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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911041/impact-of-rabies-vaccination-history-on-attainment-of-an-adequate-antibody-titre-among-dogs-tested-for-international-travel-certification-israel-2010-2014
#1
B Yakobson, N Taylor, N Dveres, S Rotblat, Ż Spero, E W Lankau, J Maki
Rabies is endemic in wildlife or domestic carnivore populations globally. Infection of domestic dogs is of particular concern in many areas. In regions where domestic animals are at risk of exposure to rabies virus, dogs should be routinely vaccinated against rabies to protect both pet and human populations. Many countries require demonstration of an adequate level of serum rabies neutralizing antibodies to permit entry of dogs during international travel. We analysed rabies titres of dogs seeking travel certification in Israel to assess demographic and vaccine history factors associated with antibody titres below the acceptable threshold for travel certification...
December 2, 2016: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902338/recombinant-rabies-virus-expressing-il-21-enhances-immunogenicity-through-activation-of-t-follicular-helper-cells-and-germinal-center-b-cells
#2
Yajing Zhang, Ming Zhou, Zhao Wang, Jie Yang, Mingming Li, Kunlun Wang, Min Cui, Huanchun Chen, Zhen F Fu, Ling Zhao
Previous studies have demonstrated that the lack of interleukin-21 (IL-21) signaling could affect specific antibody induction after rabies vaccination. Here, to further investigate the overexpression of IL-21 on the immunogenicity of rabies virus (RABV), a recombinant RABV expressing murine IL-21, designated as LBNSE-IL21, was constructed and evaluated in a mouse model. It was found that mice immunized with LBNSE-IL21 could substantially increase the number of T follicular helper (Tfh) cells and germinal center (GC) B cells but did not enhance dendritic cell (DC) activation...
October 25, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891499/a-presumptive-case-of-human-rabies-a-rare-survived-case-in-rural-ghana
#3
Paschal Awingura Apanga, John Koku Awoonor-Williams, Michael Acheampong, Matthew Ayamba Adam
Rabies remains endemic in Ghana and continues to pose a major public health threat to humans and animals with a nearly 100% case fatality rate in humans. We report of a presumptive case of human rabies whose survival represents a rare occurrence in rural Ghana and worldwide. Lessons from this case study provide a critically needed focus in helping improve rabies surveillance and case management in Ghana. We report of the survival of a 36-year-old man who developed clinical rabies after he was bitten by his dog, while restraining the dog with a chain...
2016: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872612/systems-biomedicine-of-rabies-delineates-the-affected-signaling-pathways
#4
Sadegh Azimzadeh Jamalkandi, Sayed-Hamidreza Mozhgani, Hamid Gholami Pourbadie, Mehdi Mirzaie, Farshid Noorbakhsh, Behrouz Vaziri, Alireza Gholami, Naser Ansari-Pour, Mohieddin Jafari
The prototypical neurotropic virus, rabies, is a member of the Rhabdoviridae family that causes lethal encephalomyelitis. Although there have been a plethora of studies investigating the etiological mechanism of the rabies virus and many precautionary methods have been implemented to avert the disease outbreak over the last century, the disease has surprisingly no definite remedy at its late stages. The psychological symptoms and the underlying etiology, as well as the rare survival rate from rabies encephalitis, has still remained a mystery...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870541/rabies-in-poland-in-2013-and-2014
#5
Małgorzata Sadkowska-Todys, Bożena Kucharczyk
OBJECTIVE: Evaluation of the epidemiological situation of rabies in Poland in 2013 and 2014 in comparison to the previous years. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The evaluation was based on analysis of the data from individual report sent by the Epidemiological-Sanitary Stations. The data are from questionnaires of persons who were administered vaccine against rabies following exposure in Poland and beyond its territory, data from annual bulletin “Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2012-2014”(Czarkowski MP et al...
2016: Przegla̧d Epidemiologiczny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863049/the-epidemiological-importance-of-bats-in-the-transmission-of-rabies-to-dogs-and-cats-in-the-state-of-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-brazil-between-2005-and-2014
#6
J G Castilho, D N de Souza, R N Oliveira, P Carnieli, H B C R Batista, P M C Pereira, S M Achkar, C I Macedo
In Brazil, rabies control in dogs and cats was pioneered by the state of São Paulo with the adoption of the Pan American Health Organization recommendations for prophylaxis and control, which led to a reduction in rabies cases from 1994 onwards. As a result of these measures, the rabies virus (RABV) genetic lineage associated with dogs has not been found in the state since 1998, and all the cases in domestic animals reported since then have been caused by bat-associated lineages of RABV. In the light of this, this study sought to investigate rabies cases in dogs and cats in the state of São Paulo between 2005 and 2014 and identify the associated transmission cycles by characterizing the RABV lineages responsible for these cases...
November 12, 2016: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863040/a-comparative-study-of-the-rapina-and-the-virus-neutralizing-test-rffit-for-the-estimation-of-antirabies-neutralizing-antibody-levels-in-dog-samples
#7
D L Manalo, K Yamada, I Watanabe, M E G Miranda, S M D Lapiz, E Tapdasan, W Petspophonsakul, S Inoue, P Khawplod, A Nishizono
The mass vaccination of dogs against rabies is a highly rational strategy for interrupting the natural transmission of urban rabies. According to the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) and the World Health Organization (WHO), the immunization of at least 70% of the total dog population minimizes the risk of endemic rabies. Knowledge of the virus-neutralizing antibody (VNA) level against the rabies virus (RABV) is required to evaluate protective immunity and vaccine coverage of dogs in the field. The rapid focus fluorescent inhibition test (RFFIT) and the fluorescent antibody virus neutralization (FAVN) test are recommended by OIE and WHO to determine the VNA levels in serum...
November 12, 2016: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852854/a-novel-rabies-vaccine-expressing-cxcl13-enhances-humoral-immunity-by-recruiting-both-t-follicular-helper-and-germinal-center-b-cells
#8
Zhao Wang, Mingming Li, Ming Zhou, Yajing Zhang, Jie Yang, Yandi Cao, Kunlun Wang, Min Cui, Huanchun Chen, Zhen F Fu, Ling Zhao
: Rabies still remains a public health threat in most parts of the world, and approximately 99% of the cases are transmitted by dogs. There is an urgent need to develop an efficacious and affordable vaccine to control canine-transmitted rabies in developing countries. Our previous studies demonstrate that overexpression of chemokines/cytokines such as CCL-3 (MIP-1α) and GM-CSF can enhance the immunogenicity of rabies vaccines. In the present study, the chemokine CXCL13 was inserted into the genome of the recombinant rabies virus (rRABV) strain LBNSE, and the effect of the chemokine CXCL13 on the immunogenicity of the RABV was investigated...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852799/optimal-frequency-of-rabies-vaccination-campaigns-in-sub-saharan-africa
#9
Alyssa M Bilinski, Meagan C Fitzpatrick, Charles E Rupprecht, A David Paltiel, Alison P Galvani
Rabies causes more than 24 000 human deaths annually in Sub-Saharan Africa. The World Health Organization recommends annual canine vaccination campaigns with at least 70% coverage to control the disease. While previous studies have considered optimal coverage of animal rabies vaccination, variation in the frequency of vaccination campaigns has not been explored. To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of rabies canine vaccination campaigns at varying coverage and frequency, we parametrized a rabies virus transmission model to two districts of northwest Tanzania, Ngorongoro (pastoral) and Serengeti (agro-pastoral)...
November 16, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820977/trileucine-residues-in-a-ligand-cpp-based-sirna-delivery-platform-improve-endosomal-escape-of-sirna
#10
Irfan Ullah, Kunho Chung, Jagadish Beloor, Jongkil Kim, Minyoung Cho, Nahyun Kim, Kuen Yong Lee, Priti Kumar, Sang-Kyung Lee
siRNA entrapment within endosomes is a significant problem encountered with siRNA delivery platforms that co-opt receptor mediated entry pathways. Attachment of a cell penetrating peptide (CPP), such as nona-arginine (9R) to a cell receptor-binding ligand like the Rabies virus glycoprotein, RVG, allows effective siRNA delivery to the cytoplasm by non-endocytic pathways, but a significant amount of siRNA complexes also enters the cell by ligand-induced receptor endocytosis and remain localized in endosomes. Here, we report that the incorporation of trileucine (3 Leu) residues as an endo-osmolytic moiety in the peptide improves endosomal escape and intracellular delivery of siRNA...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Drug Targeting
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818500/viral-infection-rabies-virus-causes-stress
#11
Andrea Du Toit
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 7, 2016: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807241/one-health-a-safe-efficient-dual-use-vaccine-for-humans-and-animals-against-mers-cov-and-rabies-virus
#12
Christoph Wirblich, Christopher M Coleman, Drishya Kurup, Tara S Abraham, John G Bernbaum, Peter B Jahrling, Lisa E Hensley, Reed F Johnson, Matthew B Frieman, Matthias J Schnell
: The Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) emerged in 2012 and is a highly pathogenic respiratory virus. No treatment options against MERS-CoV exist for humans or animals and there are no large-scale clinical trials for therapies against MERS-CoV. To address this need, we developed an inactivated rabies virus (RABV) that contains the MERS-CoV Spike (S) protein expressed on its surface. Our initial recombinant vaccine, BNSP333-S, expresses a full-length wildtype MERS-CoV S protein however it showed significantly reduced viral titers compared to the parental RABV strain and only low incorporation of full-length MERS-CoV spike (S) into RABV particles...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801824/rabies-control-and-treatment-from-prophylaxis-to-strategies-with-curative-potential
#13
REVIEW
Shimao Zhu, Caiping Guo
Rabies is an acute, fatal, neurological disease that affects almost all kinds of mammals. Vaccination (using an inactivated rabies vaccine), combined with administration of rabies immune globulin, is the only approved, effective method for post-exposure prophylaxis against rabies in humans. In the search for novel rabies control and treatment strategies, live-attenuated viruses have recently emerged as a practical and promising approach for immunizing and controlling rabies. Unlike the conventional, inactivated rabies vaccine, live-attenuated viruses are genetically modified viruses that are able to replicate in an inoculated recipient without causing adverse effects, while still eliciting robust and effective immune responses against rabies virus infection...
October 28, 2016: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796547/rabies-vaccine-development-by-expression-of-recombinant-viral-glycoprotein
#14
REVIEW
Renato Mancini Astray, Soraia Attie Calil Jorge, Carlos Augusto Pereira
The rabies virus envelope glycoprotein (RVGP) is the main antigen of rabies virus and is the only viral component present in all new rabies vaccines being proposed. Many approaches have been taken since DNA recombinant technology became available to express an immunogenic recombinant rabies virus glycoprotein (rRVGP). These attempts are reviewed here, and the relevant results are discussed with respect to the general characteristics of the rRVGP, the expression system used, the expression levels achieved, the similarity of the rRVGP to the native glycoprotein, and the immunogenicity of the vaccine preparation...
October 31, 2016: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795419/an-in-vitro-rna-synthesis-assay-for-rabies-virus-defines-critical-ribonucleoprotein-interactions-for-polymerase-activity
#15
Benjamin Morin, Bo Liang, Erica Gardner, Robin A Ross, Sean P J Whelan
: We report an in vitro RNA synthesis assay for the RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) of rabies virus (RABV). We expressed RABV large polymerase protein (L) in insect cells from a recombinant baculovirus vector and the phosphoprotein cofactor (P) in Escherichia coli and purified the resulting proteins by affinity and size exclusion chromatography. Using chemically synthesized short RNA corresponding to the first 19-nt of the rabies virus genome we demonstrate that L alone initiates synthesis on naked RNA, and that P serves to enhance initiation and processivity of the RdRP...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790096/intranasal-location-and-immunohistochemical-characterization-of-the-equine-olfactory-epithelium
#16
Alexandra Kupke, Sabine Wenisch, Klaus Failing, Christiane Herden
The olfactory epithelium (OE) is the only body site where neurons contact directly the environment and are therefore exposed to a broad variation of substances and insults. It can serve as portal of entry for neurotropic viruses which spread via the olfactory pathway to the central nervous system. For horses, it has been proposed and concluded mainly from rodent studies that different viruses, e.g., Borna disease virus, equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1), hendra virus, influenza virus, rabies virus, vesicular stomatitis virus can use this route...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779831/infectious-diseases-in-poland-in-2014
#17
Małgorzata Sadkowska-Todys, Andrzej Zieliński, Mirosław P Czarkowski
PURPOSE of the STUDY: The aim of the study is to assess epidemiological situation of infectious and parasitic diseases in Poland in 2014, and an indication of the potential health risks from communicable diseases occurring in other areas of the globe. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This paper is a summary of the analysis and evaluation of the results of epidemiological surveillance of infectious diseases in Poland in 2014, and those elements of European and global epidemiological background, which in this period had an impact on the epidemiological situation in Poland or constituted a threat...
2016: Przegla̧d Epidemiologiczny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27778378/morphology-of-visual-sector-thalamic-reticular-neurons-in-the-macaque-monkey-suggests-retinotopically-specialized-parallel-stream-mixed-input-to-the-lateral-geniculate-nucleus
#18
Elise M Bragg, Elizabeth A Fairless, Shiyuan Liu, Farran Briggs
The thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) is a unique brain structure at the interface between the thalamus and the cortex. Because the TRN receives bottom-up sensory input and top-down cortical input, it could serve as an integration hub for sensory and cognitive signals. Functional evidence supports broad roles for the TRN in arousal, attention, and sensory selection. How specific circuits connecting the TRN with sensory thalamic structures implement these functions is not known. The structural organization and function of the TRN is particularly interesting in the context of highly organized sensory systems, such as the primate visual system, where neurons in the retina and dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus (dLGN) are morphologically and physiologically distinct and also specialized for processing particular features of the visual environment...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777554/whole-brain-monosynaptic-afferent-inputs-to-basal-forebrain-cholinergic-system
#19
Rongfeng Hu, Sen Jin, Xiaobin He, Fuqiang Xu, Ji Hu
The basal forebrain cholinergic system (BFCS) robustly modulates many important behaviors, such as arousal, attention, learning and memory, through heavy projections to cortex and hippocampus. However, the presynaptic partners governing BFCS activity still remain poorly understood. Here, we utilized a recently developed rabies virus-based cell-type-specific retrograde tracing system to map the whole-brain afferent inputs of the BFCS. We found that the BFCS receives inputs from multiple cortical areas, such as orbital frontal cortex, motor cortex, and insular cortex, and that the BFCS also receives dense inputs from several subcortical nuclei related to motivation and stress, including lateral septum, central amygdala, paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus, dorsal raphe, and parabrachial nucleus...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773769/the-family-rhabdoviridae-mono-and-bipartite-negative-sense-rna-viruses-with-diverse-genome-organization-and-common-evolutionary-origins
#20
REVIEW
Ralf G Dietzgen, Hideki Kondo, Michael M Goodin, Gael Kurath, Nikos Vasilakis
The family Rhabdoviridae consists of mostly enveloped, bullet-shaped or bacilliform viruses with a negative-sense, single-stranded RNA genome that infect vertebrates, invertebrates or plants. This ecological diversity is reflected by the diversity and complexity of their genomes. Five canonical structural protein genes are conserved in all rhabdoviruses, but may be overprinted, overlapped or interspersed with several novel and diverse accessory genes. This review gives an overview of the characteristics and diversity of rhabdoviruses, their taxonomic classification, replication mechanism, properties of classical rhabdoviruses such as rabies virus and rhabdoviruses with complex genomes, rhabdoviruses infecting aquatic species, and plant rhabdoviruses with both mono- and bipartite genomes...
January 2, 2017: Virus Research
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