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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925287/treatment-sequence-matters-anabolic-and-antiresorptive-therapy-for-osteoporosis
#1
Felicia Cosman, Jeri W Nieves, David Dempster
The majority of osteoporosis medications are antiresorptive agents, which reduce the rate of bone remodeling. Within this group are the bisphosphonates, which inhibit protein prenylation in the mature osteoclast, reducing osteoclast capacity to resorb bone(1) and denosumab, a monoclonal antibody to rank ligand that inhibits osteoclast formation, function and survival(2) . Although several new anabolic agents are in development(3-5) , teriparatide is currently the only available anabolic therapy for osteoporosis in the United States, with the addition of only PTH(1-84) in the EU [referred to as PTH)...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925188/a-human-3d-in-vitro-model-to-assess-the-relationship-between-osteoporosis-and-dissemination-to-bone-of-breast-cancer-tumour-cells
#2
F Salamanna, V Borsari, S Brogini, P Torricelli, S Cepollaro, M Cadossi, M Fini
Despite consistent improvements in diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for breast cancer, up to 40% of patients will develop bone metastases. To reduce the morbidity and complications related with bone metastases, it is imperative to reduce their etiological factors. Osteoporosis, being characterized by a sudden estrogen deficiency, may provide a favorable condition for bone metastasis. This work, using a humanized 3D in vitro model, aims at evaluating the relationship between osteoporosis and breast cancer-derived bone metastases...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924381/dual-energy-x-ray-absorptiometry-and-fracture-prediction-in-patients-with-spinal-cord-injuries-and-disorders
#3
L Abderhalden, F M Weaver, M Bethel, H Demirtas, S Burns, J Svircev, H Hoenig, K Lyles, S Miskevics, L D Carbone
: Low T-scores at the hip predict incident fractures in persons with a SCI. INTRODUCTION: Persons with a spinal cord injury (SCI) have substantial morbidity and mortality following osteoporotic fractures. The objective of this study was to determine whether dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measurements predict osteoporotic fractures in this population. METHODS: A retrospective historical analysis that includes patients (n = 552) with a SCI of at least 2 years duration who had a DXA performed and were in the VA Spinal Cord Disorders Registry from fiscal year (FY) 2002-2012 was performed...
December 6, 2016: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924380/adherence-to-the-2006-american-heart-association-s-diet-and-lifestyle-recommendations-for-cardiovascular-disease-risk-reduction-is-associated-with-bone-mineral-density-in-older-chinese
#4
G D Chen, D Ding, H Y Tian, Y Y Zhu, W T Cao, C Wang, Y M Chen
: This cross-sectional study investigated the association between the modified 2006 American Heart Association Diet and Lifestyle Recommendations (AHA-DLR) and bone mineral density in Chinese adults. We found that better adherence to the AHA-DLR associated with higher bone mineral density (BMD) at multiple sites. INTRODUCTION: Accumulating evidence shows that cardiovascular disease (CVD) and osteoporosis are associated with each other, yet little research has focused on whether strategies to reduce CVD risk could also benefit bone health...
December 6, 2016: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924156/deficiency-of-atp6v1h-causes-bone-loss-by-inhibiting-bone-resorption-and-bone-formation-through-the-tgf-%C3%AE-1-pathway
#5
Xiaohong Duan, Jin Liu, Xueni Zheng, Zhe Wang, Yanli Zhang, Ying Hao, Tielin Yang, Hongwen Deng
Vacuolar-type H (+)-ATPase (V-ATPase) is a highly conserved, ancient enzyme that couples the energy of ATP hydrolysis to proton transport across vesicular and plasma membranes of eukaryotic cells. Previously reported mutations of various V-ATPase subunits are associated with increased bone density. We now show that haploinsufficiency for the H subunit of the V1 domain (ATP6V1H) is associated with osteoporosis in humans and mice. A genome-wide SNP array analysis of 1625 Han Chinese found that 4 of 15 tag SNPs (26...
2016: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923758/evidence-for-use-of-teriparatide-in-spinal-fusion-surgery-in-osteoporotic-patients
#6
REVIEW
Navjot Chaudhary, Jennifer S Lee, Joy Y Wu, Suzanne Tharin
Osteoporosis is defined as a bone mineral density (BMD) less than 2.5 standard deviations below the mean BMD at peak bone mass, or the presence of a fragility fracture. In the setting of osteoporosis, early hardware loosening is thought to cause decreased spinal fusion rates. The two mainstays of osteoporosis treatment are bisphosphonates and Teriparatide. Teriparatide, a form of synthetic parathyroid hormone (PTH), is an anabolic agent that increases osteoblast activity and, thereby, bone mass. Preclinical studies in animal models show that Teriparatide increases spinal fusion rates...
December 3, 2016: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922003/blood-flow-controls-bone-vascular-function-and-osteogenesis
#7
Saravana K Ramasamy, Anjali P Kusumbe, Maria Schiller, Dagmar Zeuschner, M Gabriele Bixel, Carlo Milia, Jaba Gamrekelashvili, Anne Limbourg, Alexander Medvinsky, Massimo M Santoro, Florian P Limbourg, Ralf H Adams
While blood vessels play important roles in bone homeostasis and repair, fundamental aspects of vascular function in the skeletal system remain poorly understood. Here we show that the long bone vasculature generates a peculiar flow pattern, which is important for proper angiogenesis. Intravital imaging reveals that vessel growth in murine long bone involves the extension and anastomotic fusion of endothelial buds. Impaired blood flow leads to defective angiogenesis and osteogenesis, and downregulation of Notch signalling in endothelial cells...
December 6, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921150/bone-mineral-density-is-decreased-in-fibromyalgia-syndrome-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#8
Sikarin Upala, Wai Chung Yong, Anawin Sanguankeo
Previous studies have shown that fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is associated with low level of physical activity and exercise, which may lead to an increased risk of osteoporosis. However, studies of bone mineral density (BMD) in fibromyalgia have shown conflicting results. Thus, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to better characterize the association between FMS and BMD. A comprehensive search of the databases MEDLINE and EMBASE was performed from inception through May 2016. The inclusion criterion was the observational studies' assessment of the association between fibromyalgia and bone mineral density in adult subjects...
December 5, 2016: Rheumatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921147/can-the-alendronate-dosage-be-altered-when-combined-with-high-frequency-loading-in-osteoporosis-treatment
#9
C B Correa, G V Camargos, M Chatterjee, M F Mesquita, A A Del Bel Cury, I Naert, J Duyck, K Vandamme
: Alendronate therapy has been associated with serious side effects. Altering the alendronate concentration and combining with high-frequency loading as mechanical intervention was explored in this animal study as a treatment for osteoporosis. The bone anabolic potency of high-frequency loading was overruled by the different alendronate dosages applied in the present study. Further exploration of reduced hormonal therapy associated with mechanical interventions in osteoporosis treatment should be sought...
December 5, 2016: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921146/bone-loss-at-the-distal-femur-and-proximal-tibia-in-persons-with-spinal-cord-injury-imaging-approaches-risk-of-fracture-and-potential-treatment-options
#10
REVIEW
C M Cirnigliaro, M J Myslinski, M F La Fountaine, S C Kirshblum, G F Forrest, W A Bauman
Persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) undergo immediate unloading of the skeleton and, as a result, have severe bone loss below the level of lesion associated with increased risk of long-bone fractures. The pattern of bone loss in individuals with SCI differs from other forms of secondary osteoporosis because the skeleton above the level of lesion remains unaffected, while marked bone loss occurs in the regions of neurological impairment. Striking demineralization of the trabecular epiphyses of the distal femur (supracondylar) and proximal tibia occurs, with the knee region being highly vulnerable to fracture because many accidents occur while sitting in a wheelchair, making the knee region the first point of contact to any applied force...
December 5, 2016: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921145/compressive-loading-of-the-murine-tibia-reveals-site-specific-micro-scale-differences-in-adaptation-and-maturation-rates-of-bone
#11
I Bergström, J G Kerns, A E Törnqvist, C Perdikouri, N Mathavan, A Koskela, H B Henriksson, J Tuukkanen, G Andersson, H Isaksson, A E Goodship, S H Windahl
: Loading increases bone mass and strength in a site-specific manner; however, possible effects of loading on bone matrix composition have not been evaluated. Site-specific structural and material properties of mouse bone were analyzed on the macro- and micro/molecular scale in the presence and absence of axial loading. The response of bone to load is heterogeneous, adapting at molecular, micro-, and macro-levels. INTRODUCTION: Osteoporosis is a degenerative disease resulting in reduced bone mineral density, structure, and strength...
December 5, 2016: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920811/the-use-of-routine-non-density-calibrated-clinical-computed-tomography-data-as-a-potentially-useful-screening-tool-for-identifying-patients-with-osteoporosis
#12
Christopher John Burke, Manjiri M Didolkar, Huiman X Barnhart, Emily N Vinson
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether lumbar vertebral body density CT attenuation values measured in Hounsfield Units (HUs) on routine Computed Tomography (CT) examinations can be reliably measured with limited variability, and to evaluate for a correlation between HUs and bone mineral density as measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan. METHODS: Retrospective review of a total of 249 routine MDCT examinations, performed to measure HUs at the first non-rib bearing lumbar vertebral body on axial images, cross-referenced to the lateral scout image...
May 2016: Clinical Cases in Mineral and Bone Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920805/abaloparatide
#13
REVIEW
Stefano Gonnelli, Carla Caffarelli
Abaloparatide is an investigational analog of human PTHrP (1-34) being developed for the treatment of osteoporosis. The amino-acid sequence of abaloparatide is identical to that of PTHrP in the first 20 amino-acids, while over half of the remaining amino-acids are different. Some studies in animals and in humans reported that abaloparatide presented a potent anabolic activity with reduced effects on bone resorption as compared to that observed with teriparatide. This may be due to a more transient signaling response of abaloparatide related to differing affinities of the two drugs to the specific conformations of the PTH1 receptor...
May 2016: Clinical Cases in Mineral and Bone Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920803/bone-pain-mechanism-in-osteoporosis-a-narrative-review
#14
REVIEW
Consalvo Mattia, Flaminia Coluzzi, Ludovica Celidonio, Renato Vellucci
Bone pain in elderly people dramatically affects their quality of life, with osteoporosis being the leading cause of skeletal related events. Peripheral and central mechanisms are involved in the pathogenesis of the nervous system sensitization. Osteoporosis in the elderly has been associated with increased density of bone sensory nerve fibers and their pathological modifications, together with an over-expression of nociceptors sensitized by the lowering pH due to the osteoclastic activity. The activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors and the microglia, as a response to a range of pathological conditions, represent the leading cause of central sensitization...
May 2016: Clinical Cases in Mineral and Bone Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920801/implications-of-analgesics-use-in-osteoporotic-related-pain-treatment-focus-on-opioids
#15
REVIEW
Renato Vellucci, Consalvo Mattia, Ludovica Celidonio, Rocco Domenico Mediati
Bone loss is asymptomatic and will progress without pain and other symptoms until the occurrence of a fracture. The occurrence of a breaking bone induce acute pain determined and supported by a mechanical, inflammatory and neuropathic component. Very often the acute component evolves in a chronic musculoskeletal component. Overall objectives of the analgesic therapy can be summarized in pain relief, improving sleep, improve mobility, reduce anxiety, emotional component and depression. Osteoporosis is predominantly a condition of the elderly, more likely to have coexisting cardiovascular disease and age-related decline in renal function, receiving treatment for one or more comorbid conditions, taking multiple medications...
May 2016: Clinical Cases in Mineral and Bone Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919734/microdamage-induced-by-in-vivo-reference-point-indentation-in-mice-is-repaired-by-osteocyte-apoptosis-mediated-remodeling
#16
Oran D Kennedy, Matin Lendhey, Peter Mauer, Anaya Philip, Jelena Basta-Pljakic, Mitchell B Schaffler
Reference Point Indentation (RPI) is a technology that is designed to measure mechanical properties that relate to bone toughness, or its ability to resist crack growth, in vivo. Independent of the mechanical parameters generated by RPI, its ability to initiate and propagate microcracks in bone is itself an interesting issue. Microcracks have a crucial biological relevance in bone, are central to its ability to maintain homeostasis. In healthy tissues, a process of targeted remodeling routinely repairs microcracks in a process mediated by osteocyte apoptosis...
December 2, 2016: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919248/bone-mineral-density-in-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis-hereditary-ataxia-or-hereditary-spastic-paraplegia-after-at-least-10%C3%A2-years-of-disease-a-case-control-study
#17
Cecilia Smith Simonsen, Elisabeth Gulowsen Celius, Cathrine Brunborg, Chantal Tallaksen, Erik Fink Eriksen, Trygve Holmøy, Stine Marit Moen
BACKGROUND: Although disability is considered the main cause of low bone mineral density (BMD) in multiple sclerosis (MS), other factors related to the disease process or treatment could also be involved. The aim of this study was to assess whether patients with MS are more likely to develop low BMD (osteopenia or osteoporosis) than patients with the non-inflammatory neurological diseases Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia (HSP) and Hereditary Ataxia (HA). METHODS: We performed a case control study comparing BMD (spine, hip and total body) and biochemical measures of bone metabolism in 91 MS patients and 77 patients with HSP or HA, matched for age, gender and disability...
December 5, 2016: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918899/the-effects-of-sost-on-implant-osseointegration-in-ovariectomy-osteoporotic-mice
#18
Rui Shu, Dongqing Ai, Ding Bai, Jinlin Song, Mengyuan Zhao, Xianglong Han
OBJECTIVE: Osteoporosis is a risk factor for implant fixation failure. The inhibition of sclerostin effectively improves bone formation and bone remodeling. Therefore, this study investigated whether SOST deficiency enhances the osseointegration of implants in a mouse model of osteoporosis induced by ovariectomy (OVX). DESIGN: Osteoporosis was induced in female C57BL/6 and SOST deficient mice by OVX. Titanium implants were placed in the bilateral distal aspects of the femurs...
November 21, 2016: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918708/patient-specific-hip-fracture-strength-assessment-with-microstructural-mr-imaging-based-finite-element-modeling
#19
Chamith S Rajapakse, Alexandra Hotca, Benjamin T Newman, Austin Ramme, Shaleen Vira, Elizabeth A Kobe, Rhiannon Miller, Stephen Honig, Gregory Chang
Purpose To describe a nonlinear finite element analysis method by using magnetic resonance (MR) images for the assessment of the mechanical competence of the hip and to demonstrate the reproducibility of the tool. Materials and Methods This prospective study received institutional review board approval and fully complied with HIPAA regulations for patient data. Written informed consent was obtained from all subjects. A nonlinear finite element analysis method was developed to estimate mechanical parameters that relate to hip fracture resistance by using MR images...
December 2, 2016: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918446/metabolomics-and-its-application-in-the-development-of-discovering-biomarkers-for-osteoporosis-research
#20
REVIEW
Huanhuan Lv, Feng Jiang, Daogang Guan, Cheng Lu, Baosheng Guo, Chileung Chan, Songlin Peng, Baoqin Liu, Wenwei Guo, Hailong Zhu, Xuegong Xu, Aiping Lu, Ge Zhang
Osteoporosis is a progressive skeletal disorder characterized by low bone mass and increased risk of fracture in later life. The incidence and costs associated with treating osteoporosis cause heavy socio-economic burden. Currently, the diagnosis of osteoporosis mainly depends on bone mineral density and bone turnover markers. However, these indexes are not sensitive and accurate enough to reflect the osteoporosis progression. Metabolomics offers the potential for a holistic approach for clinical diagnoses and treatment, as well as understanding of the pathological mechanism of osteoporosis...
December 2, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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