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Rabies virus

Shigui Ruan
Human rabies was first recorded in ancient China in about 556 BC and is still one of the major public-health problems in China. From 1950 to 2015, 130,494 human rabies cases were reported in Mainland China with an average of 1,977 cases per year. It is estimated that 95% of these human rabies cases are due to dog bites. The purpose of this article is to provide a review about the models, results, and simulations that we have obtained recently on studying the transmission of rabies in China. We first construct a basic susceptible, exposed, infectious, and recovered (SEIR) type model for the spread of rabies virus among dogs and from dogs to humans and use the model to simulate the human rabies data in China from 1996 to 2010...
February 7, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences
Weichen Wu, Shuqing Liu, Pengcheng Yu, Xiaoyan Tao, Xuexin Lu, Jianghong Yan, Qian Wang, Zongshen Zhang, Wuyang Zhu
To determine the role of systemic injection of rabies immunoglobulin (RIG) in rabies vaccination, we analyzed the level of antibody against rabies virus in the serum of mice that received various doses of RIG combined with rabies vaccine. Our results indicate that systemic injection of RIG does not contribute detectably to passive or adaptive immunization, suggesting that the main function of RIG in individuals with category III exposure is to neutralize rabies virus via immediate local infiltration of the wound...
February 10, 2017: Archives of Virology
Ling Li, Hongli Jin, Hualei Wang, Zengguo Cao, Na Feng, Jianzhong Wang, Yongkun Zhao, Xuexing Zheng, Pengfei Hou, Nan Li, Hang Chi, Pei Huang, Cuicui Jiao, Qian Li, Lina Wang, Tiecheng Wang, Weiyang Sun, Yuwei Gao, Changchun Tu, Guixue Hu, Songtao Yang, Xianzhu Xia
Rabies virus (RABV) is a neurotropic virus that causes serious disease in humans and animals worldwide. It has been reported that different RABV strains can result in divergent prognoses in animal model. To identify host factors that affect different infection processes, a kinetic analysis of host proteome alterations in mouse brains infected with different virulent RABV strains was performed using isobaric tags for a relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ)-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) proteomics approach, and this analysis identified 147 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) between the pathogenic challenge virus standard (CVS)-11 strain and the attenuated SRV9 strain...
February 8, 2017: Oncotarget
Guanghui Wu, David Selden, Anthony R Fooks, Ashley Banyard
Rabies virus is a notifiable pathogen that must be handled in high containment facilities where national and international guidelines apply. For the effective inactivation of rabies virus, a number of reagents were tested. Virkon S (1%) solution caused more than 4log reduction of rabies virus in culture medium supplemented with 10% foetal calf serum within 1min. Isopropyl alcohol (70%) treatment resulted in >3log reduction of rabies virus within 20s when applied at a ratio of 19:1, making it a suitable agent for surface decontamination whereas 70% ethanol was ineffective...
February 5, 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
Martin Faye, Laurent Dacheux, Manfred Weidmann, Sylvie Audrey Diop, Cheikh Loucoubar, Hervé Bourhy, Amadou Alpha Sall, Ousmane Faye
Rabies virus (RABV) remains one of the most important global zoonotic pathogens. RABV causes rabies, an acute encephalomyelitis associated with a high rate of mortality in humans and animals and affecting different parts of the world, particularly in Asia and Africa. Confirmation of rabies diagnosis relies on laboratory diagnosis, in which molecular techniques such as detection of viral RNA by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) are increasingly being used. In this study, two real-time quantitative RT-PCR assays were developed for large-spectrum detection of RABV, with a focus on African isolates...
February 4, 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
Junhua Huang, Yachun Zhang, Ying Huang, Clement W Gnanadurai, Ming Zhou, Ling Zhao, Zhen F Fu
The immune evasion of wild-type (wt) rabies virus (RABV) has been attributed to its glycoprotein (G), particularly to their inefficiency to bind/enter into dendritic cells (DCs). However, the domain responsible for G-mediated DC activation is not clear. In the present study, attempts were made to map the domain(s) on the G involved in differential DC activation using laboratory-adapted and wt viruses. Recombinant RABVs with exchange in each of the structural domains such as signal peptide (sp), ectodomain (et), transmembrane domain (tm), cytoplasmic tail (ct) of the G between wt and laboratory-adapted strains were constructed...
February 1, 2017: Antiviral Research
Renata da Fontoura Budaszewski, Andrew Hudacek, Bevan Sawatsky, Beate Krämer, Yin Xiangping, Matthias J Schnell, Veronika von Messling
: The development of multivalent vaccines is an attractive methodology for the simultaneous prevention of several infectious diseases in vulnerable populations. Canine distemper (CDV) and rabies (RABV) viruses both cause lethal disease in wild and domestic carnivores. While RABV vaccines are inactivated, the live-attenuated CDV vaccines retain residual virulence for highly susceptible wild life species. In the current study, we have developed recombinant bivalent vaccine candidates based on recombinant vaccine strain rabies virus particles, which concurrently display the protective CDV and RABV glycoprotein antigens...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
Shannon L Haley, Evgeni P Tzvetkov, Samantha Meuwissen, Joseph R Plummer, James P McGettigan
: Vaccine-induced B cells differentiate along two pathways. The follicular pathway gives rise to germinal centers (GCs) that can take weeks to fully develop. The extrafollicular pathway gives rise to short-lived plasma cells (PCs) that can rapidly secrete protective antibodies within days of vaccination. Rabies virus (RABV) post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) requires rapid vaccine-induced humoral immunity for protection. Therefore, we hypothesized that targeting extrafollicular B cell responses for activation would improve the speed and magnitude of RABV PEP...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
Jessica Coertse, Wanda Markotter, Kevin le Roux, Daniel Stewart, Claude T Sabeta, Louis H Nel
BACKGROUND: Mokola virus (MOKV) is a rabies-related lyssavirus and appears to be exclusive to the African continent. Only 24 cases of MOKV, which includes two human cases, have been reported since its identification in 1968. MOKV has an unknown reservoir host and current commercial vaccines do not confer protection against MOKV. RESULTS: We describe three new isolations of MOKV from domestic cats in South Africa. Two cases were retrospectively identified from 2012 and an additional one in 2014...
January 31, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
Kimberly L Rainwater, Krysten Marchese, Sally Slavinski, Lee A Humberg, Edward J Dubovi, Jodie A Jarvis, Denise McAloose, Paul P Calle
We conducted health assessments on 113 free-ranging raccoons ( Procyon lotor ) in Central Park, New York City, in February 2010, September 2010, and November 2011 in conjunction with a trap-vaccinate-release program to control a raccoon rabies epizootic. Five individuals were sampled at two time points for 118 raccoon examinations in total. We tested 13 of 13 and 8 of 13 euthanized raccoons for rabies and canine distemper virus, respectively, by antigen testing on brain tissue; all were negative for both viruses...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Changkyu Lee, Ha Shin Hwang, Sungin Lee, Bomi Kim, Jong Oh Kim, Kyung Taek Oh, Eun Seong Lee, Han-Gon Choi, Yu Seok Youn
Rabies virus-inspired silica-coated gold nanorods are fabricated by mimicking size, shape, surface glycoprotein property and in vivo behavior of the rabies virus. These nanorods not only resemble the appearance of the actual rabies virus but also travel into the brain through the neuronal pathway bypassing the blood-brain barrier, and moreover respond to near-infrared laser (808 nm) irradiation, emit heat, and effectively suppress brain tumors.
January 30, 2017: Advanced Materials
Juan Liu, Hailong Wang, Jinyan Gu, Tingjuan Deng, Zhuangchuan Yuan, Boli Hu, Yunbin Xu, Yan Yan, Jie Zan, Min Liao, Erin DiCaprio, Jianrong Li, Shuo Su, Jiyong Zhou
Autophagy is an essential component of host immunity and utilized by viruses for survival. However, the autophagy signaling pathways involved in virus replication are poorly documented. Here, we observed that rabies virus (RABV) infection triggered intracellular autophagosome accumulation and results in incomplete autophagy by inhibiting autophagy flux. Subsequently, we found that RABV infection induced the reduction of CASP2/caspase 2 and the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-AKT-MTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin) and AMPK-MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) pathways...
January 27, 2017: Autophagy
Giovanna Rassu, Elena Soddu, Anna Maria Posadino, Gianfranco Pintus, Bruno Sarmento, Paolo Giunchedi, Elisabetta Gavini
We designed a delivery system to obtain an efficient and optimal nose-to-brain transport of BACE1 siRNA, potentially useful in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. We selected a cell-penetrating peptide, the short peptide derived from rabies virus glycoprotein known as RVG-9R, to increase the transcellular pathway in neuronal cells. The optimal molar ratio between RVG-9R and BACE1 siRNA was elucidated. The complex between the two was then encapsulated. We propose chitosan-coated and uncoated solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) as a nasal delivery system capable of exploiting both olfactory and trigeminal nerve pathways...
January 19, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Nianmin Shi, Yibin Zhang, Huizhen Zheng, Zhenggang Zhu, Dingming Wang, Sihai Li, Yuhua Li, Liqing Yang, Junnan Zhang, Yunhua Bai, Qiang Lu, Zheng Zhang, Fengji Luo, Chun Yu, Li Li
AIM: To compare the safety, immunogenicity and long-term effect of a purified vero cell cultured rabies vaccine in post-exposure subjects following two intramuscular regimens, Zagreb or Essen regimen. METHODS: Serum samples were collected prior to vaccination and on days 7, 14, 42, 180 and 365 post vaccination. Solicited adverse events were recorded for 7 days following each vaccine dose, and unsolicited adverse events throughout the entire study period. This study was registered with ClinicalTrials...
January 25, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Limin Wijaya, Christine Y L Tham, Yvonne F Z Chan, Abigail W L Wong, L T Li, Lin-Fa Wang, Antonio Bertoletti, Jenny G Low
BACKGROUND: Rabies is a fatal disease where post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) is crucial in preventing infection. However, deaths even after appropriate PEP, have been reported. The PIKA Rabies vaccine adjuvant is a TLR3 agonist that activates B and T cells leading to a robust immune response. METHODS: We conducted a phase I, open label, randomized study in healthy adults to assess the safety and immunogenicity of the PIKA Rabies vaccine and an accelerated vaccine regimen...
February 22, 2017: Vaccine
Daniel Tornero, Oleg Tsupykov, Marcus Granmo, Cristina Rodriguez, Marita Grønning-Hansen, Jonas Thelin, Ekaterina Smozhanik, Cecilia Laterza, Somsak Wattananit, Ruimin Ge, Jemal Tatarishvili, Shane Grealish, Oliver Brüstle, Galina Skibo, Malin Parmar, Jens Schouenborg, Olle Lindvall, Zaal Kokaia
Transplanted neurons derived from stem cells have been proposed to improve function in animal models of human disease by various mechanisms such as neuronal replacement. However, whether the grafted neurons receive functional synaptic inputs from the recipient's brain and integrate into host neural circuitry is unknown. Here we studied the synaptic inputs from the host brain to grafted cortical neurons derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells after transplantation into stroke-injured rat cerebral cortex...
January 22, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Chaofeng Ma, Xiaoyun Hao, Huiling Deng, Rui Wu, Jifeng Liu, Yang Yang, Shen Li, Yifei Han, Mingmin Wei, Junjun Zhang, Jingjun Wang, Hengxin Li, Huaiyu Tian, Bing Xu, Pengbo Yu, Xiaokang Wu
OBJECTIVES: To explore the epidemiological, phylogeographic and migration characteristics of human rabies in Shaanxi Province, China from 2009 to 2015. METHODS: The collected data were described and the sequenced glycoprotein (G) and nucleoprotein (N) genes were implemented to estimate the evolutionary rates and phylogeographic patterns using BEAST v.1.8.2. RESULTS: 269 rabies cases were reported and 70.26% of the cases were male and 61.71% were between the ages of 19 to 59...
January 23, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
Benedito Donizete Menozzi, Rafael de Novaes Oliveira, Laís Moraes Paiz, Virgínia Bodelão Richini-Pereira, Helio Langoni
Bats have aroused growing attention in the public health sphere because they are considered the main reservoir of rabies virus (RABV) in the Americas, in places where canine rabies is under control. Antigenic and genetic studies of RABV isolates have been used to describe the epidemiological profile of rabies and to identify possible hosts/reservoirs for different epidemiological cycles. This study describes the antigenic and genotypic characterization of 19 RABV isolates from central nervous system samples of non-hematophagous bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera)...
January 20, 2017: Archives of Virology
Jonas Doerr, Martin Karl Schwarz, Dirk Wiedermann, Anke Leinhaas, Alina Jakobs, Florian Schloen, Inna Schwarz, Michael Diedenhofen, Nils Christian Braun, Philipp Koch, Daniel A Peterson, Ulrich Kubitscheck, Mathias Hoehn, Oliver Brüstle
While transplantation represents a key tool for assessing in vivo functionality of neural stem cells and their suitability for neural repair, little is known about the integration of grafted neurons into the host brain circuitry. Rabies virus-based retrograde tracing has developed into a powerful approach for visualizing synaptically connected neurons. Here, we combine this technique with light sheet fluorescence microscopy (LSFM) to visualize transplanted cells and connected host neurons in whole-mouse brain preparations...
January 19, 2017: Nature Communications
Yingying Li, Ming Zhou, Zhaochen Luo, Yachun Zhang, Min Cui, Huanchun Chen, Zhen F Fu, Ling Zhao
: Rabies continues to present a public health threat in most countries of the world. The most efficient way to prevent and control rabies is to implement vaccination programmes for domestic animals. However, traditional inactivated vaccines used in animals are costly and have a relatively low efficiency, which impedes their extensive use in developing countries. There is therefore an urgent need to develop single-dose and long-lasting rabies vaccines. However, little information is available regarding the mechanisms underlying immunological memory, which can broaden humoral responses following rabies vaccination...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Virology
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