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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820377/rabies-virus-transmission-in-solid-organ-transplantation-china-2015-2016
#1
Shuilian Chen, Heng Zhang, Meiling Luo, Jingfang Chen, Dong Yao, Faming Chen, Ruchun Liu, Tianmu Chen
We report rabies virus transmission among solid organ transplantation recipients in Changsha, China, in 2016. Two recipients were confirmed to have rabies and died. Our findings suggest that more attention should be paid to the possibility of rabies virus transmission through organ transplantation for clinical and public health reasons.
September 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820138/processes-underlying-rabies-virus-incursions-across-us-canada-border-as-revealed-by-whole-genome-phylogeography
#2
Hannah Trewby, Susan A Nadin-Davis, Leslie A Real, Roman Biek
Disease control programs aim to constrain and reduce the spread of infection. Human disease interventions such as wildlife vaccination play a major role in determining the limits of a pathogen's spatial distribution. Over the past few decades, a raccoon-specific variant of rabies virus (RRV) has invaded large areas of eastern North America. Although expansion into Canada has been largely prevented through vaccination along the US border, several outbreaks have occurred in Canada. Applying phylogeographic approaches to 289 RRV whole-genome sequences derived from isolates collected in Canada and adjacent US states, we examined the processes underlying these outbreaks...
September 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819692/molecular-characterization-of-atypical-antigenic-variants-of-canine-rabies-virus-reveals-its-reintroduction-by-wildlife-vectors-in-southeastern-mexico
#3
Fabiola Garcés-Ayala, Nidia Aréchiga-Ceballos, Joanna M Ortiz-Alcántara, Elizabeth González-Durán, Sandra I Pérez-Agüeros, Alfonso Méndez-Tenorio, Belem Torres-Longoria, Irma López-Martínez, Lucía Hernández-Rivas, José Alberto Díaz-Quiñonez, José Ernesto Ramírez-González
Rabies is an infectious viral disease that is practically always fatal following the onset of clinical signs. In Mexico, the last case of human rabies transmitted by dogs was reported in 2006 and canine rabies has declined significantly due to vaccination campaigns implemented in the country. Here we report on the molecular characterization of six rabies virus strains found in Yucatan and Chiapas, remarkably, four of them showed an atypical reaction pattern when antigenic characterization with a reduced panel of eight monoclonal antibodies was performed...
August 17, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818750/whole-genome-sequence-phylogenetic-analysis-of-four-mexican-rabies-viruses-isolated-from-cattle
#4
I Bárcenas-Reyes, E Loza-Rubio, G J Cantó-Alarcón, J Luna-Cozar, A Enríquez-Vázquez, R J Barrón-Rodríguez, F Milián-Suazo
Phylogenetic analysis of the rabies virus in molecular epidemiology has been traditionally performed on partial sequences of the genome, such as the N, G, and P genes; however, that approach raises concerns about the discriminatory power compared to whole genome sequencing. In this study we characterized four strains of the rabies virus isolated from cattle in Querétaro, Mexico by comparing the whole genome sequence to that of strains from the American, European and Asian continents. Four cattle brain samples positive to rabies and characterized as AgV11, genotype 1, were used in the study...
August 4, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818621/codon-usage-bias-in-the-n-gene-of-rabies-virus
#5
Wanting He, Hongyu Zhang, Yuchen Zhang, Ruyi Wang, Sijia Lu, Yanjie Ji, Chang Liu, Pengkun Yuan, Shuo Su
Since its emergence, rabies virus (RABV) has been a major worldwide concern especially in developing countries. The nucleoprotein (N) of RABV is highly conserved and key for genetic typing, thus a better understanding of the N gene evolutionary trajectory can assist the development of control measures. We found that the N gene of RABV has a low codon usage bias with a mean effective number of codons (ENC) value of 56.33 influenced by both mutation pressure and natural selection. However, neutrality analysis indicated that natural selection dominates over mutation pressure...
August 14, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814733/enhancing-immune-responses-to-cancer-vaccines-using-multi-site-injections
#6
Robert C Mould, Amanda W K AuYeung, Jacob P van Vloten, Leonardo Susta, Anthony J Mutsaers, James J Petrik, Geoffrey A Wood, Sarah K Wootton, Khalil Karimi, Byram W Bridle
For a vaccine to be effective it must induce a sufficiently robust and specific immune response. Multi-site injection protocols can increase the titers of rabies virus-neutralizing antibodies. Hypothetically, spreading a vaccine dose across multiple lymphatic drainage regions could also potentiate T cell responses. We used a replication-deficient adenovirus serotype 5-vectored cancer vaccine targeting the melanoma-associated antigen dopachrome tautomerase. Clinically, high numbers of tumor-infiltrating CD8(+) T cells are a positive prognostic indicator...
August 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804595/natural-exposure-of-bats-in-grenada-to-rabies-virus
#7
Ulrike Zieger, Sonia Cheetham, Sharlene E Santana, Leith Leiser-Miller, Vanessa Matthew-Belmar, Hooman Goharriz, Anthony R Fooks
Introduction: Grenada is a rabies endemic country, where terrestrial rabies is maintained in the small Indian mongoose (Herpestes auropunctatus). The role of bats in the epidemiology of rabies in Grenada is unknown. A 1974 report described one rabies virus positive Jamaican fruit bat (Artibeus jamaicensis), and a high seroprevalence in this species. In the current study, the natural exposure to rabies virus in Grenadian bats was re-evaluated. It is postulated that bats serve as a natural rabies reservoir, probably circulating a bat-specific rabies virus variant...
2017: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804450/whole-brain-mapping-of-the-inputs-and-outputs-of-the-medial-part-of-the-olfactory-tubercle
#8
Zhijian Zhang, Hongruo Zhang, Pengjie Wen, Xutao Zhu, Li Wang, Qing Liu, Jie Wang, Xiaobin He, Huadong Wang, Fuqiang Xu
The medial part of the olfactory tubercle (OT) is a brain structure located at the interface of the reward and olfactory system. It is closely related to pheromone-rewards, natural reinforcement, addiction and many other behaviors. However, the structure of the anatomic circuitry of the medial part of the OT is still unclear. In the present study, the medial part of the OT was found to be highly connected with a wide range of brain areas with the help of the pseudorabies virus tracing tool. In order to further investigate the detailed connections for specific neurons, another tracing tool - rabies virus was utilized for D1R-cre and D2R-cre mice...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770237/use-of-rapid-fluorescent-focus-inhibition-test-rffit-for-in-vitro-evaluation-of-anti-rabies-activity
#9
Shraddha Mehta, Soumen Roy, Abhay Chowdhary
Even in the twenty-first century, rabies remains one of the most dreaded diseases in many parts of the world. An effective chemotherapeutic still remains elusive. The present study was aimed at in vitro evaluation of crude extracts of Allamanda cathartica and Cynodon dactylon for their potential anti-rabies activity based on the principle of immunofluorescence. The extracts were tested for cytotoxicity and screened for the presence of phytochemicals. While A. cathartica extracts were found to be non-toxic, the CC50 of C...
June 2017: Virusdisease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770072/genetic-demography-at-the-leading-edge-of-the-distribution-of-a-rabies-virus-vector
#10
Antoinette J Piaggio, Amy L Russell, Ignacio A Osorio, Alejandro Jiménez Ramírez, Justin W Fischer, Jennifer L Neuwald, Annie E Tibbels, Luis Lecuona, Gary F McCracken
The common vampire bat, Desmodus rotundus, ranges from South America into northern Mexico in North America. This sanguivorous species of bat feeds primarily on medium to large-sized mammals and is known to rely on livestock as primary prey. Each year, there are hotspot areas of D. rotundus-specific rabies virus outbreaks that lead to the deaths of livestock and economic losses. Based on incidental captures in our study area, which is an area of high cattle mortality from D. rotundus transmitted rabies, it appears that D...
July 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768857/molecular-function-analysis-of-rabies-virus-rna-polymerase-l-protein-by-using-an-l-gene-deficient-virus
#11
Kento Nakagawa, Yuki Kobayashi, Naoto Ito, Yoshiyuki Suzuki, Kazuma Okada, Machiko Makino, Hideo Goto, Tatsuki Takahashi, Makoto Sugiyama
While the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase L protein of rabies virus (RABV), a member of the genus Lyssavirus of the family Rhabdoviridae, has potential to be a therapeutic target for rabies, the molecular functions of this protein have remained largely unknown. In this study, to obtain a novel experimental tool for molecular function analysis of the RABV L protein, we established by using a reverse genetics approach an L gene-deficient RABV (Nishi-ΔL/Nluc), which infects, propagates and correspondingly produces NanoLuc luciferase in cultured neuroblastoma cells [20013240291] transfected to express the L protein...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766059/protective-immune-response-of-oral-rabies-vaccine-in-stray-dogs-corsacs-and-steppe-wolves-after-a-single-immunization
#12
K Zhugunissov, Ye Bulatov, D Taranov, Z Yershebulov, Zh Koshemetov, Ye Abduraimov, Zh Kondibayeva, A Samoltyrova, Zh Amanova, B Khairullin, A Sansyzbay
In this study the safety and protective immunity of an oral rabies vaccine, based on the live, modified rabies virus strain VRC-RZ2, was examined in stray dogs (Canis Sp.), corsacs (Vulpes corsac) and steppe wolves (Canis lupus campestris). In the safety group (dogs, n=6; corsacs, n=3; wolves, n=3) which was vaccinated with a 10-times field dose/animal, no animals showed any signs of disease or changes in behavior or appetite during the period of clinical observation, similar to the animals in the negative control group...
August 1, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757168/hippocampal-tert-regulates-spatial-memory-formation-through-modulation-of-neural-development
#13
Qi-Gang Zhou, Meng-Ying Liu, Han-Woong Lee, Fuyuki Ishikawa, Sushil Devkota, Xin-Ru Shen, Xin Jin, Hai-Yin Wu, Zhigang Liu, Xiao Liu, Xun Jin, Hai-Hui Zhou, Eun Jeoung Ro, Jing Zhang, Yu Zhang, Yu-Hui Lin, Hoonkyo Suh, Dong-Ya Zhu
The molecular mechanism of memory formation remains a mystery. Here, we show that TERT, the catalytic subunit of telomerase, gene knockout (Tert(-/-)) causes extremely poor ability in spatial memory formation. Knockdown of TERT in the dentate gyrus of adult hippocampus impairs spatial memory processes, while overexpression facilitates it. We find that TERT plays a critical role in neural development including dendritic development and neuritogenesis of hippocampal newborn neurons. A monosynaptic pseudotyped rabies virus retrograde tracing method shows that TERT is required for neural circuit integration of hippocampal newborn neurons...
August 8, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757035/characterization-of-akabane-virus-from-domestic-bamboo-rat-southern-china
#14
Hai-Bo Tang, Fenglian Chen, Guibo Rao, Anbin Bai, Jiajia Jiang, Yichao Du, Pengfei Ren, Jinfeng Liu, Shaomin Qin, Lei Yang, Jianmin Wu
To identify the causative agents in 3 large-scale outbreaks of encephalitis and death among farmed bamboo rats (Rhizomys pruinosus). The routine bacterial culture and identification were performed. There were no significant pathogenic bacteria isolated from the brain, heart, liver, spleen, lung, or kidney of diseased bamboo rats. Using PCR-based methods, we excluded the following as causative agent: pox virus, herpesvirus, adenovirus, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, rabies virus, and sendai virus. Furthermore, the homogenate from the diseased bamboo rats was subjected to viral metagenomic analysis which revealed 48506 filtered viral reads annotated to Akabane virus (AKAV) with >75% nucleotide identity, suggesting the presence of AKAVs in bamboo rats...
August 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754494/safety-and-immunogenicity-of-a-mrna-rabies-vaccine-in-healthy-adults-an-open-label-non-randomised-prospective-first-in-human-phase-1-clinical-trial
#15
Martin Alberer, Ulrike Gnad-Vogt, Henoch Sangjoon Hong, Keyvan Tadjalli Mehr, Linus Backert, Greg Finak, Raphael Gottardo, Mihai Alexandru Bica, Aurelio Garofano, Sven Dominik Koch, Mariola Fotin-Mleczek, Ingmar Hoerr, Ralf Clemens, Frank von Sonnenburg
BACKGROUND: Vaccines based on mRNA coding for antigens have been shown to be safe and immunogenic in preclinical models. We aimed to report results of the first-in-human proof-of-concept clinical trial in healthy adults of a prophylactic mRNA-based vaccine encoding rabies virus glycoprotein (CV7201). METHODS: We did an open-label, uncontrolled, prospective, phase 1 clinical trial at one centre in Munich, Germany. Healthy male and female volunteers (aged 18-40 years) with no history of rabies vaccination were sequentially enrolled...
July 25, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731002/neuropathogenesis-by-chandipura-virus-an-acute-encephalitis-syndrome-in-india
#16
REVIEW
Sourish Ghosh, Anirban Basu
Chandipura virus (CHPV) has been contributing to the rising number of premature deaths due to acute encephalitis syndrome for over a decade in India. CHPV belongs to the family Rhabdoviridae. Neuropathogenesis of CHPV has been well established but the exact route of entry into the central nervous system (CNS) and the triggering factor for neuronal death are still unknown. Rabies virus and vesicular stomatitis virus, which are related closely to CHPV, enter the CNS retrogradely from peripheral or olfactory neurons...
January 2017: National Medical Journal of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730326/infectious-diseases-causing-autonomic-dysfunction
#17
REVIEW
Francisco Javier Carod Artal
OBJECTIVES: To review infectious diseases that may cause autonomic dysfunction. METHODS: Review of published papers indexed in medline/embase. RESULTS: Autonomic dysfunction has been reported in retrovirus (human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), human T-lymphotropic virus), herpes viruses, flavivirus, enterovirus 71 and lyssavirus infections. Autonomic dysfunction is relatively common in HIV-infected patients and heart rate variability is reduced even in early stages of infection...
July 20, 2017: Clinical Autonomic Research: Official Journal of the Clinical Autonomic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726129/immunological-aspects-of-rabies-a-literature-review
#18
REVIEW
Iana Suly Santos Katz, Fernanda Guedes, Elaine Raniero Fernandes, Sandriana Dos Ramos Silva
Rabies is a lethal disease caused by the neurotropic virus rabies virus (RABV), and it remains an important public health problem globally. It is known that the host immune response is important for control of viral infection and promoting viral clearance. In this context, it is well documented that, in addition to RABV neutralizing antibody, interferons and cell-mediated immunity also have an important role in preventing the establishment of disease. On the other hand, RABV suppresses host immunity through different mechanisms, for example, direct inhibition of host gene expression, sequestration of pathogen-associated molecular patterns, or modification of cytokine signalling pathways, which hinder the protective host immune responses to RABV infection...
July 19, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707662/-c-terminal-lysosome-targeting-domain-of-cd63-modifies-cellular-localization-of-rabies-virus-glycoprotein
#19
E S Starodubova, Y V Kuzmenko, A A Latanova, O V Preobrazhenskaya, V L Karpov
The glycoprotein of rabies virus is the central antigen elicited the immune response to infection; therefore, the majority of developing anti-rabies vaccines are based on this protein. In order to increase the efficacy of DNA immunogen encoding rabies virus glycoprotein, the construction of chimeric protein with the CD63 domain has been proposed. The CD63 is a transmembrane protein localized on the cell surface and in lysosomes. The lysosome targeting motif GYEVM is located at its C-terminus. We used the domain that bears this motif (c-CD63) to generate chimeric glycoprotein in order to relocalize it into lysosomes...
May 2017: Molekuliarnaia Biologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700657/increased-transgene-expression-level-of-rabies-virus-vector-for-transsynaptic-tracing
#20
Shinya Ohara, Yasuhiro Sota, Sho Sato, Ken-Ichiro Tsutsui, Toshio Iijima
Viral vectors that can infect neurons transsynaptically and can strongly express foreign genes are useful for investigating the organization of neural circuits. We previously developed a propagation-competent rabies virus (RV) vector based on a highly attenuated HEP-Flury strain (rHEP5.0-CVSG), which selectively infects neurons and propagates between synaptically connected neurons in a retrograde direction. Its relatively low level of transgene expression, however, makes immunostaining necessary to visualize the morphological features of infected neurons...
2017: PloS One
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