ω-3 (docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)) were analyzed by liquid chromatography/mass selective detector separation...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876761/early-infant-adipose-deposition-is-positively-associated-with-the-n-6-to-n-3-fatty-acid-ratio-in-human-milk-independent-of-maternal-bmi
#4
M C Rudolph, B E Young, D J Lemas, C E Palmer, T L Hernandez, L A Barbour, J E Friedman, N F Krebs, P S MacLean
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Excessive infant weight gain in the first 6-months of life is a powerful predictor of childhood obesity and related health risks. In mice, omega-6 fatty acids (FA) serve as potent ligands driving adipogenesis during early development. The ratio of omega-6 relative to omega-3 (n-6/n-3) FA in human milk (HM) has increased 3-fold over the last 30 years, but the impact of this shift on infant adipose development remains undetermined. This study investigated how maternal obesity and maternal dietary FA (as reflected in maternal red blood cells (RBC) composition) influenced HM n-6 and n-3 FAs, and whether the HM n-6/n-3 ratio was associated with changes in infant adipose deposition between 2-weeks and 4-months postpartum...
November 23, 2016: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827947/australian-and-new-zealand-fish-oil-products-in-2016-meet-label-omega-3-claims-and-are-not-oxidized
#5
Peter D Nichols, Lalen Dogan, Andrew Sinclair
We provide new fish oil product results to assist industry in Australia and New Zealand and, ultimately, consumers in understanding the high product quality assurance protocols in place, together with the high product quality that has been determined by both industry and independent laboratories. Fish oil capsule products common to Australia and New Zealand were purchased in May 2016 in Richmond, Victoria, Australia. Products were from two groups; five standard fish oil products and five fish oil concentrates...
November 5, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824904/circulating-omega-6-but-not-omega-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-are-associated-with-clinical-outcomes-in-patients-with-acute-decompensated-heart-failure
#6
Toshiyuki Nagai, Yasuyuki Honda, Yasuo Sugano, Kunihiro Nishimura, Michikazu Nakai, Satoshi Honda, Naotsugu Iwakami, Atsushi Okada, Yasuhide Asaumi, Takeshi Aiba, Teruo Noguchi, Kengo Kusano, Hisao Ogawa, Satoshi Yasuda, Toshihisa Anzai
BACKGROUND: Circulating polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) levels are associated with clinical outcomes in cardiovascular diseases including coronary artery disease and chronic heart failure (HF). However, their clinical implications in acute decompensated HF (ADHF) remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical roles of circulating PUFAs in patients with ADHF. METHODS: Circulating levels of PUFAs, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), arachidonic acid (AA) and dihomo-gamma linoleic acid (DGLA), were measured on admission in 685 consecutive ADHF patients...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818127/novel-n-3-pufa-monoacylglycerides-of-pharmacological-and-medicinal-interest-anti-inflammatory-and-anti-proliferative-effects
#7
REVIEW
Rayan Khaddaj-Mallat, Caroline Morin, Éric Rousseau
Newly-synthesized, eicosapentaenoic acid monoacylglyceride (MAG-EPA), docosahexaenoic acid monoacylglyceride (MAG-DHA) and docosapentaenoic acid monoacylglyceride (MAG-DPA) have been demonstrated to display beneficial effects in several disorders including chronic airway inflammatory diseases, pulmonary hypertension, rheumatoid arthritis, and lung and colorectal adenocarcinoma. Recent evidence reveals that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) precursors provide a window to explore the pathobiology of inflammatory disease as well as structural templates for the design of novel pro-resolving precursors that are well absorbed by the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and metabolized into bioactive metabolites...
November 3, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817918/a-randomized-double-masked-placebo-controlled-clinical-trial-of-two-forms-of-omega-3-supplements-for-treating-dry-eye-disease
#8
Laura A Deinema, Algis J Vingrys, Chinn Yi Wong, David C Jackson, Holly R Chinnery, Laura E Downie
PURPOSE: To assess the efficacy of 2 forms of oral long-chain omega-3 (ω-3) essential fatty acid (EFA) supplements, phospholipid (krill oil) and triacylglyceride (fish oil), for treating dry eye disease (DED). DESIGN: Randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled clinical trial. PARTICIPANTS: This study was conducted at a single site and involved 60 participants with mild to moderate DED who were randomized (1:1:1) to 1 of 3 groups: placebo (olive oil), krill oil, or fish oil supplements...
November 3, 2016: Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813426/eicosapentaenoic-acid-and-docosahexaenoic-acid-increase-the-degradation-of-amyloid-%C3%AE-by-affecting-insulin-degrading-enzyme
#9
Marcus O W Grimm, Janine Mett, Christoph P Stahlmann, Viola J Haupenthal, Tamara Blümel, Hannah Stötzel, Heike S Grimm, Tobias Hartmann
Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been proposed to be highly beneficial in Alzheimer's disease (AD). AD pathology is closely linked to an overproduction and accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides as extracellular senile plaques in the brain. Total Aβ levels are not only dependent on its production by proteolytic processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP), but also on Aβ-clearance mechanisms, including Aβ-degrading enzymes. Here we show that the omega-3 PUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) increase Aβ-degradation by affecting insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE), the major Aβ-degrading enzyme secreted into the extracellular space of neuronal and microglial cells...
December 2016: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793418/omega-3-fatty-acids-decreases-oxidative-stress-tumor-necrosis-factor-alpha-and-interleukin-1-beta-in-hyperthyroidism-induced-hepatic-dysfunction-rat-model
#10
Asmaa M S Gomaa, Ebtihal A Abd El-Aziz
Hyperthyroidism is associated with abnormalities of the liver. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially their long-chain forms: eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have beneficial health effects. The objectives of the present study were to assess hyperthyroidism-induced hepatic dysfunction in adult male rats and to evaluate the ameliorative effects of omega-3 on hyperthyroidism-induced hepatic dysfunction and the underlying mechanisms. Twenty four adult male rats were randomly divided into three equal groups; control group which received water for 6 weeks, hyperthyroid group which received L-thyroxine orally for 6 weeks and hyperthyroid omega-3 treated group which received L-thyroxine for 2 weeks and then co-treated with L-thyroxine and omega-3 oral compound containing 18% of EPA and 12% of DHA for 4 weeks...
December 2016: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766299/role-of-omega-3-fatty-acids-in-the-etiology-treatment-and-prevention-of-depression-current-status-and-future-directions
#11
Robert K McNamara
Over the past three decades a body of translational evidence has implicated dietary deficiency in long-chain omega-3 (LCn-3) fatty acids, including eicosapenaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), in the pathophysiology and etiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). Cross-national and cross-sectional data suggest that greater habitual intake of preformed EPA+DHA is associated with reduced risk for developing depressive symptoms and syndromal MDD. Erythrocyte EPA and DHA composition is highly correlated with habitual fish or fish oil intake, and case-control studies have consistently observed lower erythrocyte EPA and/or DHA levels in patients with MDD...
September 2016: Journal of Nutrition & Intermediary Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27751666/omega-3-fatty-acids-inflammatory-status-and-biochemical-markers-of-patients-with-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-a-pilot-study
#12
Mariane Curado Borges, Fabiana de Miranda Moura Dos Santos, Rosa Weiss Telles, Marcus Vinícius Melo de Andrade, Maria Isabel Toulson Davisson Correia, Cristina Costa Duarte Lanna
BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that omega-3 fatty acids reduce the concentrations of eicosanoids, cytokines, chemokines, C-reactive protein (CRP) and other inflammatory mediators. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of omega-3 fatty acids on circulating levels of inflammatory mediators and biochemical markers in women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). METHODS: Experimental clinical study (clinical trial: NCT02524795); 49 women with SLE (ACR1982/1997) were randomized: 22 to the omega-3 group (daily intake of 1080mg EPA+200mg DHA, for 12 weeks) and 27 to the control group...
September 22, 2016: Revista Brasileira de Reumatologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742581/oxidative-stress-predicts-depressive-symptom-changes-with-omega-3-fatty-acid-treatment-in-coronary-artery-disease-patients
#13
Graham Mazereeuw, Nathan Herrmann, Ana C Andreazza, Gustavo Scola, David W L Ma, Paul I Oh, Krista L Lanctôt
BACKGROUND: Antidepressant efficacy of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) treatment in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients remains unpredictable. N-3 PUFA can mitigate oxidative stress, which is common in CAD and may contribute to depressive symptoms. This study investigated whether greater pre-treatment oxidative stress, measured by the ratios of late-stage lipid peroxidation markers (malondialdehyde [MDA], 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal [4-HNE], and 8-isoprostane [8-ISO]) to an early-stage marker (lipid hydroperoxides [LPH]), predicted n-3 PUFA antidepressant benefits in CAD...
October 11, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733252/effects-of-eicosapentaenoic-acid-and-docosahexaenoic-acid-on-cardiovascular-disease-risk-factors-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#14
Ivor B Asztalos, Joi A Gleason, Sakine Sever, Reyhan Gedik, Bela F Asztalos, Katalin V Horvath, Michael L Dansinger, Stefania Lamon-Fava, Ernst J Schaefer
BACKGROUND: Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), the primary omega-3 fatty acids in fish oil, have been shown to reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the independent effects of EPA and DHA on lipid and apolipoprotein levels, as well as on inflammatory biomarkers of CVD risk, using doses often used in the general population. DESIGN: A blinded, randomized 6-week trial was performed in 121 healthy, normolipidemic subjects who received olive oil placebo 6g/d, EPA 600mg/d, EPA 1800mg/d, or DHA 600mg/d...
November 2016: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729661/-role-of-omega-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-after-acute-coronary-syndrome
#15
Pier Luigi Temporelli, Stefano Buda, Stephen J Greene
The role of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in the secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease has recently been debated. The GISSI-Prevention trial demonstrated that supplementation with 1 g/day of eicosapentaenoic acid plus docosahexaenoic acid (EPA/DHA) was associated with a reduction in all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in patients with myocardial infarction. However, some subsequent meta-analyses, though not without methodological flaws, did not confirm the beneficial effect on cardiovascular mortality...
July 2016: Giornale Italiano di Cardiologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720039/risk-factors-associated-with-plasma-omega-3-fatty-acid-levels-in-patients-with-suspected-coronary-artery-disease
#16
Rahul Chaudhary, Katayoon Saadin, Kevin P Bliden, William S Harris, Bao Dinh, Tushar Sharma, Udaya S Tantry, Paul A Gurbel
INTRODUCTION: We sought to determine the associations between plasma eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels and various cardiovascular risk factors and with the use of fish oil supplements (FOS). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) undergoing cardiac catheterization (n=433) were studied. Serum fatty acid (FA) composition, the concentrations of lipids and biomarkers of oxidative stress, and dietary/lifestyle factors were measured...
October 2016: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27718370/eicosapentaenoic-acid-reduces-membrane-fluidity-inhibits-cholesterol-domain-formation-and-normalizes-bilayer-width-in-atherosclerotic-like-model-membranes
#17
R Preston Mason, Robert F Jacob, Sandeep Shrivastava, Samuel C R Sherratt, Amitabha Chattopadhyay
Cholesterol crystalline domains characterize atherosclerotic membranes, altering vascular signaling and function. Omega-3 fatty acids reduce membrane lipid peroxidation and subsequent cholesterol domain formation. We evaluated non-peroxidation-mediated effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), other TG-lowering agents, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and other long-chain fatty acids on membrane fluidity, bilayer width, and cholesterol domain formation in model membranes. In membranes prepared at 1.5:1 cholesterol-to-phospholipid (C/P) mole ratio (creating pre-existing domains), EPA, glycyrrhizin, arachidonic acid, and alpha linolenic acid promoted the greatest reductions in cholesterol domains (by 65...
December 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717930/-analysis-of-the-fatty-acid-profile-of-vegetarian-and-non-vegetarian-diet-in-the-context-of-some-diet-related-diseases-prevention
#18
Agata Kornek, Alicja Kucharska, Katarzyna Kamela
INTRODUCTION: Research increasingly provide evidence that vegetarian diet can have a positive impact on health. The aim of this study was to analyze the fatty acid profile of vegetarian and non-vegetarian diet and prove which of them is more optimal in the context of some diet-related diseases prevention. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study involved 83 women (47 vegetarians and 36 non-vegetarians). Estimates of the supply of individual fatty acids in the diet was based on analysis of 3-day dietary records (calculations in a computer program DIETA 5)...
2016: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27690699/serum-lipid-profile-and-fatty-acid-composition-of-erythrocyte-phospholipids-in-children-and-adolescents-with-primary-hyperlipidemia
#19
Valeria Deon, Cristian Del Bò, Federica Guaraldi, Giorgio Gargari, Andrea Bosusco, Paolo Simonetti, Patrizia Riso, Ornella Guardamagna
This study aimed at characterizing the fatty acid (FA) composition of red blood cell (RBC) phospholipids in children and adolescents with primary hyperlipidemia, and to ascertain potential association with serum lipid profile and dietary factors. At this purpose, 54 probands aged 6-17 years were recruited. Subjects showed a low omega-3 index (eicosapentaenoic acid, EPA + docosahexaenoic acid, DHA <4%). Compared to males, females had a trend toward lower levels of total monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and MUFA/saturated fatty acids (SFAs) ratio in RBCs...
October 3, 2016: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27684412/lipid-effects-of-switching-from-prescription-epa-dha-omega-3-acid-ethyl-esters-to-prescription-epa-only-icosapent-ethyl-in-dyslipidemic-patients
#20
James R Crandell, Christina Tartaglia, Joseph Tartaglia
OBJECTIVES: Residual cardiovascular risk and persistently elevated triglycerides (TGs) may remain despite statin therapy in patients with dyslipidemia. Prescription omega-3 fatty acid formulations containing docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and/or eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) have been shown to reduce TGs and may potentially lower residual cardiovascular risk. However, DHA may raise low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and compromise treatment goals. Icosapent ethyl (Vascepa®), a high-purity prescription EPA formulation, has been shown to lower TGs and other lipid parameters without raising LDL-C...
October 11, 2016: Postgraduate Medicine
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