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Rabies virus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523730/investigating-the-effect-of-carbon-source-on-rabies-virus-glycoprotein-production-in-pichia-pastoris-by-a-transcriptomic-approach
#1
Safa Ben Azoun, Héla Kallel
Several factors affect protein expression in Pichia pastoris, one among them is the carbon source. In this work, we studied the effect of this factor on the expression level of rabies virus glycoprotein (RABV-G) in two recombinant clones harboring seven copies of the gene of interest. The expression was driven either by the constitutive glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAP) promoter or the inducible alcohol oxidase1 (AOX1) promoter. Clones were compared in terms of cell physiology and carbon source metabolism...
May 18, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521804/sero-prevalence-of-virus-neutralizing-antibodies-for-rabies-in-different-groups-of-dogs-following-vaccination
#2
R M S Pimburage, M Gunatilake, O Wimalaratne, A Balasuriya, K A D N Perera
BACKGROUND: Mass vaccination of dogs is considered fundamental for national rabies control programmes in Sri Lanka, as dog is the main reservoir and transmitter of the disease. METHODS: Dogs were followed to determine the sero-prevalence of antibodies to the rabies virus. Altogether 510 previously vaccinated and unvaccinated dogs with owners (domestic dogs) and dogs without owners (stray dogs) of the local guard dog breed in different age groups recruited from Kalutara District, Sri Lanka...
May 18, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514853/targeting-the-central-nervous-system-cns-a-review-of-rabies-virus-targeting-strategies
#3
Mira Oswald, Simon Geissler, Achim Goepferich
The transport of drugs across the blood-brain barrier is challenging. The use of peptide sequences derived from viruses with a central nervous system (CNS) tropism is one elegant option. A prominent example is the rabies virus glycopeptide-29 (RVG-29), which is said to enable a targeted brain delivery. Although the entry mechanism of the rabies virus into the CNS is very well characterized, it is unknown whether RVG-29-functionalized drug delivery systems (DDSs) follow this pathway. RVG-29-functionalized DDSs present themselves with modifications of the RVG-29 peptide sequence and different physicochemical properties compared to the rabies virus...
May 17, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506631/susceptibility-of-neuroblastoma-cells-to-rabies-virus-may-be-affected-by-passage-number
#4
Craig Pouliott, Michelle Dupuis, Kim Appler, Scott Brunt, Robert Rudd, April Davis
Maintaining a healthy, continuous immortalized cell line is essential for rabies laboratories that perform virus isolation assays and test for the presence of viral neutralizing antibodies. Individuals who routinely work with rabies virus, such as rabies laboratory employees, or those who may have a high potential for exposure to rabies virus, including veterinarians, should be tested for the presence of anti-rabies viral neutralizing antibodies (VNA) every 6 to 24 months, depending on potential exposure level...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497505/resurgence-of-rabies-in-hungary-during-2013-2014-an-attempt-to-track-the-origin-of-identified-strains
#5
Á Hornyák, T Juhász, B Forró, S Kecskeméti, K Bányai
In 2013-2014, accumulation of rabies episodes raised concerns regarding ongoing elimination programme in Hungary. Nearly four dozen cases were identified over a 13-month period in the central region of the country far behind the immunization zones. Although the outbreak was successfully controlled, the origin of disease remained unknown. In this study, we sequenced the partial N and G genes from 47 Hungarian rabies virus (RV) strains isolated from the 2013-2014 outbreak. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the N and G genes showed that the Hungarian RV isolates share high nucleotide similarity among each other (up to 100%)...
May 11, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497055/indigenous-wildlife-rabies-in-taiwan-ferret-badgers-a-long-term-terrestrial-reservoir
#6
Yu-Ching Lan, Tzai-Hung Wen, Chao-Chin Chang, Hsin-Fu Liu, Pei-Fen Lee, Chung-Yuan Huang, Bruno B Chomel, Yi-Ming A Chen
The emerging disease of rabies was confirmed in Taiwan ferret badgers (FBs) and reported to the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) on July 17, 2013. The spread of wildlife rabies can be related to neighborhood countries in Asia. The phylogenetic analysis was conducted by maximum likelihood (ML) methods and the Bayesian coalescent approach based on the glycoprotein (G) and nucleoprotein (N) genes. The phylogeographic and spatial temporal dynamics of viral transmission were determined by using SPREAD, QGIS...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491824/rabies-virus-infection-induces-microtubule-depolymerization-to-facilitate-viral-rna-synthesis-by-upregulating-hdac6
#7
Jie Zan, Song Liu, Dong-Nan Sun, Kai-Kun Mo, Yan Yan, Juan Liu, Bo-Li Hu, Jin-Yan Gu, Min Liao, Ji-Yong Zhou
Rabies virus (RABV) is the cause of rabies, and is associated with severe neurological symptoms, high mortality rate, and a serious threat to human health. Although cellular tubulin has recently been identified to be incorporated into RABV particles, the effects of RABV infection on the microtubule cytoskeleton remain poorly understood. In this study, we show that RABV infection induces microtubule depolymerization as observed by confocal microscopy, which is closely associated with the formation of the filamentous network of the RABV M protein...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490593/evolution-and-antiviral-specificity-of-interferon-induced-mx-proteins-of-bats-against-ebola-influenza-and-other-rna-viruses
#8
Jonas Fuchs, Martin Hölzer, Mirjam Schilling, Corinna Patzina, Andreas Schoen, Thomas Hoenen, Gert Zimmer, Manja Marz, Friedemann Weber, Marcel A Müller, Georg Kochs
Bats serve as a reservoir for various, often zoonotic viruses, including significant human pathogens such as Ebola- and influenza viruses. However, for unknown reasons, viral infections rarely cause clinical symptoms in bats. A tight control of viral replication by the host innate immune defense might contribute to this phenomenon. Transcriptomic studies revealed the presence of the interferon-induced antiviral myxovirus resistance (Mx) proteins in bats, but detailed functional aspects have not been assessed...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484633/predictors-and-immunological-correlates-of-sublethal-mercury-exposure-in-vampire-bats
#9
Daniel J Becker, Matthew M Chumchal, Alexandra B Bentz, Steven G Platt, Gábor Á Czirják, Thomas R Rainwater, Sonia Altizer, Daniel G Streicker
Mercury (Hg) is a pervasive heavy metal that often enters the environment from anthropogenic sources such as gold mining and agriculture. Chronic exposure to Hg can impair immune function, reducing the ability of animals to resist or recover from infections. How Hg influences immunity and susceptibility remains unknown for bats, which appear immunologically distinct from other mammals and are reservoir hosts of many pathogens of importance to human and animal health. We here quantify total Hg (THg) in hair collected from common vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus), which feed on blood and are the main reservoir hosts of rabies virus in Latin America...
April 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479302/comprehensive-monosynaptic-rabies-virus-mapping-of-host-connectivity-with-neural-progenitor-grafts-after-spinal-cord-injury
#10
Andrew F Adler, Corinne Lee-Kubli, Hiromi Kumamaru, Ken Kadoya, Mark H Tuszynski
Neural progenitor cells grafted to sites of spinal cord injury have supported electrophysiological and functional recovery in several studies. Mechanisms associated with graft-related improvements in outcome appear dependent on functional synaptic integration of graft and host systems, although the extent and diversity of synaptic integration of grafts with hosts are unknown. Using transgenic mouse spinal neural progenitor cell grafts expressing the TVA and G-protein components of the modified rabies virus system, we initiated monosynaptic tracing strictly from graft neurons placed in sites of cervical spinal cord injury...
May 3, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476484/organization-of-dopamine-and-serotonin-system-anatomical-and-functional-mapping-of-monosynaptic-inputs-using-rabies-virus
#11
REVIEW
Sachie K Ogawa, Mitsuko Watabe-Uchida
Dopamine and serotonin play critical roles in flexible behaviors and are related to various psychiatric and motor disorders. This paper reviews the global organization of dopamine and serotonin systems through recent findings using a modified rabies virus. We first introduce methods for comprehensive mapping of monosynaptic inputs. We then describe quantitative comparisons across the data regarding monosynaptic inputs to dopamine neurons versus serotonin neurons. There is surprising similarity between the input to dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the input to serotonin neurons in the dorsal raphe (DR), suggesting functional interactions between these systems...
May 2, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470680/rabies-tracing-of-birthdated-dentate-granule-cells-in-rat-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#12
Xi Du, Helen Zhang, Jack M Parent
OBJECTIVE: To understand how monosynaptic inputs onto adult-born dentate granule cells (DGCs) are altered in experimental mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) and whether their integration differs from early-born DGCs that are mature at the time of epileptogenesis. METHODS: A dual-virus tracing strategy combining retroviral birthdating with rabies virus-mediated putative retrograde trans-synaptic tracing was used to identify and compare presynaptic inputs onto adult- and early-born DGCs in the rat pilocarpine model of mTLE...
May 3, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461570/type-1-immune-mechanisms-driven-by-the-response-to-infection-with-attenuated-rabies-virus-result-in-changes-in-the-immune-bias-of-the-tumor-microenvironment-and-necrosis-of-mouse-gl261-brain-tumors
#13
Emily K Bongiorno, Samantha A Garcia, Sami Sauma, D Craig Hooper
Immunotherapeutic strategies for malignant glioma have to overcome the immunomodulatory activities of M2 monocytes that appear in the circulation and as tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs). M2 cell products contribute to the growth-promoting attributes of the tumor microenvironment (TME) and bias immunity toward type 2, away from the type 1 mechanisms with antitumor properties. To drive type 1 immunity in CNS tissues, we infected GL261 tumor-bearing mice with attenuated rabies virus (RABV). These neurotropic viruses spread to CNS tissues trans-axonally, where they induce a strong type 1 immune response that involves Th1, CD8, and B cell entry across the blood-brain barrier and virus clearance in the absence of overt sequelae...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447192/rescue-of-a-wild-type-rabies-virus-from-cloned-cdna-and-assessment-of-the-proliferative-capacity-of-recombinant-viruses
#14
Qin Tian, Yifei Wang, Qiong Zhang, Jun Luo, Mingzhu Mei, Yongwen Luo, Xiaofeng Guo
Reverse genetic systems (RGS) have been widely used for fixed rabies virus (RABV) strains. However, RGS, for wild-type (wt) strains, have been seldom reported despite the value of this approach in defining the biological characteristics of these strains. In this work, we developed a wt RGS using a swine-origin RABV strain (GD-SH-01) for the first time. In order to have a better understanding of the contribution and function of individual gene on viral proliferation for wt RABV isolates, we constructed a full-length cDNA clone of GD-SH-01 and exchanged the single genes encoding RABV protein of a highly attenuated RABV strain HEP-Flury with those of the virulent strain...
April 26, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428485/pathological-lesions-in-the-central-nervous-system-and-peripheral-tissues-of-ddy-mice-with-street-rabies-virus-1088-strain
#15
Kazunori Kimitsuki, Kentaro Yamada, Nozomi Shiwa, Satoshi Inoue, Akira Nishizono, Chun-Ho Park
Most studies on rabies virus pathogenesis in animal models have employed fixed rabies viruses, and the results of those employing street rabies viruses have been inconsistent. Therefore, to clarify the pathogenesis of street rabies virus (1088 strain) in mice, 10(6) focus forming units were inoculated into the right hindlimb of ddY mice (6 weeks, female). At 3 days postinoculation (DPI), mild inflammation was observed in the hindlimb muscle. At 5 DPI, ganglion cells in the right lumbosacral spinal dorsal root ganglia showed chromatolysis...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420073/future-prospects-for-the-development-of-cost-effective-adenovirus-vaccines
#16
REVIEW
Cyrielle Fougeroux, Peter J Holst
Vaccination is one of the most efficient tools for disease prevention, and a continuously growing field of research. However, despite progress, we still need more efficient and cost-effective vaccines that would improve access to those in need. In this review, we will describe the status of virus-vectored vaccine technology with a focus on adenoviral-based vaccines. Adenovirus (Ad) vaccines have proven to be efficient in military vaccinations against Ad4 and Ad7 and as highly efficient vectored vaccines against rabies...
March 23, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418772/geographical-clusters-and-predictors-of-rabies-in-three-southeastern-states
#17
Sara Reilly, Wayne T Sanderson, W Jay Christian, Steven R Browning
The rabies virus causes progressive encephalomyelitis that is fatal in nearly 100% of untreated cases. In the United States, wildlife act as the primary reservoir for rabies; prevention, surveillance, and control costs remain high. The purpose of this study is to understand the current distribution of wildlife rabies in three southeastern states, with particular focus on raccoons as the primary eastern reservoir, as well as identify demographic and geographic factors which may affect the risk of human exposure...
April 18, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415972/community-based-survey-during-rabies-outbreaks-in-rangjung-town-trashigang-eastern-bhutan-2016
#18
Tenzin Tenzin, Jamyang Namgyal, Sangay Letho
BACKGROUND: Rabies is a highly fatal disease transmitted through the bite of a rabid animal. Human deaths can be prevented by prompt administering of rabies vaccine and rabies immunoglobulin following the exposure. An assessment of community knowledge, awareness and practices on rabies is important during outbreak to understand their preparedness and target educational messages and response activities by the rapid response team. METHODS: A rabies outbreak has occurred in Rangjung town, eastern Bhutan on 4 October 2016...
April 17, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412449/targeted-drug-delivery-system-to-neural-cells-utilizes-the-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor
#19
Rachel Huey, Barry O'Hagan, Paul McCarron, Susan Hawthorne
Drug delivery to the brain is still a major challenge in the field of therapeutics, especially for large and hydrophilic compounds. In order to achieve drug delivery of therapeutic concentration in the central nervous system, the problematic blood brain barrier (BBB) must be overcome. This work presents the formulation of a targeted nanoparticle-based drug delivery system using a specific neural cell targeting ligand, rabies virus derived peptide (RDP). Characterization studies revealed that RDP could be conjugated to drug-loaded PLGA nanoparticles of average diameter 257...
April 12, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411355/rabies-acquired-through-kidney-transplantation-in-a-child-a-case-report
#20
Bassam Saeed, Mustafa Al-Mousawi
Rabies is usually transmitted to humans through bites of infected animals; however, it can rarely be transmitted through deceased donor organs or tissues when not suspected. Here, we report a case of rabies transmission in a child. The child was a 5-year-old girl who was admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit with encephalitis of unexplained cause 3.5 months after she received a kidney transplant from a deceased donor. The laboratory and imaging studies did not reveal any explanation for her rapidly declining clinical and neurologic condition, which ended with death 4 days after admission...
April 14, 2017: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
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