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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447192/rescue-of-a-wild-type-rabies-virus-from-cloned-cdna-and-assessment-of-the-proliferative-capacity-of-recombinant-viruses
#1
Qin Tian, Yifei Wang, Qiong Zhang, Jun Luo, Mingzhu Mei, Yongwen Luo, Xiaofeng Guo
Reverse genetic systems (RGS) have been widely used for fixed rabies virus (RABV) strains. However, RGS, for wild-type (wt) strains, have been seldom reported despite the value of this approach in defining the biological characteristics of these strains. In this work, we developed a wt RGS using a swine-origin RABV strain (GD-SH-01) for the first time. In order to have a better understanding of the contribution and function of individual gene on viral proliferation for wt RABV isolates, we constructed a full-length cDNA clone of GD-SH-01 and exchanged the single genes encoding RABV protein of a highly attenuated RABV strain HEP-Flury with those of the virulent strain...
April 26, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428485/pathological-lesions-in-the-central-nervous-system-and-peripheral-tissues-of-ddy-mice-with-street-rabies-virus-1088-strain
#2
Kazunori Kimitsuki, Kentaro Yamada, Nozomi Shiwa, Satoshi Inoue, Akira Nishizono, Chun-Ho Park
Most studies on rabies virus pathogenesis in animal models have employed fixed rabies viruses, and the results of those employing street rabies viruses have been inconsistent. Therefore, to clarify the pathogenesis of street rabies virus (1088 strain) in mice, 10(6) focus forming units were inoculated into the right hindlimb of ddY mice (6 weeks, female). At 3 days postinoculation (DPI), mild inflammation was observed in the hindlimb muscle. At 5 DPI, ganglion cells in the right lumbosacral spinal dorsal root ganglia showed chromatolysis...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420073/future-prospects-for-the-development-of-cost-effective-adenovirus-vaccines
#3
REVIEW
Cyrielle Fougeroux, Peter J Holst
Vaccination is one of the most efficient tools for disease prevention, and a continuously growing field of research. However, despite progress, we still need more efficient and cost-effective vaccines that would improve access to those in need. In this review, we will describe the status of virus-vectored vaccine technology with a focus on adenoviral-based vaccines. Adenovirus (Ad) vaccines have proven to be efficient in military vaccinations against Ad4 and Ad7 and as highly efficient vectored vaccines against rabies...
March 23, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418772/geographical-clusters-and-predictors-of-rabies-in-three-southeastern-states
#4
Sara Reilly, Wayne T Sanderson, W Jay Christian, Steven R Browning
The rabies virus causes progressive encephalomyelitis that is fatal in nearly 100% of untreated cases. In the United States, wildlife act as the primary reservoir for rabies; prevention, surveillance, and control costs remain high. The purpose of this study is to understand the current distribution of wildlife rabies in three southeastern states, with particular focus on raccoons as the primary eastern reservoir, as well as identify demographic and geographic factors which may affect the risk of human exposure...
April 18, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415972/community-based-survey-during-rabies-outbreaks-in-rangjung-town-trashigang-eastern-bhutan-2016
#5
Tenzin Tenzin, Jamyang Namgyal, Sangay Letho
BACKGROUND: Rabies is a highly fatal disease transmitted through the bite of a rabid animal. Human deaths can be prevented by prompt administering of rabies vaccine and rabies immunoglobulin following the exposure. An assessment of community knowledge, awareness and practices on rabies is important during outbreak to understand their preparedness and target educational messages and response activities by the rapid response team. METHODS: A rabies outbreak has occurred in Rangjung town, eastern Bhutan on 4 October 2016...
April 17, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412449/targeted-drug-delivery-system-to-neural-cells-utilizes-the-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor
#6
Rachel Huey, Barry O'Hagan, Paul McCarron, Susan Hawthorne
Drug delivery to the brain is still a major challenge in the field of therapeutics, especially for large and hydrophilic compounds. In order to achieve drug delivery of therapeutic concentration in the central nervous system, the problematic blood brain barrier (BBB) must be overcome. This work presents the formulation of a targeted nanoparticle-based drug delivery system using a specific neural cell targeting ligand, rabies virus derived peptide (RDP). Characterization studies revealed that RDP could be conjugated to drug-loaded PLGA nanoparticles of average diameter 257...
April 12, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411355/rabies-acquired-through-kidney-transplantation-in-a-child-a-case-report
#7
Bassam Saeed, Mustafa Al-Mousawi
Rabies is usually transmitted to humans through bites of infected animals; however, it can rarely be transmitted through deceased donor organs or tissues when not suspected. Here, we report a case of rabies transmission in a child. The child was a 5-year-old girl who was admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit with encephalitis of unexplained cause 3.5 months after she received a kidney transplant from a deceased donor. The laboratory and imaging studies did not reveal any explanation for her rapidly declining clinical and neurologic condition, which ended with death 4 days after admission...
April 14, 2017: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406757/rabies-virus-exposure-of-brazilian-free-ranging-wildlife-from-municipalities-without-clinical-cases-in-humans-or-in-terrestrial-wildlife
#8
João Marcelo Azevedo de Paula Antunes, Larissa de Castro Demoner, Tatiana Morosini de Andrade Cruvinel, Ana Paula Kataoka, Luzia Fátima Alves Martorelli, Gustavo Puglia Machado, Jane Megid
Rabies is a zoonosis that causes thousands of animal and human deaths worldwide. Serological studies provide information concerning rabies virus circulation among animals and humans. We evaluated the circulation of the rabies virus in wildlife in nine municipalities of São Paulo State, Brazil. We took blood samples from 27 terrestrial animals of nine different mammalian species in locations without cases of rabies in human and wild terrestrial mammals. Sera were tested with the use of the rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT) for the detection of rabies virus-neutralizing antibodies (RVNA)...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406752/comparison-of-the-immunogenicity-and-safety-of-the-purified-chick-embryo-cell-rabies-vaccine-manufactured-in-india-and-germany-a-randomised-single-blind-multicentre-phase-iv-clinical-study
#9
Gadey Sampath, Angelika Banzhoff, Alaka Deshpande, Claudius Malerczyk, Ashwani Kumar Arora, Hoshang Vakil, Scott Preiss
This phase IV, single blind study assessed the immunogenicity and safety of India-manufactured purified chick embryo cell rabies vaccine (PCECV), compared to a German-manufactured batch obtained by the same production process. A total of 340 participants enrolled at 2 study sites in India were randomised (1:1:1:1) in 4 groups to receive a 5-dose Essen regimen with either 1 of the 3 Indian batches (PCECV-I) or the German batch (PCECV-G), administered on Days (D) 0, 3, 7, 14 and 30. The lot-to-lot consistency of PCECV-I batches in terms of induced immune response at D14 was demonstrated...
April 13, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403882/pathobiological-investigation-of-naturally-infected-canine-rabies-cases-from-sri-lanka
#10
S Beck, P Gunawardena, D L Horton, D J Hicks, D A Marston, A Ortiz-Pelaez, A R Fooks, A Núñez
BACKGROUND: The recommended screening of rabies in 'suspect' animal cases involves testing fresh brain tissue. The preservation of fresh tissue however can be difficult under field conditions and formalin fixation provides a simple alternative that may allow a confirmatory diagnosis. The occurrence and location of histopathological changes and immunohistochemical (IHC) labelling for rabies in formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) canine brain is described in samples from 57 rabies suspect cases from Sri-Lanka...
April 12, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399176/pathological-findings-in-the-red-fox-vulpes-vulpes-stone-marten-martes-foina-and-raccoon-dog-nyctereutes-procyonoides-with-special-emphasis-on-infectious-and-zoonotic-agents-in-northern-germany
#11
Charlotte Lempp, Nicole Jungwirth, Miguel L Grilo, Anja Reckendorf, Arlena Ulrich, Abbo van Neer, Rogier Bodewes, Vanessa M Pfankuche, Christian Bauer, Albert D M E Osterhaus, Wolfgang Baumgärtner, Ursula Siebert
Anthropogenic landscape changes contributed to the reduction of availability of habitats to wild animals. Hence, the presence of wild terrestrial carnivores in urban and peri-urban sites has increased considerably over the years implying an increased risk of interspecies spillover of infectious diseases and the transmission of zoonoses. The present study provides a detailed characterisation of the health status of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes), stone marten (Martes foina) and raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in their natural rural and peri-urban habitats in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany between November 2013 and January 2016 with focus on zoonoses and infectious diseases that are potentially threatening to other wildlife or domestic animal species...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397511/enhanced-diagnosis-of-rabies-and-molecular-evidence-for-the-transboundary-spread-of-the-disease-in-mozambique
#12
Andre Coetzer, Iolanda Anahory, Paula T Dias, Claude T Sabeta, Terence P Scott, Wanda Markotter, Louis H Nel
Rabies is a neglected zoonotic disease with veterinary and public health significance, particularly in Africa and Asia. The current knowledge of the epidemiology of rabies in Mozambique is limited because of inadequate sample submission, constrained diagnostic capabilities and a lack of molecular epidemiological research. We wanted to consider the direct, rapid immunohistochemical test (DRIT) as an alternative to the direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) for rabies diagnosis at the diagnostic laboratory of the Central Veterinary Laboratory (CVL), Directorate of Animal Science, Maputo, Mozambique...
March 24, 2017: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389318/engineering-of-a-novel-zipfv-using-leucine-zipper-motif-against-rabies-virus-glycoprotein-g-with-improved-protection-potency-in-vivo
#13
Hualong Xi, Kaixin Zhang, Yanchun Yin, Tiejun Gu, Qing Sun, Zhuang Li, Yue Cheng, Chunlai Jiang, Wei Kong, Yongge Wu
Rabies is an acute zoonotic infectious disease with a high fatality rate but is preventable with vaccination and rabies immunoglobulin (RIG). The single-chain Fv fragment (scFv), a small engineered antigen-binding protein derived from antibody variable heavy (VH) and light (VL) chains connected by a peptide linker, can potentially be used to replace RIG. Here, we produced two peptides VH-JUN-HIS and VL-FOS-HA separately in Escherichia coli and assembled them to form zipFv successfully in vitro. The new zipFv utilizes FOS and JUN leucine zippers to form an antibody structure similar to the IgG counterpart with two free N-terminal ends of VH and VL...
April 4, 2017: Immunology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388579/rabies-viruses-leader-rna-interacts-with-host-hsc70-and-inhibits-virus-replication
#14
Ran Zhang, Chuangang Liu, Yunzi Cao, Muhammad Jamal, Xi Chen, Jinfang Zheng, Liang Li, Jing You, Qi Zhu, Shiyong Liu, Jinxia Dai, Min Cui, Zhen F Fu, Gang Cao
Viruses have been shown to be equipped with regulatory RNAs to evade host defense system. It has long been known that rabies virus (RABV) transcribes a small regulatory RNA, leader RNA (leRNA), which mediates the transition from viral RNA transcription to replication. However, the detailed molecular mechanism remains enigmatic. In the present study, we determined the genetic architecture of RABV leRNA and demonstrated its inhibitory effect on replication of wild-type rabies, DRV-AH08. The RNA immunoprecipitation results suggest that leRNA inhibits RABV replication via interfering the binding of RABV nucleoprotein with genomic RNA...
March 23, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385500/successful-strategies-implemented-towards-the-elimination-of-canine-rabies-in-the-western-hemisphere
#15
REVIEW
Andres Velasco-Villa, Luis E Escobar, Anthony Sanchez, Mang Shi, Daniel G Streicker, Nadia F Gallardo-Romero, Fernando Vargas-Pino, Veronica Gutierrez-Cedillo, Inger Damon, Ginny Emerson
Almost all cases of human rabies result from dog bites, making the elimination of canine rabies a global priority. During recent decades, many countries in the Western Hemisphere have carried out large-scale dog vaccination campaigns, controlled their free-ranging dog populations and enforced legislation for responsible pet ownership. This article reviews progress in eliminating canine rabies from the Western Hemisphere. After briefly summarizing the history of control efforts and describing the approaches listed above, we note that programs in some countries have been hindered by societal attitudes and severe economic disparities, which underlines the need to discuss measures that will be required to complete the elimination of canine rabies throughout the region...
April 4, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365457/the-history-of-rabies-in-the-western-hemisphere
#16
REVIEW
Andres Velasco-Villa, Matthew R Mauldin, Mang Shi, Luis E Escobar, Nadia F Gallardo-Romero, Inger Damon, Victoria A Olson, Daniel G Streicker, Ginny Emerson
Before the introduction of control programs in the 20th century, rabies in domestic dogs occurred throughout the Western Hemisphere. However, historical records and phylogenetic analysis of multiple virus isolates indicate that, before the arrival of the first European colonizers, rabies virus was likely present only in bats and skunks. Canine rabies was either rare or absent among domestic dogs of Native Americans, and first arrived when many new dog breeds were imported during the period of European colonization...
March 29, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344841/status-of-laboratory-biosafety-and-biosecurity-in-veterinary-research-facilities-in-nigeria
#17
Ismail Ayoade Odetokun, Afusat Toyin Jagun-Jubril, Bernard A Onoja, Yiltawe Simwal Wungak, Ibrahim Adisa Raufu, Jessica Corron Chen
BACKGROUND: This study determined current status of laboratory biosafety in Nigerian veterinary research facilities. METHODS: A questionnaire was developed to obtain information from researchers across Nigeria from July 2014 to July 2015. Information regarding demographics, knowledge of laboratory biosafety, availability and proper use of personal protective equipment (PPE), any priority pathogens researched, attitude on and use of standard laboratory practices, and biosafety awareness was obtained using a numeric scoring system...
March 2017: Safety and Health At Work
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342196/a-dna-logic-gate-automaton-for-detection-of-rabies-and-other-lyssaviruses
#18
Pavithra Vijayakumar, Joanne Macdonald
Immediate activation of biosensors is not always desirable, particularly if activation is due to non-specific interactions. Here we demonstrate the use of deoxyribozyme-based logic gate networks arranged into visual displays to precisely control activation of biosensors, and demonstrate a prototype molecular automaton able to discriminate between seven different genotypes of Lyssaviruses, including Rabies virus. The device uses novel mixed-base logic gates to enable detection of the large diversity of Lyssavirus sequence populations, while a NOT logic gate prevents non-specific activation across genotypes...
March 25, 2017: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333986/building-the-road-to-a-regional-zoonoses-strategy-a-survey-of-zoonoses-programmes-in-the-americas
#19
Melody J Maxwell, Mary H Freire de Carvalho, Armando E Hoet, Marco A N Vigilato, Julio C Pompei, Ottorino Cosivi, Victor J Del Rio Vilas
BACKGROUND: In recent years, global public health security has been threatened by zoonotic disease emergence as exemplified by outbreaks of H5N1 and H1N1 influenza, SARS, and most recently Ebola and Zika. Additionally, endemic zoonoses, such as rabies, burden countries year after year, placing demands on limited finances and personnel. To survey the baseline status of the emerging and endemic zoonoses programmes of the Latin American and the Caribbean (LAC) countries, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) conducted a survey of priority emerging and endemic zoonoses, countries´ prioritization criteria and methodologies, and suggestions to strengthen countries capacities and regional approaches to zoonoses control...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333099/future-prospects-for-the-development-of-cost-effective-adenovirus-vaccines
#20
REVIEW
Cyrielle Fougeroux, Peter J Holst
Vaccination is one of the most efficient tools for disease prevention, and a continuously growing field of research. However, despite progress, we still need more efficient and cost-effective vaccines that would improve access to those in need. In this review, we will describe the status of virus-vectored vaccine technology with a focus on adenoviral-based vaccines. Adenovirus (Ad) vaccines have proven to be efficient in military vaccinations against Ad4 and Ad7 and as highly efficient vectored vaccines against rabies...
March 23, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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