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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102196/whole-brain-3d-mapping-of-human-neural-transplant-innervation
#1
Jonas Doerr, Martin Karl Schwarz, Dirk Wiedermann, Anke Leinhaas, Alina Jakobs, Florian Schloen, Inna Schwarz, Michael Diedenhofen, Nils Christian Braun, Philipp Koch, Daniel A Peterson, Ulrich Kubitscheck, Mathias Hoehn, Oliver Brüstle
While transplantation represents a key tool for assessing in vivo functionality of neural stem cells and their suitability for neural repair, little is known about the integration of grafted neurons into the host brain circuitry. Rabies virus-based retrograde tracing has developed into a powerful approach for visualizing synaptically connected neurons. Here, we combine this technique with light sheet fluorescence microscopy (LSFM) to visualize transplanted cells and connected host neurons in whole-mouse brain preparations...
January 19, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100620/overexpression-of-il-7-extends-the-humoral-immune-response-induced-by-rabies-vaccination
#2
Yingying Li, Ming Zhou, Zhaochen Luo, Yachun Zhang, Min Cui, Huanchun Chen, Zhen F Fu, Ling Zhao
: Rabies continues to present a public health threat in most countries of the world. The most efficient way to prevent and control rabies is to implement vaccination programmes for domestic animals. However, traditional inactivated vaccines used in animals are costly and have a relatively low efficiency, which impedes their extensive use in developing countries. There is therefore an urgent need to develop single-dose and long-lasting rabies vaccines. However, little information is available regarding the mechanisms underlying immunological memory, which can broaden humoral responses following rabies vaccination...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094609/ecological-potential-for-rabies-virus-transmission-via-scavenging-of-dead-bats-by-mesocarnivores
#3
Tad C Theimer, Annie C Dyer, Brian W Keeley, Amy T Gilbert, David L Bergman
Multiple species of bats are reservoirs of rabies virus in the Americas and are occasionally the source of spillover infections into mesocarnivore species. Although rabies transmission generally is assumed to occur via bite, laboratory studies have demonstrated the potential for rabies transmission via ingestion of rabid animals. We investigated the ecological potential for this mode of transmission by assessing mesocarnivore scavenging behavior of dead bats in suburban habitats of Flagstaff, Arizona. In autumn 2013, summer 2014, and autumn 2015, we placed 104 rabies-negative bat carcasses either near buildings, in wildland areas, or in residential yards and then monitored them with trail cameras for 5 d...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093702/rabies-virus-vaccine-as-an-immune-adjuvant-against-cancers-and-glioblastoma-new-studies-may-resurrect-a-neglected-potential
#4
REVIEW
M A Altinoz, S Guloksuz, I Elmaci
To review the literature about the use of Rabies Virus-Vaccine (RV-V) as an anticancer immunotherapeutic modality in the light of recent findings. The literature search in relevant databases with the following key words: Rabies virus, cancer, remission. Remissions occured following RV-V injections in patients with cervical cancer and melanoma. Pilot clinical studies showed that RV-V injections enhanced survival in glioblastoma patients, which is supported by findings in GL261 mouse glioma model. If public health studies demonstrate protective role of RV-V against certain types of cancers, it can be benefitted as a novel immune adjuvant in clinic...
January 16, 2017: Clinical & Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093542/disease-burden-of-dengue-in-the-philippines-adjusting-for-underreporting-by-comparing-active-and-passive-dengue-surveillance-in-punta-princesa-cebu-city
#5
Eduardo A Undurraga, Frances E Edillo, Jonathan Neil V Erasmo, Maria Theresa P Alera, In-Kyu Yoon, Francisco M Largo, Donald S Shepard
Dengue virus (DENV) is a serious threat to public health. Having reliable estimates of the burden of dengue is important to inform policy and research, but surveillance systems are not designed to capture all symptomatic DENV infections. We derived the rate of reporting of dengue by comparing active surveillance of symptomatic DENV infections in a prospective community-based seroepidemiological cohort study (N = 1008) of acute febrile illness in Punta Princesa, Cebu City, Philippines, with passive surveillance data from the Cebu City Health Department...
January 16, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089546/expression-of-interleukin-6-by-a-recombinant-rabies-virus-enhances-its-immunogenicity-as-a-potential-vaccine
#6
Jun Luo, Boyue Zhang, Yuting Wu, Qin Tian, Jing Zhao, Ziyu Lyu, Qiong Zhang, Mingzhu Mei, Yongwen Luo, Xiaofeng Guo
Several studies have confirmed that interleukin-6 (IL6) mediates multiple biological effects that enhance immune responses when used as an adjuvant. In the present study, recombinant rabies virus (RABV) expressing canine IL6 (rHEP-CaIL6) was rescued and its pathogenicity and immunogenicity were investigated in mice. We demonstrated that mice received a single intramuscular immunization with rHEP-CaIL6 showed an earlier increase and higher maximum titres of virus-neutralizing antibody (VNA) as well as anti-RABV antibodies compared with mice immunized with the parent strain...
January 12, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081126/a-pan-lyssavirus-taqman-real-time-rt-pcr-assay-for-the-detection-of-highly-variable-rabies-virus-and-other-lyssaviruses
#7
Ashutosh Wadhwa, Kimberly Wilkins, Jinxin Gao, Rene Edgar Condori Condori, Crystal M Gigante, Hui Zhao, Xiaoyue Ma, James A Ellison, Lauren Greenberg, Andres Velasco-Villa, Lillian Orciari, Yu Li
Rabies, resulting from infection by Rabies virus (RABV) and related lyssaviruses, is one of the most deadly zoonotic diseases and is responsible for up to 70,000 estimated human deaths worldwide each year. Rapid and accurate laboratory diagnosis of rabies is essential for timely administration of post-exposure prophylaxis in humans and control of the disease in animals. Currently, only the direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) test is recommended for routine rabies diagnosis. Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) based diagnostic methods have been widely adapted for the diagnosis of other viral pathogens, but there is currently no widely accepted rapid real-time RT-PCR assay for the detection of all lyssaviruses...
January 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078786/v1-connections-reveal-a-series-of-elongated-higher-visual-areas-in-the-california-ground-squirrel-otospermophilus-beecheyi
#8
Moritz Negwer, Yong-Jun Liu, Dirk Schubert, David C Lyon
For studies of visual cortex organization, mouse is becoming an increasingly more often used model. In addition to its genetic tractability, the relatively small area of cortical surface devoted to visual processing simplifies efforts in relating the structure of visual cortex to visual function. However, the nature of this compact organization can make some comparisons to the much larger non-human primate visual cortex difficult. The squirrel, as a highly visual rodent offers a useful means for better understanding how mouse and monkey cortical organization compares...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068664/fusion-peptide-improves-stability-and-bioactivity-of-single-chain-antibody-against-rabies-virus
#9
Hualong Xi, Kaixin Zhang, Yanchun Yin, Tiejun Gu, Qing Sun, Linqing Shi, Renxia Zhang, Chunlai Jiang, Wei Kong, Yongge Wu
The combination of rabies immunoglobulin (RIG) with a vaccine is currently effective against rabies infections, but improvements are needed. Genetic engineering antibody technology is an attractive approach for developing novel antibodies to replace RIG. In our previous study, a single-chain variable fragment, scFv57R, against rabies virus glycoprotein (RVGP) was constructed. However, its inherent weak stability and short half-life compared with the parent RIG may limit its diagnostic and therapeutic application...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053102/5-phospho-rna-acceptor-specificity-of-gdp-polyribonucleotidyltransferase-of-vesicular-stomatitis-virus-in-mrna-capping
#10
Minako Ogino, Tomoaki Ogino
: The GDP polyribonucleotidyltransferase (PRNTase) domain of the multifunctional L protein of rhabdoviruses, such as vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and rabies virus, catalyzes the transfer of 5' -phospho-RNA (pRNA) from 5' -triphospho-RNA (pppRNA) to GDP via a covalent enzyme-pRNA intermediate to generate a 5' -cap structure (GpppA). Here, using an improved oligo-RNA capping assay with the VSV L protein, we showed that the Michaelis constants for GDP and pppAACAG (VSV mRNA-start sequence) are 0...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040390/reduction-of-animal-suffering-in-rabies-vaccine-potency-testing-by-introduction-of-humane-endpoints
#11
Mutsuyo Takayama-Ito, Chang-Kweng Lim, Kazuo Nakamichi, Satsuki Kakiuchi, Madoka Horiya, Guillermo Posadas-Herrera, Ichiro Kurane, Masayuki Saijo
Potency controls of inactivated rabies vaccines for human use are confirmed by the National Institutes of Health challenge test in which lethal infection with severe neurological symptoms should be observed in approximately half of the mice inoculated with the rabies virus. Weight loss, decreased body temperature, and the presence of rabies-associated neurological signs have been proposed as humane endpoints. The potential for reduction of animal suffering by introducing humane endpoints in the potency test for inactivated rabies vaccine for human use was investigated...
December 28, 2016: Biologicals: Journal of the International Association of Biological Standardization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036390/the-global-phylogeography-of-lyssaviruses-challenging-the-out-of-africa-hypothesis
#12
David T S Hayman, Anthony R Fooks, Denise A Marston, Juan C Garcia-R
Rabies virus kills tens of thousands of people globally each year, especially in resource-limited countries. Yet, there are genetically- and antigenically-related lyssaviruses, all capable of causing the disease rabies, circulating globally among bats without causing conspicuous disease outbreaks. The species richness and greater genetic diversity of African lyssaviruses, along with the lack of antibody cross-reactivity among them, has led to the hypothesis that Africa is the origin of lyssaviruses. This hypothesis was tested using a probabilistic phylogeographical approach...
December 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036254/targeted-delivery-of-nano-ptx-to-the-brain-tumor-associated-macrophages
#13
Lei Zou, Youhua Tao, Gregory Payne, Linh Do, Tima Thomas, Juan Rodriguez, Huanyu Dou
Nanoparticles containing mixed lipid monolayer shell, biodegradable polymer core and rabies virus glycoprotein (RVG) peptide as brain targeting ligand, were developed for brain targeted delivery of paclitaxel (PTX) to treat malignant glioma. RVG conjugated PTX loaded NPs (RVG-PTX-NPs) had the desirable size (~140 nm), narrow size distribution and spherical shape. RVG-PTX-NPs showed poor uptake by neurons and selective targeting to the brain tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) with controlled release and tumor specific toxicity...
December 25, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033365/potential-exposures-to-australian-bat-lyssavirus-notified-in-queensland-australia-2009-2014
#14
Damin Si, John Marquess, Ellen Donnan, Bruce Harrower, Bradley McCall, Sonya Bennett, Stephen Lambert
BACKGROUND: Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV) belongs to the genus Lyssavirus which also includes classic rabies virus and the European lyssaviruses. To date, the only three known human ABLV cases, all fatal, have been reported from Queensland, Australia. ABLV is widely distributed in Australian bats, and any bite or scratch from an Australian bat is considered a potential exposure to ABLV. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Potential exposure to ABLV has been a notifiable condition in Queensland since 2005...
December 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032674/parahippocampal-and-retrosplenial-connections-of-rat-posterior-parietal-cortex
#15
Grethe M Olsen, Shinya Ohara, Toshio Iijima, Menno P Witter
The posterior parietal cortex has been implicated in spatial functions, including navigation. The hippocampal and parahippocampal region and the retrosplenial cortex are crucially involved in navigational processes and connections between the parahippocampal/retrosplenial domain and the posterior parietal cortex have been described. However, an integrated account of the organization of these connections is lacking. Here we investigated parahippocampal connections of each posterior parietal subdivision and the neighboring secondary visual cortex using conventional retrograde and anterograde tracers as well as transsynaptic retrograde tracing with a modified rabies virus...
December 29, 2016: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004019/role-of-nitric-oxide-in-the-regulation-of-immune-responses-during-rabies-virus-infection-in-mice
#16
B P Madhu, K P Singh, M Saminathan, R Singh, N Shivasharanappa, A K Sharma, Yashpal S Malik, K Dhama, V Manjunatha
Rabies virus (RABV) stimulates nitric oxide (NO) production, which either triggers T cell differentiation or suppresses T cell function depending on its concentration. Herein, we assessed the potential role of NO in regulation of immune responses during RABV infection in mice model. The experimental animals were divided into four groups and 100LD50 of challenge virus standard (CVS) strain of RABV was inoculated intracerebrally on day 0 and subsequently aminoguanidine (AG; inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor) was injected intraperitoneally twice a day, up to 6 days...
December 2016: Virusdisease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000711/the-matrix-protein-of-rabies-virus-binds-to-relap43-to-modulate-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-dependent-gene-expression-related-to-innate-immunity
#17
Youcef Ben Khalifa, Sophie Luco, Benoit Besson, Florian Sonthonnax, Medhi Archambaud, Jonathan M Grimes, Florence Larrous, Hervé Bourhy
The matrix (M) protein of wild isolates of rabies virus such as Tha (M-Tha) was previously shown to be able to interact with RelAp43, a protein of the NF-κB family, and to efficiently suppress NF-κB-dependent reporter gene expression, in contrast with the vaccine strain SAD. Here, we analyze the mechanisms involved in RelAp43-M protein interaction. We demonstrate that the central part of M-Tha, and the specific C-terminal region of RelAp43 are required for this interaction. Four differences in the corresponding amino acid sequences of the M-Tha and M-SAD are shown to be crucial for RelAp43 interaction and subsequent modulation of innate immune response...
December 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27996360/liver-transplantation-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma-in-young-adults-a-united-network-for-organ-sharing-study
#18
Stefanie M Thomas, Diana Moke, Rocio Lopez, Rabi Hanna, Mohammad Nasser Kabbany, Naim Alkhouri
PURPOSE: Orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) is curative for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). HCC is typically a disease of older adults (OAs); therefore, characteristics and outcomes of OLT for young adults (YAs) (ages 18-40) are not described. The objective of this study was to assess the characteristics and outcomes of YAs with HCC receiving OLT and compare these to OAs (ages >40 years). METHODS: YAs with HCC who had OLT from the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) database were included in this study...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995576/serine-residues-at-positions-162-and-166-of-the-rabies-virus-phosphoprotein-are-critical-for-the-induction-of-oxidative-stress-in-rabies-virus-infection
#19
Wafa Kammouni, Heidi Wood, Alan C Jackson
Our previous work in a mouse model of experimental rabies showed neuronal process (dendrites and axons) degeneration in association with severe clinical disease. Cultured adult rodent dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons infected with the challenge virus standard-11 (CVS) strain of rabies virus (RABV) showed axonal swellings and reduced axonal growth with evidence of oxidative stress. We have shown that CVS infection alters a variety of mitochondrial parameters and increases mitochondrial complex I activity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989728/mayaro-virus-a-forest-virus-primed-for-a-trip-to-the-city
#20
Ian M Mackay, Katherine E Arden
Mayaro virus (MAYV) is an emerging arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus). Infection by MAYV can produce Mayaro virus disease (MAYVD) which is usually a clinically diagnosed, acute, febrile illness associated with prolonged and painful joint inflammation and swelling. MAYVD may be clinically indistinguishable from dengue, chikungunya fever, malaria, rabies, measles or other arboviral diseases. The full spectrum of disease, sequelae, routes of infection, virus shedding and any rarer means of transmission remain undefined...
December 2016: Microbes and Infection
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