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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328884/evaluation-of-g2-citric-acid-based-dendrimer-as-an-adjuvant-in-veterinary-rabies-vaccine
#1
Vahid Asgary, Alireza Shoari, Majid Afshar Moayad, Mehdi Shafiee Ardestani, Razieh Bigdeli, Leila Ghazizadeh, Mohammad Sadeq Khosravy, Erfan Panahnejad, Alireza Janani, Rouzbeh Bashar, Maliheh Abedi, Reza Ahangari Cohan
For induction of an appropriate immune response, especially in the case of an inactivated vaccine, the use of an adjuvant is crucial. In this study, adjuvanticity effect of G2 dendrimer in veterinary rabies vaccine has been investigated. A nonlinear globular G2 dendrimer comprising citric acid and polyethylene glycol 600 (PEG-600) was synthesized and the toxicity was studied in vitro on the J774A.1 cell line. The adjuvanticity effect of the dendrimer was then investigated on rabies virus in NMRI mice as a model...
January 2018: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325820/an-assessment-of-shedding-with-the-oral-rabies-virus-vaccine-strain-spbn-gasgas-in-target-and-non-target-species
#2
Ad Vos, Conrad Freuling, Steffen Ortmann, Antje Kretzschmar, Dietmar Mayer, Annette Schliephake, Thomas Müller
A safety requirement for live vaccines is investigating possible shedding in recipients since the presence of replication competent vaccine in secretions could result in direct and indirect horizontal transmission. This is especially relevant for oral rabies vaccine baits that are deliberately distributed into the environment. In the current study, survival of an oral rabies virus vaccine, SPBN GASGAS, was examined in excretions from different target and non-target species; red fox, raccoon dog, small Indian mongoose, raccoon, striped skunk, domestic dog, domestic cat and domestic pig...
January 8, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316047/parainfluenza-virus-5-vectored-vaccines-against-human-and-animal-infectious-diseases
#3
REVIEW
Zhenhai Chen
Parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5), known as canine parainfluenza virus in the veterinary field, is a negative-sense, nonsegmented, single-stranded RNA virus belonging to the Paramyxoviridae family. Parainfluenza virus 5 is an excellent viral vector and has been used as a live vaccine for kennel cough for many years in dogs without any safety concern. It can grow to high titers in many cell types, and its genome is stable even in the presence of foreign gene insertions. So far, PIV5 has been used to develop vaccines against influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, rabies virus, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, demonstrating its ability to elicit robust and protective immune responses in preclinical animal models...
January 5, 2018: Reviews in Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303971/molecular-epidemiology-and-evolution-of-european-bat-lyssavirus-2
#4
REVIEW
Lorraine M McElhinney, Denise A Marston, Emma L Wise, Conrad M Freuling, Hervé Bourhy, Reto Zanoni, Torfinn Moldal, Engbert A Kooi, Antonie Neubauer-Juric, Tiina Nokireki, Thomas Müller, Anthony R Fooks
Bat rabies cases in Europe are mainly attributed to two lyssaviruses, namely European Bat Lyssavirus 1 (EBLV-1) and European Bat Lyssavirus 2 (EBLV-2). Prior to the death of a bat worker in Finland in 1985, very few bat rabies cases were reported. Enhanced surveillance in the two subsequent years (1986-1987) identified 263 cases (more than a fifth of all reported cases to date). Between 1977 and 2016, 1183 cases of bat rabies were reported, with the vast majority (>97%) being attributed to EBLV-1. In contrast, there have been only 39 suspected cases of EBLV-2, of which 34 have been confirmed by virus typing and presently restricted to just two bat species; Myotis daubentonii and Myotis dasycneme...
January 5, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300895/multizonal-cerebellar-influence-over-sensorimotor-areas-of-the-rat-cerebral-cortex
#5
Sho Aoki, Patrice Coulon, Tom J H Ruigrok
The cerebral cortex requires cerebellar input for optimizing sensorimotor processing. However, how the sensorimotor cortex uses cerebellar information is far from understood. One critical and unanswered question is how cerebellar functional entities (zones or modules) are connected to distinct parts of the sensorimotor cortices. Here, we utilized retrograde transneuronal infection of rabies virus (RABV) to study the organization of connections from the cerebellar cortex to M1, M2, and S1 of the rat cerebral cortex...
December 29, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300155/antigenic-site-changes-in-the-rabies-virus-glycoprotein-dictates-functionality-and-neutralizing-capability-against-divergent-lyssaviruses
#6
J S Evans, D Selden, G Wu, E Wright, D L Horton, A R Fooks, A C Banyard
Lyssavirus infection has a near 100 % case fatality rate following the onset of clinical disease, and current rabies vaccines confer protection against all reported phylogroup I lyssaviruses. However, there is little or no protection against more divergent lyssaviruses and so investigation into epitopes within the glycoprotein (G) that dictate a neutralizing response against divergent lyssaviruses is warranted. Importantly, the facilities required to work with these pathogens, including wild-type and mutated forms of different lyssaviruses, are scarcely available and, as such, this type of study is inherently difficult to perform...
January 4, 2018: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291220/sequencing-and-sequence-analysis-of-partial-nucleoprotein-n-gene-and-phylogenetic-analysis-of-rabies-virus-field-isolates-from-gujarat-state-india
#7
Dhaval H Vagheshwari, Bharat B Bhanderi, Rafyuddin A Mathakiya, Mayurdhvaj K Jhala
The present study was undertaken with an aim of characterization of rabies virus (genus Lyssavirus of the family Rhabdoviridae under the order Mononegavirales) by sequencing of partial nucleoprotein (N) gene of rabies virus and phylogenetic analysis to know the genotype and lineage of rabies virus present in Gujarat state of India. A total of 32 samples (18 brain samples and 14 saliva samples) were aseptically collected from live and dead animals (viz. dog, buffalo, cow, goat, donkey and hyena) for rabies virus detection...
September 2017: Virusdisease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279280/the-path-towards-effective-antivirals-against-rabies
#8
Dirk Jochmans, Johan Neyts
Rabies virus remains an important burden of disease claiming an estimated 60,000 lives each year, mainly children, and having a huge economical and societal cost. Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) is highly effective, however in patients that present with neurological symptoms the case-fatality ratio is extremely high (>99%). During the last decades several attempts to identify potent and effective antivirals were made. Only a few of these demonstrated improvement in clinical signs in animal studies and none of the trials in humans showed significant efficacy...
December 23, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274698/mannitol-treatment-is-not-effective-in-therapy-of-rabies-virus-infection-in-mice
#9
Lucie Dufkova, Jana Sirmarova, Jiri Salat, Vaclav Honig, Martin Palus, Daniel Ruzek, Anthony R Fooks, Karen L Mansfield, Noël Tordo, Dirk Jochmans, Johan Neyts, Byron Martina, Penelope Koraka, Albert D M E Osterhaus
Rabies is a deadly viral disease with an extremely high fatality rate in humans. Previously, it was suggested that an enhancement of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability, which allows immune cells and/or antibodies to enter the central nervous system (CNS) tissue, is critical to clear the infection. In this study, we utilised mannitol to increase BBB permeability in mice infected with highly pathogenic silver-haired bat rabies virus (SHBRV). We found that intraperitoneal injection of mannitol causes a slight, transient increase of BBB permeability in the treated mice...
December 20, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274171/landscape-attributes-governing-local-transmission-of-an-endemic-zoonosis-rabies-virus-in-domestic-dogs
#10
Kirstyn Brunker, Philippe Lemey, Denise A Marston, Anthony R Fooks, Ahmed Lugelo, Chanasa Ngeleja, Katie Hampson, Roman Biek
Landscape heterogeneity plays an important role in disease spread and persistence but quantifying landscape influences and their scale-dependence is challenging. Studies have focused on how environmental features or global transport networks influence pathogen invasion and spread, but their influence on local transmission dynamics that underpin the persistence of endemic diseases remains unexplored. Bayesian phylogeographic frameworks that incorporate spatial heterogeneities are promising tools for analysing linked epidemiological, environmental and genetic data...
December 23, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261658/syn023-a-novel-humanized-monoclonal-antibody-cocktail-for-post-exposure-prophylaxis-of-rabies
#11
Tzu-Yuan Chao, Shiqi Ren, Enyun Shen, Susan Moore, Shou-Feng Zhang, Li Chen, Charles E Rupprecht, Eric Tsao
Rabies is a neglected zoonotic disease that is preventable in humans by appropriate post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP). However, current PEP relies on polyclonal immune globulin products purified from pooled human (HRIG) or equine (ERIG) plasma that are either in chronic shortage or in association with safety concerns. Here, we present the development of an antibody cocktail, SYN023, made of two novel monoclonal antibodies (MAb) CTB011 and CTB012 that could serve as safer and more cost-effective alternatives to the current RIG products...
December 20, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251729/virus-stamping-for-targeted-single-cell-infection-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#12
Rajib Schubert, Stuart Trenholm, Kamill Balint, Georg Kosche, Cameron S Cowan, Manuel A Mohr, Martin Munz, David Martinez-Martin, Gotthold Fläschner, Richard Newton, Jacek Krol, Brigitte Gross Scherf, Keisuke Yonehara, Adrian Wertz, Aaron Ponti, Alexander Ghanem, Daniel Hillier, Karl-Klaus Conzelmann, Daniel J Müller, Botond Roska
Genetic engineering by viral infection of single cells is useful to study complex systems such as the brain. However, available methods for infecting single cells have drawbacks that limit their applications. Here we describe 'virus stamping', in which viruses are reversibly bound to a delivery vehicle-a functionalized glass pipette tip or magnetic nanoparticles in a pipette-that is brought into physical contact with the target cell on a surface or in tissue, using mechanical or magnetic forces. Different single cells in the same tissue can be infected with different viruses and an individual cell can be simultaneously infected with different viruses...
December 18, 2017: Nature Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237469/bat-rabies-surveillance-in-france-first-report-of-unusual-mortality-among-serotine-bats
#13
Evelyne Picard-Meyer, Alexandre Servat, Marine Wasniewski, Matthieu Gaillard, Christophe Borel, Florence Cliquet
BACKGROUND: Rabies is a fatal viral encephalitic disease that is caused by lyssaviruses which can affect all mammals, including human and bats. In Europe, bat rabies cases are attributed to five different lyssavirus species, the majority of rabid bats being attributed to European bat 1 lyssavirus (EBLV-1), circulating mainly in serotine bats (Eptesicus serotinus). In France, rabies in bats is under surveillance since 1989, with 77 positive cases reported between 1989 and 2016. CASE PRESENTATION: In the frame of the bat rabies surveillance, an unusual mortality of serotine bats was reported in 2009 in a village in North-East France...
December 13, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237041/seroprevalence-of-rabies-virus-antibodies-in-bats-from-high-risk-areas-in-brazilian-amazonia-between-2013-and-2015
#14
Lanna J C Costa, Luzia F A Martorelli, Gisely T Barone, Elizabeth S T Rosa, Pedro F C Vasconcelos, Armando S Pereira, Marcus E B Fernandes
Background: The outbreaks of human rabies that occurred between 2004 and 2005 in the Brazilian Amazon highlight the importance of bats in the transmission of this zoonosis. Ten years after, this region is still considered to be a risk area. Methods: Serum and brain tissue samples were obtained from bats captured between 2013 and 2015. The sera were tested for the presence of rabies antibodies, using the rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test, and the brain tissue samples were tested for the presence of the rabies antigen by the direct immunofluorescence method and intracerebral inoculation in mice...
December 11, 2017: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235395/adjuvant-activity-of-ethanol-extract-of-hippophae-rhamnoides-leaves-with-inactivated-rabies-virus-antigen
#15
D Singh, B Jayashankar, K P Mishra, H Tanwar, S N Madhusudana, A Y Belludi, R Tulsawani, S B Singh, L Ganju
CONTEXT: Hippophae rhamnoides L. (Elaeagnaceae), commonly known as seabuckthorn (SBT), is known for its medicinal and nutritional properties. OBJECTIVE: Evaluation of in vivo adjuvant activity of SBT leaf extract (SBTE) with inactivated rabies virus antigen (Rb). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Swiss albino mice were immunized with aqueous-alcoholic SBTE (100 mg/kg body weight) or algel (aluminium hydroxide gel) with or without Rb (5% v/v). After priming, booster was administered on day 14...
December 2018: Pharmaceutical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231134/plant-made-antibodies-properties-and-therapeutic-applications
#16
Tatianamsu Ru V Komarova, Ekaterina V Sheshukova, Yuri L Dorokhov
A cost-effective plant platform for therapeutic monoclonal antibody production is both flexible and scalable. In addition, plant-made antibodies (PMAbs) could be advantageous compared to those produced in animal cells due to the absence of a risk of contamination from nucleic acids or proteins of animal origin. In this review, the various platforms of PMAbs production are described, and the widely used transient expression system based on Agrobacterium-mediated delivery of genetic material into plant cells is discussed in detail...
December 11, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228367/how-social-structure-drives-the-population-dynamics-of-the-common-vampire-bat-desmodus-rotundus-phyllostomidae
#17
Maïlis Huguin, Nidia Arechiga-Ceballos, Marguerite Delaval, Amandine Guidez, Isaï Jorge de Castro, Vincent Lacoste, Arielle Salmier, Alvaro Aguilar Setien, Claudia Regina Silva, Anne Lavergne, Benoit de Thoisy
Social systems are major drivers of population structure and gene flow, with important effects on dynamics and dispersal of associated populations of parasites. Among bats, the common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus) has likely one of the most complex social structure. Using autosomal and mitochondrial markers on vampires from Mexico, French Guiana and North Brazil, from both roosting and foraging areas, we observed an isolation by distance at the wider scale and lower but significant differentiation between closer populations (<50 km)...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216187/a-thermostable-messenger-rna-based-vaccine-against-rabies
#18
Lothar Stitz, Annette Vogel, Margit Schnee, Daniel Voss, Susanne Rauch, Thorsten Mutzke, Thomas Ketterer, Thomas Kramps, Benjamin Petsch
Although effective rabies virus vaccines have been existing for decades, each year, rabies virus infections still cause around 50.000 fatalities worldwide. Most of these cases occur in developing countries, where these vaccines are not available. The reasons for this are the prohibitive high costs of cell culture or egg grown rabies virus vaccines and the lack of a functional cold chain in many regions in which rabies virus is endemic. Here, we describe the excellent temperature resistance of a non-replicating mRNA based rabies virus vaccine encoding the rabies virus glycoprotein (RABV-G)...
December 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207661/immunization-with-recombinant-rabies-virus-expressing-interleukin-18-exhibits-enhanced-immunogenicity-and-protection-in-mice
#19
Weiwei Gai, Wenwen Zheng, Chong Wang, Gary Wong, Yanyan Song, Xuexing Zheng
Several studies have shown that interleukin-18 (IL-18) plays an important role in both innate and adaptive immune responses. In this study, we investigated the pathogenicity and immunogenicity of recombinant rabies virus expressing IL-18 (rHEP-IL18). Experimental results showed that Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice that received a single intramuscular immunization with rHEP-IL18 elicited the highest titers of serum neutralizing antibodies and the strongest cell-mediated immune responses to prevent the development of rabies disease, compared with immunization with the parent virus HEP-Flury...
October 31, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202520/-expression-and-purification-of-rabies-virus-glycoprotein-and-analysis-of-its-specific-binding-capacity-to-memory-b-cells
#20
Liwei Yan, Wei Gong, Wenbing Zhu, Xuemei Zhang, Jingwen Xu, Zhongxiang Wu, Kongjie Lu, Ming Sun, Shaozhong Dong
We aimed to express and purify three rabies virus glycoproteins with different tags and sizes. After analyzing their binding function, we wish to obtain a rabies virus glycoprotein with higher affinity and ability to specifically bind memory B cells. Experiments were carried out to express full length, as well as the ectodomain RVG by gene engineering method. Combined with the antibody of CD19 and CD27, the candidate protein labeling with fluorescence was used to analyze its binding function. Flow cytometry was used to detect the anti-rabies virus specific memory B cells in PBMCs, and confirm the binding ability between the candidate proteins and anti-rabies virus-specific memory B cells...
November 25, 2017: Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Biotechnology
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