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Rabies virus

Zhao Wang, Qian Liang, Yajing Zhang, Jie Yang, Mingming Li, Kunlun Wang, Min Cui, Huanchun Chen, Zhen F Fu, Ling Zhao, Ming Zhou
Rabies remains an important public health threat, killing approximately 59,000 people worldwide annually, most of which are from the developing countries of Africa and Asia where dog rabies are endemic. Therefore, developing an affordable and efficacious vaccine for dog-mediated rabies control is needful in these countries. Our previous studies indicated that over-expression of granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) or macrophage inflammatory protein-1 (MIP-1α or CCL3) by recombinant rabies virus (rRABV) could enhance the immunogenicity by activating dendritic cells (DCs)...
October 13, 2017: Oncotarget
Ashley C Banyard, Karen L Mansfield, Guanghui Wu, David Selden, Leigh Thorne, Colin Birch, Penelope Koraka, Albert D M E Osterhaus, Anthony R Fooks
There is no antiviral treatment available once clinical disease following rabies virus infection has initiated. Considered a neglected tropical disease, >60,000 human rabies deaths are estimated each year despite the availability of pre- and post-exposure prophylaxis for pre-immunisation or administration following a potential exposure before the onset of clinical disease. Such post-exposure treatments include administration of rabies immunoglobulin (RIG) and vaccination at a distant site to prime a humoral immune response...
November 10, 2017: Vaccine
Natalia Langenfeld Fuoco, Sandriana Dos Ramos Silva, Elaine Raniero Fernandes, Fernanda Guedes Luiz, Orlando Garcia Ribeiro, Iana Suly Santos Katz
Rabies is a lethal viral infection that can affect almost all mammals, including humans. To better understand the replication of Rabies lyssavirus, we investigated if the viral load in brains naturally infected with rabies influences viral internalization and viral growth kinetics in neuroblastoma cells, and if the viral load affects mortality in mice after intradermal infection. We noted that high initial viral loads in brains (group II) were unfavourable for increasing viral titers during serial passages in neuroblastoma cells when compared to low initial viral loads in brains (group I)...
November 6, 2017: Antiviral Research
Sarkis Sarkis, Marie-Claude Lise, Edith Darcissac, Stéphanie Dabo, Marcel Falk, Laura Chaulet, Christine Neuveut, Eliane F Meurs, Anne Lavergne, Vincent Lacoste
Though the common vampire bat, Desmodus rotundus, is known as the main rabies virus reservoir in Latin America, no tools are available to investigate its antiviral innate immune system. To characterize the IFN-I pathway, we established an immortalized cell line from a D. rotundus fetal lung named FLuDero. Then we molecularly characterized some of the Toll-like receptors (TLR3, 7, 8 and 9), the three RIG-I-like receptor members, as well as IFNα1 and IFNβ. Challenging the FLuDero cell line with poly (I:C) resulted in an up-regulation of both IFNα1 and IFNβ and the induction of expression of the different pattern recognition receptors characterized...
November 6, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Yu Hu, Zhuoming Chen, Lu Huang, Yue Xi, Bingxiao Li, Hong Wang, Jiajian Yan, Tatia M C Lee, Qian Tao, Kwok-Fai So, Chaoran Ren
Rapidly approaching objects indicating threats can induce defensive response through activating a subcortical pathway comprising superior colliculus (SC), lateral posterior nucleus (LP), and basolateral amygdala (BLA). Abnormal defensive response has been reported in autism, and impaired synaptic connections could be the underlying mechanism. Whether the SC-LP-BLA pathway processes looming stimuli abnormally in autism is not clear. Here, we found that looming-evoked defensive response is impaired in a subgroup of the valproic acid (VPA) mouse model of autism...
November 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
V G Dedkov, A A Deviatkin, Е М Poleshchuk, M V Safonova, E A Blinova, M Yu Shchelkanov, G N Sidorov, E G Simonova, G A Shipulin
Rabies virus is endemic to Russia, among other countries. It is therefore critical to develop a high-quality and high-precision diagnostic procedure for the control and prevention of infection. The main objective of the research presented here was to develop a reliable RT-qPCR assay for rabies diagnostics. For this purpose, a RABV strains from various biological and geographical origins were used. In addition, rabies-positive and rabies-negative samples, as well as nucleic acids from other viruses and DNA extracted from the brain tissues of mice, dogs, cats, bats and humans, were studied using the developed assay...
September 20, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Lineke Begeman, Corine GeurtsvanKessel, Stefan Finke, Conrad M Freuling, Marion Koopmans, Thomas Müller, Tom J H Ruigrok, Thijs Kuiken
Bat-acquired rabies is becoming increasingly common, and its diagnosis could be missed partly because its clinical presentation differs from that of dog-acquired rabies. We reviewed the scientific literature to compare the pathogenesis of rabies in bats and carnivores-including dogs-and related this pathogenesis to differences in the clinical presentation of bat-acquired and dog-acquired rabies in human beings. For bat-acquired rabies, we found that the histological site of exposure is usually limited to the skin, the anatomical site of exposure is more commonly the face, and the virus might be more adapted for entry via the skin than for dog-acquired rabies...
October 31, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Takashi Matsumoto, Susilakanthi Nanayakkara, Devika Perera, Shinya Ushijima, Omala Wimalaratne, Akira Nishizono, Kamruddin Ahmed
Unlike the bats of New World, Old World bats are not considered to transmit rabies virus (RABV). Two RABV variants are circulating in Sri Lanka; one variant is circulating in dogs and other animals. The other variant has been identified in a wild civet. There is possibility that other variants are also circulating among the wild animals in Sri Lanka. Therefore we performed molecular characterization of the RABVs present in Sri Lankan wild animals. Samples from wild animals, dogs, cats and humans with suspected rabies submitted at the Department of Rabies Diagnosis and Research, Medical Research Institute (MRI), Colombo, Sri Lanka were used in this study...
October 31, 2017: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
Benoit Besson, Florian Sonthonnax, Magalie Duchateau, Youcef Ben Khalifa, Florence Larrous, Hyeju Eun, Véronique Hourdel, Mariette Matondo, Julia Chamot-Rooke, Regis Grailhe, Hervé Bourhy
At the crossroad between the NF-κB and the MAPK pathways, the ternary complex composed of p105, ABIN2 and TPL2 is essential for the host cell response to pathogens. The matrix protein (M) of field isolates of rabies virus was previously shown to disturb the signaling induced by RelAp43, a NF-κB protein close to RelA/p65. Here, we investigated how the M protein disturbs the NF-κB pathway in a RelAp43-dependant manner and the potential involvement of the ternary complex in this mechanism. Using a tandem affinity purification coupled with mass spectrometry approach, we show that RelAp43 interacts with the p105-ABIN2-TPL2 complex and we observe a strong perturbation of this complex in presence of M protein...
October 2017: PLoS Pathogens
Serge Alain Sadeuh-Mba, Jean Blaise Momo, Laura Besong, Sévérin Loul, Richard Njouom
Rabies is enzootic among dog populations in some parts of Cameroon and the risk of human rabies is thought to be steadily high in these regions. However, the molecular epidemiology of circulating Rabies Virus (RABV) has been hardly considered in Cameroon as well as in most neighboring central African countries. To address this fundamental gap, 76 nucleoprotein (N) gene sequences of dog-derived RABV were obtained from 100 brain specimens sampled in Cameroon from 2010 to 2016. Studied sequences were subjected to molecular and phylogenetic analyses with reference strains retrieved from databases...
October 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Ewaldus Wera, Monique C M Mourits, Henk Hogeveen
The cost-effectiveness of different mass dog rabies vaccination strategies, defined as the costs per year of life lost (YLL) averted was evaluated for a period of 10 years by means of a dynamic simulation study for a typical village on Flores Island. In the base strategy (no dog vaccination and no post-exposure treatment (PET) of human bite cases), the model showed that the introduction of the virus by one infectious dog into an isolated village with 1500 inhabitants and 400 dogs resulted in 881 YLLs during a 10-year simulation period, which is equivalent to 30 human rabies cases...
October 24, 2017: Vaccine
Andromachi Karakatsani, Nicolas Marichal, Severino Urban, Georgios Kalamakis, Alexander Ghanem, Anna Schick, Yina Zhang, Karl-Klaus Conzelmann, Markus A Rüegg, Benedikt Berninger, Carmen Ruiz de Almodovar, Sergio Gascón, Stephan Kröger
The low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 4 (LRP4) is critical in muscle fibers for the establishment of the neuromuscular junction. Here, we show that LRP4 is also expressed by embryonic cortical and hippocampal neurons, and that downregulation of LRP4 in these neurons reduced density of synapses and number of primary dendrites. Accordingly, overexpression of LRP4 in cultured neurons had the opposite effect inducing more but shorter primary dendrites with an increased number of spines. Transsynaptic tracing mediated by rabies virus revealed a reduced number of neurons presynaptic to cortical neurons in which LRP4 was knocked down...
October 23, 2017: Development
Pingsen Zhao, Tianqi Jiang, Zhixiong Zhong, Lili Zhao, Songtao Yang, Xianzhu Xia
It was reported that ISG15 and its activating enzyme UBA7 have antiviral functions. However, there is no study to demonstrate whether ISG15 and UBA7 have anti-rabies virus function. In the current study, In vivo and in vitro anti-rabies virus function of ISG15 and UBA7 were investigated using RNAi technology. The results showed that shRNA knock-down of expression of ISG15 and UBA7 increased the titers of RABV in neuroblastoma cell line NA and microglial cell line BV-2 cells and shRNA knockdown of ISG15 conjugation alleviates the IFN-induced inhibition of RABV gene expression in vitro...
October 19, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Pan Kyeom Kim, Sun Ju Keum, Modupe O V Osinubi, Richard Franka, Ji Young Shin, Sang Tae Park, Man Su Kim, Mi Jung Park, Soo Young Lee, William Carson, Lauren Greenberg, Pengcheng Yu, Xiaoyan Tao, Wang Lihua, Qing Tang, Guodong Liang, Madhusdana Shampur, Charles E Rupprecht, Shin Jae Chang
Current post-exposure prophylaxis for rabies virus infection has several limitations in terms of supply, cost, safety, and efficacy. Attempts to replace human or equine rabies immune globulins (HRIG or ERIG) have been made by several companies and institutes. We developed potent monoclonal antibodies to neutralize a broad spectrum of rabies viruses by screening hybridomas received from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Two kinds of chimeric human antibodies (chimeric #7 and #17) were constructed by cloning the variable regions from selected hybridomas and the constant region of a human antibody...
2017: PloS One
Conrad M Freuling, Elisa Eggerbauer, Stefan Finke, Christiane Kaiser, Christian Kaiser, Antje Kretzschmar, Tobias Nolden, Steffen Ortmann, Charlotte Schröder, Jens P Teifke, Peter Schuster, Ad Vos, Thomas C Mettenleiter, Thomas Müller
To test the immunogenicity and efficacy of a new oral rabies virus vaccine strain SPBN GASGAS in wildlife target species, one group of foxes and two groups of raccoon dogs were offered a bait containing 1.7 ml of the vaccine (10(6.6) FFU/ml; 10(6.8) FFU/dose) and subsequently challenged approximately 180 days later with a fox rabies virus isolate. One group of raccoon dogs (n=30) received the same challenge dose (10(0.7) MICLD50/ml) as the red foxes (n=29). The other group with raccoon dogs (n=28) together with 8 animals that received the vaccine dose by direct instillation into the oral cavity (DIOC) were infected with a 40-fold higher dose of the challenge virus (10(2...
October 14, 2017: Vaccine
Anne Conan, Joy A C Geerdes, Oluyemisi A Akerele, Bjorn Reininghaus, Gregory J G Simpson, Darryn Knobel
Dogs (Canis familiaris) are often free-roaming in sub-Saharan African countries. Rabies virus circulates in many of these populations and presents a public health issue. Mass vaccination of dog populations is the recommended method to decrease the number of dog and human rabies cases. We describe and compare four populations of dogs and their vaccination coverage in four different villages (Hluvukani, Athol, Utah and Dixie) in Bushbuckridge Municipality, Mpumalanga province, South Africa. Cross-sectional surveys were conducted in the villages of Athol, Utah and Dixie, while data from a Health and Demographic Surveillance System were used to describe the dog population in Hluvukani village...
September 22, 2017: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
Minori Isomura, Kentaro Yamada, Kazuko Noguchi, Akira Nishizono
In vivo imaging is a noninvasive method that enables real-time monitoring of viral infection dynamics in a small animal, which allows a better understanding of viral pathogenesis. In vivo bioluminescence imaging of virus infection is widely used but, despite its advantage over bioluminescence that no substrate administration is required, fluorescence imaging is not used because of severe autofluorescence. Recently, several far-red and near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent proteins (FPs) have been developed and shown to be useful for whole-body fluorescence imaging...
October 17, 2017: Journal of General Virology
Karsten Hueffer, Shailesh Khatri, Shane Rideout, Michael B Harris, Roger L Papke, Clare Stokes, Marvin K Schulte
Rabies virus induces drastic behaviour modifications in infected hosts. The mechanisms used to achieve these changes in the host are not known. The main finding of this study is that a region in the rabies virus glycoprotein, with homologies to snake toxins, has the ability to alter behaviour in animals through inhibition of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors present in the central nervous system. This finding provides a novel aspect to virus receptor interaction and host manipulation by pathogens in general...
October 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
Ricardo Conde Alves Rodrigues, Andrea Paula Bruno von Zuben, Tosca de Lucca, Maria de Lourdes Aguiar Bonadia Reichmann
OBJECTIVE: to describe the results of rabies vaccination campaigns in dogs and cats from 2004 to 2009 and from 2012 to 2014, and the positivity for rabies in bats from 2004 to 2014, in Campinas-SP, Brazil. METHODS: a descriptive study was carried out with secondary data from the Zoonoses Surveillance Unit. RESULTS: there was a marked reduction in the number of vaccinated dogs, from 105,764 (2004) to 65,561 (2014), with vaccine coverage below 80%, except in 2004; there was little oscillation in the number of vaccinated cats, from 10,212 (2004) to 9,522 (2014), with vaccine coverage below 80%, except in 2014; 4,464 bats were collected by passive surveillance, 2...
July 2017: Epidemiologia e Servicos de Saude: Revista do Sistema Unico de Saude do Brasil
Ai-Ping Hsu, Chun-Hsien Tseng, Jacques Barrat, Shu-Hwae Lee, Yu-Hua Shih, Marine Wasniewski, Philippe Mähl, Chia-Chia Chang, Chun-Ta Lin, Re-Shang Chen, Wen-Jane Tu, Florence Cliquet, Hsiang-Jung Tsai
Since 2013, rabies cases have been reported among Formosan ferret badgers in Taiwan, and they have been shown to be the major reservoirs for Taiwanese enzootics. To control and eradicate rabies, the authorities plan to implement a vaccination programme. Before distributing live vaccines in the field, this study assessed the safety, efficacy, and immunogenicity of SAG2 vaccine on ferret badgers by direct oral instillation. After application of 109 TCID50/dose, no virus was excreted into the oral cavity 1-7 days post-application, and safety was also satisfactorily verified over a 266-day period...
2017: PloS One
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